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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: xander
cipher variations:
yboefs zcpfgt adqghu berhiv cfsijw
dgtjkx ehukly fivlmz gjwmna hkxnob
ilyopc jmzpqd knaqre lobrsf mpcstg
nqdtuh oreuvi psfvwj qtgwxk ruhxyl
sviyzm twjzan uxkabo vylbcp wzmcdq

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: xander
Cipher: czmwvi

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: xander
Cipher: BABAB AAAAA ABBAA AAABB AABAA BAAAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: xander
cipher variations:
yboefssboknamboqvigbowdqaboclyuboitgiboujwcboare
wbogzmqbomhukbospceboyxkzcpfgttcplobncprwjhcpxer
bcpdmzvcpjuhjcpvkxdcpbsfxcphanrcpnivlcptqdfcpzyl
adqghuudqmpcodqsxkidqyfscdqenawdqkvikdqwlyedqctg
ydqibosdqojwmdquregdqazmberhivvernqdpertyljerzgt
derfobxerlwjlerxmzferduhzerjcpterpkxnervsfherban
cfsijwwfsoreqfsuzmkfsahuefsgpcyfsmxkmfsynagfsevi
afskdqufsqlyofswtgifscbodgtjkxxgtpsfrgtvanlgtbiv
fgthqdzgtnylngtzobhgtfwjbgtlervgtrmzpgtxuhjgtdcp
ehuklyyhuqtgshuwbomhucjwghuireahuozmohuapcihugxk
chumfswhusnaqhuyvikhuedqfivlmzzivruhtivxcpnivdkx
hivjsfbivpanpivbqdjivhyldivngtxivtobrivzwjlivfer
gjwmnaajwsviujwydqojwelyijwktgcjwqboqjwcrekjwizm
ejwohuyjwupcsjwaxkmjwgfshkxnobbkxtwjvkxzerpkxfmz
jkxluhdkxrcprkxdsflkxjanfkxpivzkxvqdtkxbylnkxhgt
ilyopcclyuxkwlyafsqlygnaklymvielysdqslyetgmlykbo
glyqjwalywreulyczmolyihujmzpqddmzvylxmzbgtrmzhob
lmznwjfmztertmzfuhnmzlcphmzrkxbmzxsfvmzdanpmzjiv
knaqreenawzmynachusnaipcmnaoxkgnaufsunagvionamdq
inaslycnaytgwnaeboqnakjwlobrsffobxanzobdivtobjqd
nobpylhobvgtvobhwjpobnerjobtmzdobzuhxobfcproblkx
mpcstggpcyboapcejwupckreopcqzmipcwhuwpcixkqpcofs
kpcunaepcaviypcgdqspcmlynqdtuhhqdzcpbqdfkxvqdlsf
pqdranjqdxivxqdjylrqdpgtlqdvobfqdbwjzqdhertqdnmz
oreuviireadqcreglywremtgqresbokreyjwyrekzmsreqhu
mrewpcgrecxkareifsureonapsfvwjjsfberdsfhmzxsfnuh
rsftcplsfzkxzsflantsfrivnsfxqdhsfdylbsfjgtvsfpob
qtgwxkktgcfsetginaytgovistgudqmtgalyatgmboutgsjw
otgyreitgezmctgkhuwtgqpcruhxylluhdgtfuhjobzuhpwj
tuhvernuhbmzbuhncpvuhtkxpuhzsfjuhfanduhlivxuhrqd
sviyzmmviehugvikpcaviqxkuviwfsovicnacviodqwviuly
qviatgkvigboevimjwyvisretwjzannwjfivhwjlqdbwjryl
vwjxgtpwjdobdwjperxwjvmzrwjbuhlwjhcpfwjnkxzwjtsf
uxkabooxkgjwixkmrecxkszmwxkyhuqxkepcexkqfsyxkwna
sxkcvimxkidqgxkolyaxkutgvylbcppylhkxjylnsfdyltan
xylzivrylfqdfylrgtzylxobtyldwjnyljerhylpmzbylvuh
wzmcdqqzmilykzmotgezmuboyzmajwszmgregzmshuazmypc
uzmexkozmkfsizmqnaczmwvixanderranjmzlanpuhfanvcp
zanbkxtanhsfhantivbanzqdvanfylpanlgtjanrobdanxwj

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: xander
Cipher: knaqre

Read more ...

 

Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: xander
Cipher: 351133415124

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: xander
method variations:
cfsikwhlxopbnqctugsvhyzm

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
x a n d e r 
3 1 3 4 5 2 
5 1 3 1 1 4 
They are then read out in rows:
313452513114
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: xander
Cipher: cskecq

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: xander
method variations:
elsvfo lsvfoe svfoel
vfoels foelsv oelsvf

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: xander

all 720 cipher variations:
xander xandre xanedr xanerd xanred xanrde xadner xadnre xadenr xadern xadren
xadrne xaednr xaedrn xaendr xaenrd xaernd xaerdn xarden xardne xaredn xarend
xarned xarnde xnader xnadre xnaedr xnaerd xnared xnarde xndaer xndare xndear
xndera xndrea xndrae xnedar xnedra xneadr xneard xnerad xnerda xnrdea xnrdae
xnreda xnread xnraed xnrade xdnaer xdnare xdnear xdnera xdnrea xdnrae xdaner
xdanre xdaenr xdaern xdaren xdarne xdeanr xdearn xdenar xdenra xderna xderan
xdraen xdrane xdrean xdrena xdrnea xdrnae xendar xendra xenadr xenard xenrad
xenrda xednar xednra xedanr xedarn xedran xedrna xeadnr xeadrn xeandr xeanrd
xearnd xeardn xerdan xerdna xeradn xerand xernad xernda xrndea xrndae xrneda
xrnead xrnaed xrnade xrdnea xrdnae xrdena xrdean xrdaen xrdane xredna xredan
xrenda xrenad xreand xreadn xraden xradne xraedn xraend xraned xrande axnder
axndre axnedr axnerd axnred axnrde axdner axdnre axdenr axdern axdren axdrne
axednr axedrn axendr axenrd axernd axerdn axrden axrdne axredn axrend axrned
axrnde anxder anxdre anxedr anxerd anxred anxrde andxer andxre andexr anderx
andrex andrxe anedxr anedrx anexdr anexrd anerxd anerdx anrdex anrdxe anredx
anrexd anrxed anrxde adnxer adnxre adnexr adnerx adnrex adnrxe adxner adxnre
adxenr adxern adxren adxrne adexnr adexrn adenxr adenrx adernx aderxn adrxen
adrxne adrexn adrenx adrnex adrnxe aendxr aendrx aenxdr aenxrd aenrxd aenrdx
aednxr aednrx aedxnr aedxrn aedrxn aedrnx aexdnr aexdrn aexndr aexnrd aexrnd
aexrdn aerdxn aerdnx aerxdn aerxnd aernxd aerndx arndex arndxe arnedx arnexd
arnxed arnxde ardnex ardnxe ardenx ardexn ardxen ardxne arednx aredxn arendx
arenxd arexnd arexdn arxden arxdne arxedn arxend arxned arxnde naxder naxdre
naxedr naxerd naxred naxrde nadxer nadxre nadexr naderx nadrex nadrxe naedxr
naedrx naexdr naexrd naerxd naerdx nardex nardxe naredx narexd narxed narxde
nxader nxadre nxaedr nxaerd nxared nxarde nxdaer nxdare nxdear nxdera nxdrea
nxdrae nxedar nxedra nxeadr nxeard nxerad nxerda nxrdea nxrdae nxreda nxread
nxraed nxrade ndxaer ndxare ndxear ndxera ndxrea ndxrae ndaxer ndaxre ndaexr
ndaerx ndarex ndarxe ndeaxr ndearx ndexar ndexra nderxa nderax ndraex ndraxe
ndreax ndrexa ndrxea ndrxae nexdar nexdra nexadr nexard nexrad nexrda nedxar
nedxra nedaxr nedarx nedrax nedrxa neadxr neadrx neaxdr neaxrd nearxd neardx
nerdax nerdxa neradx neraxd nerxad nerxda nrxdea nrxdae nrxeda nrxead nrxaed
nrxade nrdxea nrdxae nrdexa nrdeax nrdaex nrdaxe nredxa nredax nrexda nrexad
nreaxd nreadx nradex nradxe nraedx nraexd nraxed nraxde danxer danxre danexr
danerx danrex danrxe daxner daxnre daxenr daxern daxren daxrne daexnr daexrn
daenxr daenrx daernx daerxn darxen darxne darexn darenx darnex darnxe dnaxer
dnaxre dnaexr dnaerx dnarex dnarxe dnxaer dnxare dnxear dnxera dnxrea dnxrae
dnexar dnexra dneaxr dnearx dnerax dnerxa dnrxea dnrxae dnrexa dnreax dnraex
dnraxe dxnaer dxnare dxnear dxnera dxnrea dxnrae dxaner dxanre dxaenr dxaern
dxaren dxarne dxeanr dxearn dxenar dxenra dxerna dxeran dxraen dxrane dxrean
dxrena dxrnea dxrnae denxar denxra denaxr denarx denrax denrxa dexnar dexnra
dexanr dexarn dexran dexrna deaxnr deaxrn deanxr deanrx dearnx dearxn derxan
derxna deraxn deranx dernax dernxa drnxea drnxae drnexa drneax drnaex drnaxe
drxnea drxnae drxena drxean drxaen drxane drexna drexan drenxa drenax dreanx
dreaxn draxen draxne draexn draenx dranex dranxe eandxr eandrx eanxdr eanxrd
eanrxd eanrdx eadnxr eadnrx eadxnr eadxrn eadrxn eadrnx eaxdnr eaxdrn eaxndr
eaxnrd eaxrnd eaxrdn eardxn eardnx earxdn earxnd earnxd earndx enadxr enadrx
enaxdr enaxrd enarxd enardx endaxr endarx endxar endxra endrxa endrax enxdar
enxdra enxadr enxard enxrad enxrda enrdxa enrdax enrxda enrxad enraxd enradx
ednaxr ednarx ednxar ednxra ednrxa ednrax edanxr edanrx edaxnr edaxrn edarxn
edarnx edxanr edxarn edxnar edxnra edxrna edxran edraxn edranx edrxan edrxna
edrnxa edrnax exndar exndra exnadr exnard exnrad exnrda exdnar exdnra exdanr
exdarn exdran exdrna exadnr exadrn exandr exanrd exarnd exardn exrdan exrdna
exradn exrand exrnad exrnda erndxa erndax ernxda ernxad ernaxd ernadx erdnxa
erdnax erdxna erdxan erdaxn erdanx erxdna erxdan erxnda erxnad erxand erxadn
eradxn eradnx eraxdn eraxnd eranxd erandx randex randxe ranedx ranexd ranxed
ranxde radnex radnxe radenx radexn radxen radxne raednx raedxn raendx raenxd
raexnd raexdn raxden raxdne raxedn raxend raxned raxnde rnadex rnadxe rnaedx
rnaexd rnaxed rnaxde rndaex rndaxe rndeax rndexa rndxea rndxae rnedax rnedxa
rneadx rneaxd rnexad rnexda rnxdea rnxdae rnxeda rnxead rnxaed rnxade rdnaex
rdnaxe rdneax rdnexa rdnxea rdnxae rdanex rdanxe rdaenx rdaexn rdaxen rdaxne
rdeanx rdeaxn rdenax rdenxa rdexna rdexan rdxaen rdxane rdxean rdxena rdxnea
rdxnae rendax rendxa renadx renaxd renxad renxda rednax rednxa redanx redaxn
redxan redxna readnx readxn reandx reanxd reaxnd reaxdn rexdan rexdna rexadn
rexand rexnad rexnda rxndea rxndae rxneda rxnead rxnaed rxnade rxdnea rxdnae
rxdena rxdean rxdaen rxdane rxedna rxedan rxenda rxenad rxeand rxeadn rxaden
rxadne rxaedn rxaend rxaned rxande

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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