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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: youthy
cipher variations:
zpvuiz aqwvja brxwkb csyxlc dtzymd
euazne fvbaof gwcbpg hxdcqh iyedri
jzfesj kagftk lbhgul mcihvm ndjiwn
oekjxo pflkyp qgmlzq rhnmar sionbs
tjpoct ukqpdu vlrqev wmsrfw xntsgx

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: youthy
Cipher: blfgsb

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: youthy
Cipher: BABBA ABBAB BAABB BAABA AABBB BABBA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: youthy
cipher variations:
zpvuizvrjgwvrtxskrnvleynjxzqmjfzncafxdpacxtfdmqt
phryepljfkslhltwghdnhiudaqwvjawskhxwsuytlsowmfzo
kyarnkgaodbgyeqbdyugenruqiszfqmkgltmimuxhieoijve
brxwkbxtliyxtvzumtpxngaplzbsolhbpechzfrcezvhfosv
rjtagrnlhmunjnvyijfpjkwfcsyxlcyumjzyuwavnuqyohbq
mactpmicqfdiagsdfawigptwskubhsominvokowzjkgqklxg
dtzymdzvnkazvxbwovrzpicrnbduqnjdrgejbhtegbxjhqux
tlvcitpnjowplpxaklhrlmyheuazneawolbawycxpwsaqjds
ocevrokeshfkciufhcykirvyumwdjuqokpxqmqyblmismnzi
fvbaofbxpmcbxzdyqxtbrketpdfwsplftigldjvgidzljswz
vnxekvrplqyrnrzcmnjtnoajgwcbpgcyqndcyaezryucslfu
qegxtqmgujhmekwhjeamktxawoyflwsqmrzsosadnokuopbk
hxdcqhdzroedzbfaszvdtmgvrfhyurnhvkinflxikfbnluyb
xpzgmxtrnsatptbeoplvpqcliyedrieaspfeacgbtaweunhw
sgizvsoiwljogmyjlgcomvzcyqahnyusotbuqucfpqmwqrdm
jzfesjfbtqgfbdhcubxfvoixthjawtpjxmkphnzkmhdpnwad
zrbiozvtpucvrvdgqrnxrsenkagftkgcurhgceidvcygwpjy
uikbxuqkynlqioalnieqoxbeascjpawuqvdwswehrsoystfo
lbhgulhdvsihdfjewdzhxqkzvjlcyvrlzomrjpbmojfrpycf
btdkqbxvrwextxfistpztugpmcihvmiewtjiegkfxeaiyrla
wkmdzwsmapnskqcnpkgsqzdgcuelrcywsxfyuygjtuqauvhq
ndjiwnjfxukjfhlgyfbjzsmbxlneaxtnbqotlrdoqlhtraeh
dvfmsdzxtygzvzhkuvrbvwiroekjxokgyvlkgimhzgckatnc
ymofbyuocrpumseprmiusbfiewgnteayuzhawailvwscwxjs
pflkyplhzwmlhjniahdlbuodznpgczvpdsqvntfqsnjvtcgj
fxhoufbzvaibxbjmwxtdxyktqgmlzqmiaxnmikojbiemcvpe
aoqhdawqetrwougrtokwudhkgyipvgcawbjcycknxyueyzlu
rhnmarnjbyonjlpkcjfndwqfbpriebxrfusxpvhsuplxveil
hzjqwhdbxckdzdloyzvfzamvsionbsokczpokmqldkgoexrg
cqsjfcysgvtyqwitvqmywfjmiakrxiecydleaempzawgabnw
tjpoctpldaqplnrmelhpfyshdrtkgdzthwuzrxjuwrnzxgkn
jblsyjfdzemfbfnqabxhbcoxukqpduqmebrqmosnfmiqgzti
esulheauixvasykvxsoayhlokcmtzkgeafngcgorbcyicdpy
vlrqevrnfcsrnptognjrhaujftvmifbvjywbtzlwytpbzimp
ldnualhfbgohdhpscdzjdeqzwmsrfwsogdtsoquphoksibvk
guwnjgcwkzxcuamxzuqcajnqmeovbmigchpieiqtdeakefra
xntsgxtpheutprvqipltjcwlhvxokhdxlaydvbnyavrdbkor
nfpwcnjhdiqjfjruefblfgsbyouthyuqifvuqswrjqmukdxm
iwyplieymbzewcozbwseclpsogqxdokiejrkgksvfgcmghtc

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: youthy
Cipher: lbhgul

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: youthy
Cipher: 454354443245

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: youthy
method variations:
dtzyndiyedsiodkixotipoct

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
y o u t h y 
4 4 5 4 3 4 
5 3 4 4 2 5 
They are then read out in rows:
445434534425
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: youthy
Cipher: tusptw

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: youthy
method variations:
uxtoru xtoruu toruux
oruuxt ruuxto uuxtor

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: youthy

all 720 cipher variations:
youthy youtyh youhty youhyt youyht youyth yotuhy yotuyh yothuy yothyu yotyhu
yotyuh yohtuy yohtyu yohuty yohuyt yohyut yohytu yoythu yoytuh yoyhtu yoyhut
yoyuht yoyuth yuothy yuotyh yuohty yuohyt yuoyht yuoyth yutohy yutoyh yuthoy
yuthyo yutyho yutyoh yuhtoy yuhtyo yuhoty yuhoyt yuhyot yuhyto yuytho yuytoh
yuyhto yuyhot yuyoht yuyoth ytuohy ytuoyh ytuhoy ytuhyo ytuyho ytuyoh ytouhy
ytouyh ytohuy ytohyu ytoyhu ytoyuh ythouy ythoyu ythuoy ythuyo ythyuo ythyou
ytyohu ytyouh ytyhou ytyhuo ytyuho ytyuoh yhutoy yhutyo yhuoty yhuoyt yhuyot
yhuyto yhtuoy yhtuyo yhtouy yhtoyu yhtyou yhtyuo yhotuy yhotyu yhouty yhouyt
yhoyut yhoytu yhytou yhytuo yhyotu yhyout yhyuot yhyuto yyutho yyutoh yyuhto
yyuhot yyuoht yyuoth yytuho yytuoh yythuo yythou yytohu yytouh yyhtuo yyhtou
yyhuto yyhuot yyhout yyhotu yyothu yyotuh yyohtu yyohut yyouht yyouth oyuthy
oyutyh oyuhty oyuhyt oyuyht oyuyth oytuhy oytuyh oythuy oythyu oytyhu oytyuh
oyhtuy oyhtyu oyhuty oyhuyt oyhyut oyhytu oyythu oyytuh oyyhtu oyyhut oyyuht
oyyuth ouythy ouytyh ouyhty ouyhyt ouyyht ouyyth outyhy outyyh outhyy outhyy
outyhy outyyh ouhtyy ouhtyy ouhyty ouhyyt ouhyyt ouhyty ouythy ouytyh ouyhty
ouyhyt ouyyht ouyyth otuyhy otuyyh otuhyy otuhyy otuyhy otuyyh otyuhy otyuyh
otyhuy otyhyu otyyhu otyyuh othyuy othyyu othuyy othuyy othyuy othyyu otyyhu
otyyuh otyhyu otyhuy otyuhy otyuyh ohutyy ohutyy ohuyty ohuyyt ohuyyt ohuyty
ohtuyy ohtuyy ohtyuy ohtyyu ohtyyu ohtyuy ohytuy ohytyu ohyuty ohyuyt ohyyut
ohyytu ohytyu ohytuy ohyytu ohyyut ohyuyt ohyuty oyuthy oyutyh oyuhty oyuhyt
oyuyht oyuyth oytuhy oytuyh oythuy oythyu oytyhu oytyuh oyhtuy oyhtyu oyhuty
oyhuyt oyhyut oyhytu oyythu oyytuh oyyhtu oyyhut oyyuht oyyuth uoythy uoytyh
uoyhty uoyhyt uoyyht uoyyth uotyhy uotyyh uothyy uothyy uotyhy uotyyh uohtyy
uohtyy uohyty uohyyt uohyyt uohyty uoythy uoytyh uoyhty uoyhyt uoyyht uoyyth
uyothy uyotyh uyohty uyohyt uyoyht uyoyth uytohy uytoyh uythoy uythyo uytyho
uytyoh uyhtoy uyhtyo uyhoty uyhoyt uyhyot uyhyto uyytho uyytoh uyyhto uyyhot
uyyoht uyyoth utyohy utyoyh utyhoy utyhyo utyyho utyyoh utoyhy utoyyh utohyy
utohyy utoyhy utoyyh uthoyy uthoyy uthyoy uthyyo uthyyo uthyoy utyohy utyoyh
utyhoy utyhyo utyyho utyyoh uhytoy uhytyo uhyoty uhyoyt uhyyot uhyyto uhtyoy
uhtyyo uhtoyy uhtoyy uhtyoy uhtyyo uhotyy uhotyy uhoyty uhoyyt uhoyyt uhoyty
uhytoy uhytyo uhyoty uhyoyt uhyyot uhyyto uyytho uyytoh uyyhto uyyhot uyyoht
uyyoth uytyho uytyoh uythyo uythoy uytohy uytoyh uyhtyo uyhtoy uyhyto uyhyot
uyhoyt uyhoty uyothy uyotyh uyohty uyohyt uyoyht uyoyth touyhy touyyh touhyy
touhyy touyhy touyyh toyuhy toyuyh toyhuy toyhyu toyyhu toyyuh tohyuy tohyyu
tohuyy tohuyy tohyuy tohyyu toyyhu toyyuh toyhyu toyhuy toyuhy toyuyh tuoyhy
tuoyyh tuohyy tuohyy tuoyhy tuoyyh tuyohy tuyoyh tuyhoy tuyhyo tuyyho tuyyoh
tuhyoy tuhyyo tuhoyy tuhoyy tuhyoy tuhyyo tuyyho tuyyoh tuyhyo tuyhoy tuyohy
tuyoyh tyuohy tyuoyh tyuhoy tyuhyo tyuyho tyuyoh tyouhy tyouyh tyohuy tyohyu
tyoyhu tyoyuh tyhouy tyhoyu tyhuoy tyhuyo tyhyuo tyhyou tyyohu tyyouh tyyhou
tyyhuo tyyuho tyyuoh thuyoy thuyyo thuoyy thuoyy thuyoy thuyyo thyuoy thyuyo
thyouy thyoyu thyyou thyyuo thoyuy thoyyu thouyy thouyy thoyuy thoyyu thyyou
thyyuo thyoyu thyouy thyuoy thyuyo tyuyho tyuyoh tyuhyo tyuhoy tyuohy tyuoyh
tyyuho tyyuoh tyyhuo tyyhou tyyohu tyyouh tyhyuo tyhyou tyhuyo tyhuoy tyhouy
tyhoyu tyoyhu tyoyuh tyohyu tyohuy tyouhy tyouyh houtyy houtyy houyty houyyt
houyyt houyty hotuyy hotuyy hotyuy hotyyu hotyyu hotyuy hoytuy hoytyu hoyuty
hoyuyt hoyyut hoyytu hoytyu hoytuy hoyytu hoyyut hoyuyt hoyuty huotyy huotyy
huoyty huoyyt huoyyt huoyty hutoyy hutoyy hutyoy hutyyo hutyyo hutyoy huytoy
huytyo huyoty huyoyt huyyot huyyto huytyo huytoy huyyto huyyot huyoyt huyoty
htuoyy htuoyy htuyoy htuyyo htuyyo htuyoy htouyy htouyy htoyuy htoyyu htoyyu
htoyuy htyouy htyoyu htyuoy htyuyo htyyuo htyyou htyoyu htyouy htyyou htyyuo
htyuyo htyuoy hyutoy hyutyo hyuoty hyuoyt hyuyot hyuyto hytuoy hytuyo hytouy
hytoyu hytyou hytyuo hyotuy hyotyu hyouty hyouyt hyoyut hyoytu hyytou hyytuo
hyyotu hyyout hyyuot hyyuto hyutyo hyutoy hyuyto hyuyot hyuoyt hyuoty hytuyo
hytuoy hytyuo hytyou hytoyu hytouy hyytuo hyytou hyyuto hyyuot hyyout hyyotu
hyotyu hyotuy hyoytu hyoyut hyouyt hyouty youthy youtyh youhty youhyt youyht
youyth yotuhy yotuyh yothuy yothyu yotyhu yotyuh yohtuy yohtyu yohuty yohuyt
yohyut yohytu yoythu yoytuh yoyhtu yoyhut yoyuht yoyuth yuothy yuotyh yuohty
yuohyt yuoyht yuoyth yutohy yutoyh yuthoy yuthyo yutyho yutyoh yuhtoy yuhtyo
yuhoty yuhoyt yuhyot yuhyto yuytho yuytoh yuyhto yuyhot yuyoht yuyoth ytuohy
ytuoyh ytuhoy ytuhyo ytuyho ytuyoh ytouhy ytouyh ytohuy ytohyu ytoyhu ytoyuh
ythouy ythoyu ythuoy ythuyo ythyuo ythyou ytyohu ytyouh ytyhou ytyhuo ytyuho
ytyuoh yhutoy yhutyo yhuoty yhuoyt yhuyot yhuyto yhtuoy yhtuyo yhtouy yhtoyu
yhtyou yhtyuo yhotuy yhotyu yhouty yhouyt yhoyut yhoytu yhytou yhytuo yhyotu
yhyout yhyuot yhyuto yyutho yyutoh yyuhto yyuhot yyuoht yyuoth yytuho yytuoh
yythuo yythou yytohu yytouh yyhtuo yyhtou yyhuto yyhuot yyhout yyhotu yyothu
yyotuh yyohtu yyohut yyouht yyouth

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History of cryptography
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