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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: yujiko
cipher variations:
zvkjlp awlkmq bxmlnr cynmos dzonpt
eapoqu fbqprv gcrqsw hdsrtx ietsuy
jfutvz kgvuwa lhwvxb mixwyc njyxzd
okzyae plazbf qmbacg rncbdh sodcei
tpedfj uqfegk vrgfhl wshgim xtihjn

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: yujiko
Cipher: bfqrpl

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: yujiko

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: yujiko
cipher variations:

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x

An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: yujiko
Cipher: lhwvxb

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: yujiko
Cipher: 455442425243

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: yujiko
method variations:

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
y u j i k o 
4 5 4 4 5 4 
5 4 2 2 2 3 
They are then read out in rows:
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: yujiko
Cipher: ytuugm

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Method #3

Plaintext: yujiko
method variations:
ztrwrs trwrsz rwrszt
wrsztr rsztrw sztrwr

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: yujiko

all 720 cipher variations:
yujiko yujiok yujkio yujkoi yujoki yujoik yuijko yuijok yuikjo yuikoj yuiokj
yuiojk yukijo yukioj yukjio yukjoi yukoji yukoij yuoikj yuoijk yuokij yuokji
yuojki yuojik yjuiko yjuiok yjukio yjukoi yjuoki yjuoik yjiuko yjiuok yjikuo
yjikou yjioku yjiouk yjkiuo yjkiou yjkuio yjkuoi yjkoui yjkoiu yjoiku yjoiuk
yjokiu yjokui yjouki yjouik yijuko yijuok yijkuo yijkou yijoku yijouk yiujko
yiujok yiukjo yiukoj yiuokj yiuojk yikujo yikuoj yikjuo yikjou yikoju yikouj
yioukj yioujk yiokuj yiokju yiojku yiojuk ykjiuo ykjiou ykjuio ykjuoi ykjoui
ykjoiu ykijuo ykijou ykiujo ykiuoj ykiouj ykioju ykuijo ykuioj ykujio ykujoi
ykuoji ykuoij ykoiuj ykoiju ykouij ykouji ykojui ykojiu yojiku yojiuk yojkiu
yojkui yojuki yojuik yoijku yoijuk yoikju yoikuj yoiukj yoiujk yokiju yokiuj
yokjiu yokjui yokuji yokuij youikj youijk youkij youkji youjki youjik uyjiko
uyjiok uyjkio uyjkoi uyjoki uyjoik uyijko uyijok uyikjo uyikoj uyiokj uyiojk
uykijo uykioj uykjio uykjoi uykoji uykoij uyoikj uyoijk uyokij uyokji uyojki
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ujokyi ujoyki ujoyik uijyko uijyok uijkyo uijkoy uijoky uijoyk uiyjko uiyjok
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uioyjk uiokyj uiokjy uiojky uiojyk ukjiyo ukjioy ukjyio ukjyoi ukjoyi ukjoiy
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uojyki uojyik uoijky uoijyk uoikjy uoikyj uoiykj uoiyjk uokijy uokiyj uokjiy
uokjyi uokyji uokyij uoyikj uoyijk uoykij uoykji uoyjki uoyjik juyiko juyiok
juykio juykoi juyoki juyoik juiyko juiyok juikyo juikoy juioky juioyk jukiyo
jukioy jukyio jukyoi jukoyi jukoiy juoiky juoiyk juokiy juokyi juoyki juoyik
jyuiko jyuiok jyukio jyukoi jyuoki jyuoik jyiuko jyiuok jyikuo jyikou jyioku
jyiouk jykiuo jykiou jykuio jykuoi jykoui jykoiu jyoiku jyoiuk jyokiu jyokui
jyouki jyouik jiyuko jiyuok jiykuo jiykou jiyoku jiyouk jiuyko jiuyok jiukyo
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jokuyi jokuiy jouiky jouiyk joukiy joukyi jouyki jouyik iujyko iujyok iujkyo
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iukjyo iukjoy iukojy iukoyj iuoykj iuoyjk iuokyj iuokjy iuojky iuojyk ijuyko
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iokuyj iouykj iouyjk ioukyj ioukjy ioujky ioujyk kujiyo kujioy kujyio kujyoi
kujoyi kujoiy kuijyo kuijoy kuiyjo kuiyoj kuioyj kuiojy kuyijo kuyioj kuyjio
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kjuyio kjuyoi kjuoyi kjuoiy kjiuyo kjiuoy kjiyuo kjiyou kjioyu kjiouy kjyiuo
kjyiou kjyuio kjyuoi kjyoui kjyoiu kjoiyu kjoiuy kjoyiu kjoyui kjouyi kjouiy
kijuyo kijuoy kijyuo kijyou kijoyu kijouy kiujyo kiujoy kiuyjo kiuyoj kiuoyj
kiuojy kiyujo kiyuoj kiyjuo kiyjou kiyoju kiyouj kiouyj kioujy kioyuj kioyju
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oujyik ouijky ouijyk ouikjy ouikyj ouiykj ouiyjk oukijy oukiyj oukjiy oukjyi
oukyji oukyij ouyikj ouyijk ouykij ouykji ouyjki ouyjik ojuiky ojuiyk ojukiy
ojukyi ojuyki ojuyik ojiuky ojiuyk ojikuy ojikyu ojiyku ojiyuk ojkiuy ojkiyu
ojkuiy ojkuyi ojkyui ojkyiu ojyiku ojyiuk ojykiu ojykui ojyuki ojyuik oijuky
oijuyk oijkuy oijkyu oijyku oijyuk oiujky oiujyk oiukjy oiukyj oiuykj oiuyjk
oikujy oikuyj oikjuy oikjyu oikyju oikyuj oiyukj oiyujk oiykuj oiykju oiyjku
oiyjuk okjiuy okjiyu okjuiy okjuyi okjyui okjyiu okijuy okijyu okiujy okiuyj
okiyuj okiyju okuijy okuiyj okujiy okujyi okuyji okuyij okyiuj okyiju okyuij
okyuji okyjui okyjiu oyjiku oyjiuk oyjkiu oyjkui oyjuki oyjuik oyijku oyijuk
oyikju oyikuj oyiukj oyiujk oykiju oykiuj oykjiu oykjui oykuji oykuij oyuikj
oyuijk oyukij oyukji oyujki oyujik

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History of cryptography
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