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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: yomogi
cipher variations:
zpnphj aqoqik brprjl csqskm dtrtln
eusumo fvtvnp gwuwoq hxvxpr iywyqs
jzxzrt kayasu lbzbtv mcacuw ndbdvx
oecewy pfdfxz qgegya rhfhzb sigiac
tjhjbd ukikce vljldf wmkmeg xnlnfh

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: yomogi
Cipher: blnltr

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: yomogi
Cipher: BABBA ABBAB ABABB ABBAB AABBA ABAAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: yomogi
cipher variations:
zpnphjvrlrtzrtjtfpnvhvrfjxfxdvfzdzplxdzdnrtfxfzh
phvhlxljtjxnhlrljddnpnvtaqoqikwsmsuasukugqowiwsg
kygyewgaeaqmyeaeosugygaiqiwimymkukyoimsmkeeoqowu
brprjlxtntvbtvlvhrpxjxthlzhzfxhbfbrnzfbfptvhzhbj
rjxjnznlvlzpjntnlffprpxvcsqskmyuouwcuwmwisqykyui
maiagyicgcsoagcgquwiaickskykoaomwmaqkouomggqsqyw
dtrtlnzvpvxdvxnxjtrzlzvjnbjbhzjdhdtpbhdhrvxjbjdl
tlzlpbpnxnbrlpvpnhhrtrzxeusumoawqwyewyoykusamawk
ockciakeieuqcieiswykckemumamqcqoyocsmqwqoiisusay
fvtvnpbxrxzfxzpzlvtbnbxlpdldjblfjfvrdjfjtxzldlfn
vnbnrdrpzpdtnrxrpjjtvtbzgwuwoqcysyagyaqamwucocym
qemekcmgkgwsekgkuyamemgowocosesqaqeuosysqkkuwuca
hxvxprdztzbhzbrbnxvdpdznrfnfldnhlhxtflhlvzbnfnhp
xpdptftrbrfvptztrllvxvdbiywyqseauaciacscoyweqeao
sgogmeoimiyugmimwacogoiqyqequguscsgwquausmmwywec
jzxzrtfbvbdjbdtdpzxfrfbpthphnfpjnjzvhnjnxbdphpjr
zrfrvhvtdthxrvbvtnnxzxfdkayasugcwcekceueqaygsgcq
uiqiogqkokawiokoyceqiqksasgswiwueuiyswcwuooyayge
lbzbtvhdxdfldfvfrbzhthdrvjrjphrlplbxjplpzdfrjrlt
bthtxjxvfvjztxdxvppzbzhfmcacuwieyegmegwgscaiuies
wkskqismqmcykqmqaegsksmucuiuykywgwkauyeywqqacaig
ndbdvxjfzfhnfhxhtdbjvjftxltlrjtnrndzlrnrbfhtltnv
dvjvzlzxhxlbvzfzxrrbdbjhoecewykgagiogiyiueckwkgu
ymumskuosoeamsoscgiumuowewkwamayiymcwagaysscecki
pfdfxzlhbhjphjzjvfdlxlhvznvntlvptpfbntptdhjvnvpx
fxlxbnbzjzndxbhbzttdfdljqgegyamicikqikakwgemymiw
aowoumwquqgcouqueikwowqygymycocakaoeycicauuegemk
rhfhzbnjdjlrjlblxhfnznjxbpxpvnxrvrhdpvrvfjlxpxrz
hznzdpdblbpfzdjdbvvfhfnlsigiacokekmskmcmyigoaoky
cqyqwoyswsieqwswgkmyqysaiaoaeqecmcqgaekecwwgigom
tjhjbdplflntlndnzjhpbplzdrzrxpztxtjfrxtxhlnzrztb
jbpbfrfdndrhbflfdxxhjhpnukikceqmgmoumoeoakiqcqma
esasyqauyukgsyuyimoasauckcqcgsgeoesicgmgeyyikiqo
vljldfrnhnpvnpfpbljrdrnbftbtzrbvzvlhtzvzjnpbtbvd
ldrdhthfpftjdhnhfzzjljrpwmkmegsoioqwoqgqcmksesoc
gucuascwawmiuawakoqcucwemeseiuigqgukeioigaakmksq
xnlnfhtpjprxprhrdnltftpdhvdvbtdxbxnjvbxblprdvdxf
nftfjvjhrhvlfjpjhbblnltryomogiuqkqsyqsiseomuguqe
iwewcueycyokwcycmqseweygogugkwkisiwmgkqkiccmomus

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: yomogi
Cipher: lbzbtv

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: yomogi
Cipher: 454323432242

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: yomogi
method variations:
dtrtmoiywyrtodbdwytigibd

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
y o m o g i 
4 4 2 4 2 4 
5 3 3 3 2 2 
They are then read out in rows:
442424533322
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: yomogi
Cipher: trrpng

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: yomogi
method variations:
uhshrr hshrru shrruh
hrruhs rruhsh ruhshr

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: yomogi

all 720 cipher variations:
yomogi yomoig yomgoi yomgio yomigo yomiog yoomgi yoomig yoogmi yoogim yooigm
yooimg yogomi yogoim yogmoi yogmio yogimo yogiom yoiogm yoiomg yoigom yoigmo
yoimgo yoimog ymoogi ymooig ymogoi ymogio ymoigo ymoiog ymoogi ymooig ymogoi
ymogio ymoigo ymoiog ymgooi ymgoio ymgooi ymgoio ymgioo ymgioo ymiogo ymioog
ymigoo ymigoo ymiogo ymioog yomogi yomoig yomgoi yomgio yomigo yomiog yoomgi
yoomig yoogmi yoogim yooigm yooimg yogomi yogoim yogmoi yogmio yogimo yogiom
yoiogm yoiomg yoigom yoigmo yoimgo yoimog ygmooi ygmoio ygmooi ygmoio ygmioo
ygmioo ygomoi ygomio ygoomi ygooim ygoiom ygoimo ygoomi ygooim ygomoi ygomio
ygoimo ygoiom ygioom ygiomo ygioom ygiomo ygimoo ygimoo yimogo yimoog yimgoo
yimgoo yimogo yimoog yiomgo yiomog yiogmo yiogom yioogm yioomg yigomo yigoom
yigmoo yigmoo yigomo yigoom yioogm yioomg yiogom yiogmo yiomgo yiomog oymogi
oymoig oymgoi oymgio oymigo oymiog oyomgi oyomig oyogmi oyogim oyoigm oyoimg
oygomi oygoim oygmoi oygmio oygimo oygiom oyiogm oyiomg oyigom oyigmo oyimgo
oyimog omyogi omyoig omygoi omygio omyigo omyiog omoygi omoyig omogyi omogiy
omoigy omoiyg omgoyi omgoiy omgyoi omgyio omgiyo omgioy omiogy omioyg omigoy
omigyo omiygo omiyog oomygi oomyig oomgyi oomgiy oomigy oomiyg ooymgi ooymig
ooygmi ooygim ooyigm ooyimg oogymi oogyim oogmyi oogmiy oogimy oogiym ooiygm
ooiymg ooigym ooigmy ooimgy ooimyg ogmoyi ogmoiy ogmyoi ogmyio ogmiyo ogmioy
ogomyi ogomiy ogoymi ogoyim ogoiym ogoimy ogyomi ogyoim ogymoi ogymio ogyimo
ogyiom ogioym ogiomy ogiyom ogiymo ogimyo ogimoy oimogy oimoyg oimgoy oimgyo
oimygo oimyog oiomgy oiomyg oiogmy oiogym oioygm oioymg oigomy oigoym oigmoy
oigmyo oigymo oigyom oiyogm oiyomg oiygom oiygmo oiymgo oiymog moyogi moyoig
moygoi moygio moyigo moyiog mooygi mooyig moogyi moogiy mooigy mooiyg mogoyi
mogoiy mogyoi mogyio mogiyo mogioy moiogy moioyg moigoy moigyo moiygo moiyog
myoogi myooig myogoi myogio myoigo myoiog myoogi myooig myogoi myogio myoigo
myoiog mygooi mygoio mygooi mygoio mygioo mygioo myiogo myioog myigoo myigoo
myiogo myioog moyogi moyoig moygoi moygio moyigo moyiog mooygi mooyig moogyi
moogiy mooigy mooiyg mogoyi mogoiy mogyoi mogyio mogiyo mogioy moiogy moioyg
moigoy moigyo moiygo moiyog mgyooi mgyoio mgyooi mgyoio mgyioo mgyioo mgoyoi
mgoyio mgooyi mgooiy mgoioy mgoiyo mgooyi mgooiy mgoyoi mgoyio mgoiyo mgoioy
mgiooy mgioyo mgiooy mgioyo mgiyoo mgiyoo miyogo miyoog miygoo miygoo miyogo
miyoog mioygo mioyog miogyo miogoy mioogy miooyg migoyo migooy migyoo migyoo
migoyo migooy mioogy miooyg miogoy miogyo mioygo mioyog oomygi oomyig oomgyi
oomgiy oomigy oomiyg ooymgi ooymig ooygmi ooygim ooyigm ooyimg oogymi oogyim
oogmyi oogmiy oogimy oogiym ooiygm ooiymg ooigym ooigmy ooimgy ooimyg omoygi
omoyig omogyi omogiy omoigy omoiyg omyogi omyoig omygoi omygio omyigo omyiog
omgyoi omgyio omgoyi omgoiy omgioy omgiyo omiygo omiyog omigyo omigoy omiogy
omioyg oymogi oymoig oymgoi oymgio oymigo oymiog oyomgi oyomig oyogmi oyogim
oyoigm oyoimg oygomi oygoim oygmoi oygmio oygimo oygiom oyiogm oyiomg oyigom
oyigmo oyimgo oyimog ogmyoi ogmyio ogmoyi ogmoiy ogmioy ogmiyo ogymoi ogymio
ogyomi ogyoim ogyiom ogyimo ogoymi ogoyim ogomyi ogomiy ogoimy ogoiym ogiyom
ogiymo ogioym ogiomy ogimoy ogimyo oimygo oimyog oimgyo oimgoy oimogy oimoyg
oiymgo oiymog oiygmo oiygom oiyogm oiyomg oigymo oigyom oigmyo oigmoy oigomy
oigoym oioygm oioymg oiogym oiogmy oiomgy oiomyg gomoyi gomoiy gomyoi gomyio
gomiyo gomioy goomyi goomiy gooymi gooyim gooiym gooimy goyomi goyoim goymoi
goymio goyimo goyiom goioym goiomy goiyom goiymo goimyo goimoy gmooyi gmooiy
gmoyoi gmoyio gmoiyo gmoioy gmooyi gmooiy gmoyoi gmoyio gmoiyo gmoioy gmyooi
gmyoio gmyooi gmyoio gmyioo gmyioo gmioyo gmiooy gmiyoo gmiyoo gmioyo gmiooy
gomoyi gomoiy gomyoi gomyio gomiyo gomioy goomyi goomiy gooymi gooyim gooiym
gooimy goyomi goyoim goymoi goymio goyimo goyiom goioym goiomy goiyom goiymo
goimyo goimoy gymooi gymoio gymooi gymoio gymioo gymioo gyomoi gyomio gyoomi
gyooim gyoiom gyoimo gyoomi gyooim gyomoi gyomio gyoimo gyoiom gyioom gyiomo
gyioom gyiomo gyimoo gyimoo gimoyo gimooy gimyoo gimyoo gimoyo gimooy giomyo
giomoy gioymo gioyom giooym gioomy giyomo giyoom giymoo giymoo giyomo giyoom
giooym gioomy gioyom gioymo giomyo giomoy iomogy iomoyg iomgoy iomgyo iomygo
iomyog ioomgy ioomyg ioogmy ioogym iooygm iooymg iogomy iogoym iogmoy iogmyo
iogymo iogyom ioyogm ioyomg ioygom ioygmo ioymgo ioymog imoogy imooyg imogoy
imogyo imoygo imoyog imoogy imooyg imogoy imogyo imoygo imoyog imgooy imgoyo
imgooy imgoyo imgyoo imgyoo imyogo imyoog imygoo imygoo imyogo imyoog iomogy
iomoyg iomgoy iomgyo iomygo iomyog ioomgy ioomyg ioogmy ioogym iooygm iooymg
iogomy iogoym iogmoy iogmyo iogymo iogyom ioyogm ioyomg ioygom ioygmo ioymgo
ioymog igmooy igmoyo igmooy igmoyo igmyoo igmyoo igomoy igomyo igoomy igooym
igoyom igoymo igoomy igooym igomoy igomyo igoymo igoyom igyoom igyomo igyoom
igyomo igymoo igymoo iymogo iymoog iymgoo iymgoo iymogo iymoog iyomgo iyomog
iyogmo iyogom iyoogm iyoomg iygomo iygoom iygmoo iygmoo iygomo iygoom iyoogm
iyoomg iyogom iyogmo iyomgo iyomog

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History of cryptography
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