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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: zagora
cipher variations:
abhpsb bciqtc cdjrud deksve efltwf
fgmuxg ghnvyh hiowzi ijpxaj jkqybk
klrzcl lmsadm mntben noucfo opvdgp
pqwehq qrxfir rsygjs stzhkt tuailu
uvbjmv vwcknw wxdlox xyempy yzfnqz

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: zagora
Cipher: aztliz

Read more ...

 

Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: zagora
Cipher: BABBB AAAAA AABBA ABBAB BAAAA AAAAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: zagora
cipher variations:
abhpsbybtrabwbftibubrvqbsbdxybqbpzgbmbndwbkbzfeb
iblhmbgbxjubebjlcbcbvnkbbciqtczcusbcxcgujcvcswrc
tceyzcrcqahcncoexclcagfcjcminchcykvcfckmdcdcwolc
cdjrudadvtcdydhvkdwdtxsdudfzadsdrbidodpfydmdbhgd
kdnjodidzlwdgdlnededxpmddeksvebewudezeiwlexeuyte
vegabetescjepeqgzeneciheleokpejeamxehemofefeyqne
efltwfcfxvefafjxmfyfvzufwfhbcfuftdkfqfrhafofdjif
mfplqfkfbnyfifnpgfgfzroffgmuxgdgywfgbgkyngzgwavg
xgicdgvguelgrgsibgpgekjgngqmrglgcozgjgoqhghgaspg
ghnvyhehzxghchlzohahxbwhyhjdehwhvfmhshtjchqhflkh
ohrnshmhdpahkhprihihbtqhhiowzifiayhidimapibiycxi
zikefixiwgnitiukdirigmlipisotinieqbiliqsjijicuri
ijpxajgjbzijejnbqjcjzdyjajlfgjyjxhojujvlejsjhnmj
qjtpujojfrcjmjrtkjkjdvsjjkqybkhkcajkfkocrkdkaezk
bkmghkzkyipkvkwmfktkionkrkuqvkpkgsdknksulklkewtk
klrzclildbklglpdslelbfalclnhilalzjqlwlxngluljpol
slvrwlqlhteloltvmlmlfxullmsadmjmeclmhmqetmfmcgbm
dmoijmbmakrmxmyohmvmkqpmtmwsxmrmiufmpmuwnmnmgyvm
mntbenknfdmninrfungndhcnenpjkncnblsnynzpinwnlrqn
unxtynsnjvgnqnvxononhzwnnoucfologenojosgvohoeido
foqklodocmtozoaqjoxomsrovoyuzotokwhorowypopoiaxo
opvdgpmphfopkpthwpipfjepgprlmpepdnupapbrkpypntsp
wpzvapuplxipspxzqpqpjbyppqwehqnqigpqlquixqjqgkfq
hqsmnqfqeovqbqcslqzqoutqxqawbqvqmyjqtqyarqrqkczq
qrxfirorjhqrmrvjyrkrhlgrirtnorgrfpwrcrdtmrarpvur
yrbxcrwrnzkrurzbsrsrldarrsygjspskirsnswkzslsimhs
jsuopshsgqxsdseunsbsqwvszscydsxsoalsvsactstsmebs
stzhktqtljstotxlatmtjnitktvpqtithrytetfvotctrxwt
atdzetytpbmtwtbdututnfcttuailurumktupuymbunukoju
luwqrujuiszufugwpudusyxubueafuzuqcnuxucevuvuogdu
uvbjmvsvnluvqvzncvovlpkvmvxrsvkvjtavgvhxqvevtzyv
cvfbgvavrdovyvdfwvwvphevvwcknwtwomvwrwaodwpwmqlw
nwystwlwkubwhwiyrwfwuazwdwgchwbwsepwzwegxwxwqifw
wxdloxuxpnwxsxbpexqxnrmxoxztuxmxlvcxixjzsxgxvbax
exhdixcxtfqxaxfhyxyxrjgxxyempyvyqoxytycqfyryosny
pyauvynymwdyjykatyhywcbyfyiejydyugrybygizyzyskhy
yzfnqzwzrpyzuzdrgzszptozqzbvwzoznxezkzlbuzizxdcz
gzjfkzezvhszczhjazaztlizzagoraxasqzavaeshataqupa
racwxapaoyfalamcvajayedahakglafawitadaikbabaumja

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: zagora
Cipher: mntben

Read more ...

 

Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: zagora
Cipher: 551122432411

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: zagora
method variations:
efmtwfklryblpqwdgquvbimv

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
z a g o r a 
5 1 2 4 2 1 
5 1 2 3 4 1 
They are then read out in rows:
512421512341
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: zagora
Cipher: erbemd

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: zagora
method variations:
efrhdv frhdve rhdvef
hdvefr dvefrh vefrhd

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: zagora

all 720 cipher variations:
zagora zagoar zagroa zagrao zagaro zagaor zaogra zaogar zaorga zaorag zaoarg
zaoagr zaroga zaroag zargoa zargao zarago zaraog zaaorg zaaogr zaarog zaargo
zaagro zaagor zgaora zgaoar zgaroa zgarao zgaaro zgaaor zgoara zgoaar zgoraa
zgoraa zgoara zgoaar zgroaa zgroaa zgraoa zgraao zgraao zgraoa zgaora zgaoar
zgaroa zgarao zgaaro zgaaor zogara zogaar zograa zograa zogara zogaar zoagra
zoagar zoarga zoarag zoaarg zoaagr zoraga zoraag zorgaa zorgaa zoraga zoraag
zoaarg zoaagr zoarag zoarga zoagra zoagar zrgoaa zrgoaa zrgaoa zrgaao zrgaao
zrgaoa zrogaa zrogaa zroaga zroaag zroaag zroaga zraoga zraoag zragoa zragao
zraago zraaog zraoag zraoga zraaog zraago zragao zragoa zagora zagoar zagroa
zagrao zagaro zagaor zaogra zaogar zaorga zaorag zaoarg zaoagr zaroga zaroag
zargoa zargao zarago zaraog zaaorg zaaogr zaarog zaargo zaagro zaagor azgora
azgoar azgroa azgrao azgaro azgaor azogra azogar azorga azorag azoarg azoagr
azroga azroag azrgoa azrgao azrago azraog azaorg azaogr azarog azargo azagro
azagor agzora agzoar agzroa agzrao agzaro agzaor agozra agozar agorza agoraz
agoarz agoazr agroza agroaz agrzoa agrzao agrazo agraoz agaorz agaozr agaroz
agarzo agazro agazor aogzra aogzar aogrza aograz aogarz aogazr aozgra aozgar
aozrga aozrag aozarg aozagr aorzga aorzag aorgza aorgaz aoragz aorazg aoazrg
aoazgr aoarzg aoargz aoagrz aoagzr argoza argoaz argzoa argzao argazo argaoz
arogza arogaz arozga arozag aroazg aroagz arzoga arzoag arzgoa arzgao arzago
arzaog araozg araogz arazog arazgo aragzo aragoz aagorz aagozr aagroz aagrzo
aagzro aagzor aaogrz aaogzr aaorgz aaorzg aaozrg aaozgr aarogz aarozg aargoz
aargzo aarzgo aarzog aazorg aazogr aazrog aazrgo aazgro aazgor gazora gazoar
gazroa gazrao gazaro gazaor gaozra gaozar gaorza gaoraz gaoarz gaoazr garoza
garoaz garzoa garzao garazo garaoz gaaorz gaaozr gaaroz gaarzo gaazro gaazor
gzaora gzaoar gzaroa gzarao gzaaro gzaaor gzoara gzoaar gzoraa gzoraa gzoara
gzoaar gzroaa gzroaa gzraoa gzraao gzraao gzraoa gzaora gzaoar gzaroa gzarao
gzaaro gzaaor gozara gozaar gozraa gozraa gozara gozaar goazra goazar goarza
goaraz goaarz goaazr goraza goraaz gorzaa gorzaa goraza goraaz goaarz goaazr
goaraz goarza goazra goazar grzoaa grzoaa grzaoa grzaao grzaao grzaoa grozaa
grozaa groaza groaaz groaaz groaza graoza graoaz grazoa grazao graazo graaoz
graoaz graoza graaoz graazo grazao grazoa gazora gazoar gazroa gazrao gazaro
gazaor gaozra gaozar gaorza gaoraz gaoarz gaoazr garoza garoaz garzoa garzao
garazo garaoz gaaorz gaaozr gaaroz gaarzo gaazro gaazor oagzra oagzar oagrza
oagraz oagarz oagazr oazgra oazgar oazrga oazrag oazarg oazagr oarzga oarzag
oargza oargaz oaragz oarazg oaazrg oaazgr oaarzg oaargz oaagrz oaagzr ogazra
ogazar ogarza ogaraz ogaarz ogaazr ogzara ogzaar ogzraa ogzraa ogzara ogzaar
ogrzaa ogrzaa ograza ograaz ograaz ograza ogazra ogazar ogarza ogaraz ogaarz
ogaazr ozgara ozgaar ozgraa ozgraa ozgara ozgaar ozagra ozagar ozarga ozarag
ozaarg ozaagr ozraga ozraag ozrgaa ozrgaa ozraga ozraag ozaarg ozaagr ozarag
ozarga ozagra ozagar orgzaa orgzaa orgaza orgaaz orgaaz orgaza orzgaa orzgaa
orzaga orzaag orzaag orzaga orazga orazag oragza oragaz oraagz oraazg orazag
orazga oraazg oraagz oragaz oragza oagzra oagzar oagrza oagraz oagarz oagazr
oazgra oazgar oazrga oazrag oazarg oazagr oarzga oarzag oargza oargaz oaragz
oarazg oaazrg oaazgr oaarzg oaargz oaagrz oaagzr ragoza ragoaz ragzoa ragzao
ragazo ragaoz raogza raogaz raozga raozag raoazg raoagz razoga razoag razgoa
razgao razago razaog raaozg raaogz raazog raazgo raagzo raagoz rgaoza rgaoaz
rgazoa rgazao rgaazo rgaaoz rgoaza rgoaaz rgozaa rgozaa rgoaza rgoaaz rgzoaa
rgzoaa rgzaoa rgzaao rgzaao rgzaoa rgaoza rgaoaz rgazoa rgazao rgaazo rgaaoz
rogaza rogaaz rogzaa rogzaa rogaza rogaaz roagza roagaz roazga roazag roaazg
roaagz rozaga rozaag rozgaa rozgaa rozaga rozaag roaazg roaagz roazag roazga
roagza roagaz rzgoaa rzgoaa rzgaoa rzgaao rzgaao rzgaoa rzogaa rzogaa rzoaga
rzoaag rzoaag rzoaga rzaoga rzaoag rzagoa rzagao rzaago rzaaog rzaoag rzaoga
rzaaog rzaago rzagao rzagoa ragoza ragoaz ragzoa ragzao ragazo ragaoz raogza
raogaz raozga raozag raoazg raoagz razoga razoag razgoa razgao razago razaog
raaozg raaogz raazog raazgo raagzo raagoz aagorz aagozr aagroz aagrzo aagzro
aagzor aaogrz aaogzr aaorgz aaorzg aaozrg aaozgr aarogz aarozg aargoz aargzo
aarzgo aarzog aazorg aazogr aazrog aazrgo aazgro aazgor agaorz agaozr agaroz
agarzo agazro agazor agoarz agoazr agoraz agorza agozra agozar agroaz agroza
agraoz agrazo agrzao agrzoa agzora agzoar agzroa agzrao agzaro agzaor aogarz
aogazr aograz aogrza aogzra aogzar aoagrz aoagzr aoargz aoarzg aoazrg aoazgr
aoragz aorazg aorgaz aorgza aorzga aorzag aozarg aozagr aozrag aozrga aozgra
aozgar argoaz argoza argaoz argazo argzao argzoa arogaz arogza aroagz aroazg
arozag arozga araogz araozg aragoz aragzo arazgo arazog arzoag arzoga arzaog
arzago arzgao arzgoa azgora azgoar azgroa azgrao azgaro azgaor azogra azogar
azorga azorag azoarg azoagr azroga azroag azrgoa azrgao azrago azraog azaorg
azaogr azarog azargo azagro azagor

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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