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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: yataka
cipher variations:
zbublb acvcmc bdwdnd cexeoe dfyfpf
egzgqg fhahrh gibisi hjcjtj ikdkuk
jlelvl kmfmwm lngnxn mohoyo npipzp
oqjqaq prkrbr qslscs rtmtdt sunueu
tvovfv uwpwgw vxqxhx wyryiy xzszjz

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: yataka
Cipher: bzgzpz

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: yataka
Cipher: BABBA AAAAA BAABA AAAAA ABAAB AAAAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: yataka
cipher variations:
zbublbvbgbfbrbsbzbnbebtbjbqbnbfbcbhbxbabvbtbmbpb
pbybjblbkbdbhbwbxbdbibrbacvcmcwchcgcsctcacocfcuc
kcrcocgcdcicycbcwcucncqcqczckcmclcecicxcycecjcsc
bdwdndxdidhdtdudbdpdgdvdldsdpdhdedjdzdcdxdvdodrd
rdadldndmdfdjdydzdfdkdtdcexeoeyejeieueveceqehewe
meteqeiefekeaedeyewepesesebemeoenegekezeaegeleue
dfyfpfzfkfjfvfwfdfrfifxfnfufrfjfgflfbfefzfxfqftf
tfcfnfpfofhflfafbfhfmfvfegzgqgaglgkgwgxgegsgjgyg
ogvgsgkghgmgcgfgagygrgugugdgogqgpgigmgbgcgigngwg
fhahrhbhmhlhxhyhfhthkhzhphwhthlhihnhdhghbhzhshvh
vhehphrhqhjhnhchdhjhohxhgibisicinimiyizigiuiliai
qixiuimijioieihiciaitiwiwifiqisirikioidieikipiyi
hjcjtjdjojnjzjajhjvjmjbjrjyjvjnjkjpjfjijdjbjujxj
xjgjrjtjsjljpjejfjljqjzjikdkukekpkokakbkikwknkck
skzkwkoklkqkgkjkekckvkykykhkskuktkmkqkfkgkmkrkak
jlelvlflqlplblcljlxloldltlalxlplmlrlhlklfldlwlzl
zliltlvlulnlrlglhlnlslblkmfmwmgmrmqmcmdmkmympmem
umbmymqmnmsmimlmgmemxmamamjmumwmvmomsmhmimomtmcm
lngnxnhnsnrndnenlnznqnfnvncnznrnontnjnmnhnfnynbn
bnknvnxnwnpntninjnpnundnmohoyoiotosoeofomoaorogo
wodoaosopouokonoiogozococolowoyoxoqouojokoqovoeo
npipzpjpuptpfpgpnpbpsphpxpepbptpqpvplpopjphpapdp
dpmpxpzpyprpvpkplprpwpfpoqjqaqkqvquqgqhqoqcqtqiq
yqfqcquqrqwqmqpqkqiqbqeqeqnqyqaqzqsqwqlqmqsqxqgq
prkrbrlrwrvrhrirprdrurjrzrgrdrvrsrxrnrqrlrjrcrfr
frorzrbrartrxrmrnrtryrhrqslscsmsxswsisjsqsesvsks
ashseswstsysosrsmsksdsgsgspsascsbsusysnsosuszsis
rtmtdtntytxtjtktrtftwtltbtitftxtutztptstntltetht
htqtbtdtctvtztotptvtatjtsunueuouzuyukulusuguxumu
cujuguyuvuauqutuoumufuiuiurucueuduwuaupuquwubuku
tvovfvpvavzvlvmvtvhvyvnvdvkvhvzvwvbvrvuvpvnvgvjv
jvsvdvfvevxvbvqvrvxvcvlvuwpwgwqwbwawmwnwuwiwzwow
ewlwiwawxwcwswvwqwowhwkwkwtwewgwfwywcwrwswywdwmw
vxqxhxrxcxbxnxoxvxjxaxpxfxmxjxbxyxdxtxwxrxpxixlx
lxuxfxhxgxzxdxsxtxzxexnxwyryiysydycyoypywykybyqy
gynykycyzyeyuyxysyqyjymymyvygyiyhyayeytyuyayfyoy
xzszjztzezdzpzqzxzlzczrzhzozlzdzazfzvzyztzrzkznz
nzwzhzjzizbzfzuzvzbzgzpzyatakauafaeaqarayamadasa
iapamaeabagawazauasalaoaoaxaiakajacagavawacahaqa

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: yataka
Cipher: lngnxn

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: yataka
Cipher: 451144115211

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: yataka
method variations:
dfyfpfildluloqiqzqtvovev

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
y a t a k a 
4 1 4 1 5 1 
5 1 4 1 2 1 
They are then read out in rows:
414151514121
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: yataka
Cipher: ddeedb

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: yataka
method variations:
eqdvbq qdvbqe dvbqeq
vbqeqd bqeqdv qeqdvb

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: yataka

all 720 cipher variations:
yataka yataak yatkaa yatkaa yataka yataak yaatka yaatak yaakta yaakat yaaakt
yaaatk yakata yakaat yaktaa yaktaa yakata yakaat yaaakt yaaatk yaakat yaakta
yaatka yaatak ytaaka ytaaak ytakaa ytakaa ytaaka ytaaak ytaaka ytaaak ytakaa
ytakaa ytaaka ytaaak ytkaaa ytkaaa ytkaaa ytkaaa ytkaaa ytkaaa ytaaka ytaaak
ytakaa ytakaa ytaaka ytaaak yataka yataak yatkaa yatkaa yataka yataak yaatka
yaatak yaakta yaakat yaaakt yaaatk yakata yakaat yaktaa yaktaa yakata yakaat
yaaakt yaaatk yaakat yaakta yaatka yaatak yktaaa yktaaa yktaaa yktaaa yktaaa
yktaaa ykataa ykataa ykaata ykaaat ykaaat ykaata ykaata ykaaat ykataa ykataa
ykaata ykaaat ykaaat ykaata ykaaat ykaata ykataa ykataa yataka yataak yatkaa
yatkaa yataka yataak yaatka yaatak yaakta yaakat yaaakt yaaatk yakata yakaat
yaktaa yaktaa yakata yakaat yaaakt yaaatk yaakat yaakta yaatka yaatak aytaka
aytaak aytkaa aytkaa aytaka aytaak ayatka ayatak ayakta ayakat ayaakt ayaatk
aykata aykaat ayktaa ayktaa aykata aykaat ayaakt ayaatk ayakat ayakta ayatka
ayatak atyaka atyaak atykaa atykaa atyaka atyaak atayka atayak atakya atakay
ataaky ataayk atkaya atkaay atkyaa atkyaa atkaya atkaay ataaky ataayk atakay
atakya atayka atayak aatyka aatyak aatkya aatkay aataky aatayk aaytka aaytak
aaykta aaykat aayakt aayatk aakyta aakyat aaktya aaktay aakaty aakayt aaaykt
aaaytk aaakyt aaakty aaatky aaatyk aktaya aktaay aktyaa aktyaa aktaya aktaay
akatya akatay akayta akayat akaayt akaaty akyata akyaat akytaa akytaa akyata
akyaat akaayt akaaty akayat akayta akatya akatay aataky aatayk aatkay aatkya
aatyka aatyak aaatky aaatyk aaakty aaakyt aaaykt aaaytk aakaty aakayt aaktay
aaktya aakyta aakyat aayakt aayatk aaykat aaykta aaytka aaytak tayaka tayaak
taykaa taykaa tayaka tayaak taayka taayak taakya taakay taaaky taaayk takaya
takaay takyaa takyaa takaya takaay taaaky taaayk taakay taakya taayka taayak
tyaaka tyaaak tyakaa tyakaa tyaaka tyaaak tyaaka tyaaak tyakaa tyakaa tyaaka
tyaaak tykaaa tykaaa tykaaa tykaaa tykaaa tykaaa tyaaka tyaaak tyakaa tyakaa
tyaaka tyaaak tayaka tayaak taykaa taykaa tayaka tayaak taayka taayak taakya
taakay taaaky taaayk takaya takaay takyaa takyaa takaya takaay taaaky taaayk
taakay taakya taayka taayak tkyaaa tkyaaa tkyaaa tkyaaa tkyaaa tkyaaa tkayaa
tkayaa tkaaya tkaaay tkaaay tkaaya tkaaya tkaaay tkayaa tkayaa tkaaya tkaaay
tkaaay tkaaya tkaaay tkaaya tkayaa tkayaa tayaka tayaak taykaa taykaa tayaka
tayaak taayka taayak taakya taakay taaaky taaayk takaya takaay takyaa takyaa
takaya takaay taaaky taaayk taakay taakya taayka taayak aatyka aatyak aatkya
aatkay aataky aatayk aaytka aaytak aaykta aaykat aayakt aayatk aakyta aakyat
aaktya aaktay aakaty aakayt aaaykt aaaytk aaakyt aaakty aaatky aaatyk atayka
atayak atakya atakay ataaky ataayk atyaka atyaak atykaa atykaa atyaka atyaak
atkyaa atkyaa atkaya atkaay atkaay atkaya atayka atayak atakya atakay ataaky
ataayk aytaka aytaak aytkaa aytkaa aytaka aytaak ayatka ayatak ayakta ayakat
ayaakt ayaatk aykata aykaat ayktaa ayktaa aykata aykaat ayaakt ayaatk ayakat
ayakta ayatka ayatak aktyaa aktyaa aktaya aktaay aktaay aktaya akytaa akytaa
akyata akyaat akyaat akyata akayta akayat akatya akatay akaaty akaayt akayat
akayta akaayt akaaty akatay akatya aatyka aatyak aatkya aatkay aataky aatayk
aaytka aaytak aaykta aaykat aayakt aayatk aakyta aakyat aaktya aaktay aakaty
aakayt aaaykt aaaytk aaakyt aaakty aaatky aaatyk kataya kataay katyaa katyaa
kataya kataay kaatya kaatay kaayta kaayat kaaayt kaaaty kayata kayaat kaytaa
kaytaa kayata kayaat kaaayt kaaaty kaayat kaayta kaatya kaatay ktaaya ktaaay
ktayaa ktayaa ktaaya ktaaay ktaaya ktaaay ktayaa ktayaa ktaaya ktaaay ktyaaa
ktyaaa ktyaaa ktyaaa ktyaaa ktyaaa ktaaya ktaaay ktayaa ktayaa ktaaya ktaaay
kataya kataay katyaa katyaa kataya kataay kaatya kaatay kaayta kaayat kaaayt
kaaaty kayata kayaat kaytaa kaytaa kayata kayaat kaaayt kaaaty kaayat kaayta
kaatya kaatay kytaaa kytaaa kytaaa kytaaa kytaaa kytaaa kyataa kyataa kyaata
kyaaat kyaaat kyaata kyaata kyaaat kyataa kyataa kyaata kyaaat kyaaat kyaata
kyaaat kyaata kyataa kyataa kataya kataay katyaa katyaa kataya kataay kaatya
kaatay kaayta kaayat kaaayt kaaaty kayata kayaat kaytaa kaytaa kayata kayaat
kaaayt kaaaty kaayat kaayta kaatya kaatay aataky aatayk aatkay aatkya aatyka
aatyak aaatky aaatyk aaakty aaakyt aaaykt aaaytk aakaty aakayt aaktay aaktya
aakyta aakyat aayakt aayatk aaykat aaykta aaytka aaytak ataaky ataayk atakay
atakya atayka atayak ataaky ataayk atakay atakya atayka atayak atkaay atkaya
atkaay atkaya atkyaa atkyaa atyaka atyaak atykaa atykaa atyaka atyaak aataky
aatayk aatkay aatkya aatyka aatyak aaatky aaatyk aaakty aaakyt aaaykt aaaytk
aakaty aakayt aaktay aaktya aakyta aakyat aayakt aayatk aaykat aaykta aaytka
aaytak aktaay aktaya aktaay aktaya aktyaa aktyaa akatay akatya akaaty akaayt
akayat akayta akaaty akaayt akatay akatya akayta akayat akyaat akyata akyaat
akyata akytaa akytaa aytaka aytaak aytkaa aytkaa aytaka aytaak ayatka ayatak
ayakta ayakat ayaakt ayaatk aykata aykaat ayktaa ayktaa aykata aykaat ayaakt
ayaatk ayakat ayakta ayatka ayatak

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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