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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: wsbmac
cipher variations:
xtcnbd yudoce zvepdf awfqeg bxgrfh
cyhsgi dzithj eajuik fbkvjl gclwkm
hdmxln ienymo jfoznp kgpaoq lhqbpr
mircqs njsdrt oktesu pluftv qmvguw
rnwhvx soxiwy tpyjxz uqzkya vralzb

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: wsbmac
Cipher: dhynzx

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: wsbmac

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: wsbmac
cipher variations:

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x

An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: wsbmac
Cipher: jfoznp

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: wsbmac
Cipher: 253421231131

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: wsbmac
method variations:

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
w s b m a c 
2 3 2 2 1 3 
5 4 1 3 1 1 
They are then read out in rows:
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: wsbmac
Cipher: mglula

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Method #3

Plaintext: wsbmac
method variations:
pifclf ifclfp fclfpi
clfpif lfpifc fpifcl

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: wsbmac

all 720 cipher variations:
wsbmac wsbmca wsbamc wsbacm wsbcam wsbcma wsmbac wsmbca wsmabc wsmacb wsmcab
wsmcba wsambc wsamcb wsabmc wsabcm wsacbm wsacmb wscmab wscmba wscamb wscabm
wscbam wscbma wbsmac wbsmca wbsamc wbsacm wbscam wbscma wbmsac wbmsca wbmasc
wbmacs wbmcas wbmcsa wbamsc wbamcs wbasmc wbascm wbacsm wbacms wbcmas wbcmsa
wbcams wbcasm wbcsam wbcsma wmbsac wmbsca wmbasc wmbacs wmbcas wmbcsa wmsbac
wmsbca wmsabc wmsacb wmscab wmscba wmasbc wmascb wmabsc wmabcs wmacbs wmacsb
wmcsab wmcsba wmcasb wmcabs wmcbas wmcbsa wabmsc wabmcs wabsmc wabscm wabcsm
wabcms wambsc wambcs wamsbc wamscb wamcsb wamcbs wasmbc wasmcb wasbmc wasbcm
wascbm wascmb wacmsb wacmbs wacsmb wacsbm wacbsm wacbms wcbmas wcbmsa wcbams
wcbasm wcbsam wcbsma wcmbas wcmbsa wcmabs wcmasb wcmsab wcmsba wcambs wcamsb
wcabms wcabsm wcasbm wcasmb wcsmab wcsmba wcsamb wcsabm wcsbam wcsbma swbmac
swbmca swbamc swbacm swbcam swbcma swmbac swmbca swmabc swmacb swmcab swmcba
swambc swamcb swabmc swabcm swacbm swacmb swcmab swcmba swcamb swcabm swcbam
swcbma sbwmac sbwmca sbwamc sbwacm sbwcam sbwcma sbmwac sbmwca sbmawc sbmacw
sbmcaw sbmcwa sbamwc sbamcw sbawmc sbawcm sbacwm sbacmw sbcmaw sbcmwa sbcamw
sbcawm sbcwam sbcwma smbwac smbwca smbawc smbacw smbcaw smbcwa smwbac smwbca
smwabc smwacb smwcab smwcba smawbc smawcb smabwc smabcw smacbw smacwb smcwab
smcwba smcawb smcabw smcbaw smcbwa sabmwc sabmcw sabwmc sabwcm sabcwm sabcmw
sambwc sambcw samwbc samwcb samcwb samcbw sawmbc sawmcb sawbmc sawbcm sawcbm
sawcmb sacmwb sacmbw sacwmb sacwbm sacbwm sacbmw scbmaw scbmwa scbamw scbawm
scbwam scbwma scmbaw scmbwa scmabw scmawb scmwab scmwba scambw scamwb scabmw
scabwm scawbm scawmb scwmab scwmba scwamb scwabm scwbam scwbma bswmac bswmca
bswamc bswacm bswcam bswcma bsmwac bsmwca bsmawc bsmacw bsmcaw bsmcwa bsamwc
bsamcw bsawmc bsawcm bsacwm bsacmw bscmaw bscmwa bscamw bscawm bscwam bscwma
bwsmac bwsmca bwsamc bwsacm bwscam bwscma bwmsac bwmsca bwmasc bwmacs bwmcas
bwmcsa bwamsc bwamcs bwasmc bwascm bwacsm bwacms bwcmas bwcmsa bwcams bwcasm
bwcsam bwcsma bmwsac bmwsca bmwasc bmwacs bmwcas bmwcsa bmswac bmswca bmsawc
bmsacw bmscaw bmscwa bmaswc bmascw bmawsc bmawcs bmacws bmacsw bmcsaw bmcswa
bmcasw bmcaws bmcwas bmcwsa bawmsc bawmcs bawsmc bawscm bawcsm bawcms bamwsc
bamwcs bamswc bamscw bamcsw bamcws basmwc basmcw baswmc baswcm bascwm bascmw
bacmsw bacmws bacsmw bacswm bacwsm bacwms bcwmas bcwmsa bcwams bcwasm bcwsam
bcwsma bcmwas bcmwsa bcmaws bcmasw bcmsaw bcmswa bcamws bcamsw bcawms bcawsm
bcaswm bcasmw bcsmaw bcsmwa bcsamw bcsawm bcswam bcswma msbwac msbwca msbawc
msbacw msbcaw msbcwa mswbac mswbca mswabc mswacb mswcab mswcba msawbc msawcb
msabwc msabcw msacbw msacwb mscwab mscwba mscawb mscabw mscbaw mscbwa mbswac
mbswca mbsawc mbsacw mbscaw mbscwa mbwsac mbwsca mbwasc mbwacs mbwcas mbwcsa
mbawsc mbawcs mbaswc mbascw mbacsw mbacws mbcwas mbcwsa mbcaws mbcasw mbcsaw
mbcswa mwbsac mwbsca mwbasc mwbacs mwbcas mwbcsa mwsbac mwsbca mwsabc mwsacb
mwscab mwscba mwasbc mwascb mwabsc mwabcs mwacbs mwacsb mwcsab mwcsba mwcasb
mwcabs mwcbas mwcbsa mabwsc mabwcs mabswc mabscw mabcsw mabcws mawbsc mawbcs
mawsbc mawscb mawcsb mawcbs maswbc maswcb masbwc masbcw mascbw mascwb macwsb
macwbs macswb macsbw macbsw macbws mcbwas mcbwsa mcbaws mcbasw mcbsaw mcbswa
mcwbas mcwbsa mcwabs mcwasb mcwsab mcwsba mcawbs mcawsb mcabws mcabsw mcasbw
mcaswb mcswab mcswba mcsawb mcsabw mcsbaw mcsbwa asbmwc asbmcw asbwmc asbwcm
asbcwm asbcmw asmbwc asmbcw asmwbc asmwcb asmcwb asmcbw aswmbc aswmcb aswbmc
aswbcm aswcbm aswcmb ascmwb ascmbw ascwmb ascwbm ascbwm ascbmw absmwc absmcw
abswmc abswcm abscwm abscmw abmswc abmscw abmwsc abmwcs abmcws abmcsw abwmsc
abwmcs abwsmc abwscm abwcsm abwcms abcmws abcmsw abcwms abcwsm abcswm abcsmw
ambswc ambscw ambwsc ambwcs ambcws ambcsw amsbwc amsbcw amswbc amswcb amscwb
amscbw amwsbc amwscb amwbsc amwbcs amwcbs amwcsb amcswb amcsbw amcwsb amcwbs
amcbws amcbsw awbmsc awbmcs awbsmc awbscm awbcsm awbcms awmbsc awmbcs awmsbc
awmscb awmcsb awmcbs awsmbc awsmcb awsbmc awsbcm awscbm awscmb awcmsb awcmbs
awcsmb awcsbm awcbsm awcbms acbmws acbmsw acbwms acbwsm acbswm acbsmw acmbws
acmbsw acmwbs acmwsb acmswb acmsbw acwmbs acwmsb acwbms acwbsm acwsbm acwsmb
acsmwb acsmbw acswmb acswbm acsbwm acsbmw csbmaw csbmwa csbamw csbawm csbwam
csbwma csmbaw csmbwa csmabw csmawb csmwab csmwba csambw csamwb csabmw csabwm
csawbm csawmb cswmab cswmba cswamb cswabm cswbam cswbma cbsmaw cbsmwa cbsamw
cbsawm cbswam cbswma cbmsaw cbmswa cbmasw cbmaws cbmwas cbmwsa cbamsw cbamws
cbasmw cbaswm cbawsm cbawms cbwmas cbwmsa cbwams cbwasm cbwsam cbwsma cmbsaw
cmbswa cmbasw cmbaws cmbwas cmbwsa cmsbaw cmsbwa cmsabw cmsawb cmswab cmswba
cmasbw cmaswb cmabsw cmabws cmawbs cmawsb cmwsab cmwsba cmwasb cmwabs cmwbas
cmwbsa cabmsw cabmws cabsmw cabswm cabwsm cabwms cambsw cambws camsbw camswb
camwsb camwbs casmbw casmwb casbmw casbwm caswbm caswmb cawmsb cawmbs cawsmb
cawsbm cawbsm cawbms cwbmas cwbmsa cwbams cwbasm cwbsam cwbsma cwmbas cwmbsa
cwmabs cwmasb cwmsab cwmsba cwambs cwamsb cwabms cwabsm cwasbm cwasmb cwsmab
cwsmba cwsamb cwsabm cwsbam cwsbma

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History of cryptography
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