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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: wraths
cipher variations:
xsbuit ytcvju zudwkv avexlw bwfymx
cxgzny dyhaoz ezibpa fajcqb gbkdrc
hclesd idmfte jenguf kfohvg lgpiwh
mhqjxi nirkyj ojslzk pktmal qlunbm
rmvocn snwpdo toxqep upyrfq vqzsgr

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: wraths
Cipher: dizgsh

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: wraths
Cipher: BABAA BAAAA AAAAA BAABA AABBB BAAAB

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: wraths
cipher variations:
xsbuitpabgwdhibsknzqbeyxrybqmhjgbcartwbacllebmqv
dmbyefvubkspncbwgzfkbiujytcvjuqbchxeijctloarcfzy
szcrnikhcdbsuxcbdmmfcnrwenczfgwvcltqodcxhaglcjvk
zudwkvrcdiyfjkdumpbsdgaztadsojlidectvydcenngdosx
fodaghxwdmurpedyibhmdkwlavexlwsdejzgklevnqctehba
ubetpkmjefduwzedfooheptygpebhiyxenvsqfezjcinelxm
bwfymxtefkahlmfworduficbvcfuqlnkfgevxafegppifquz
hqfcijzyfowtrgfakdjofmyncxgznyufglbimngxpsevgjdc
wdgvrmolghfwybgfhqqjgrvairgdjkazgpxushgblekpgnzo
dyhaozvghmcjnohyqtfwhkedxehwsnpmhigxzchgirrkhswb
jsheklbahqyvtihcmflqhoapezibpawhindkopizrugxilfe
yfixtoqnijhyadihjsslitxcktiflmcbirzwujidngmripbq
fajcqbxijoelpqjasvhyjmgfzgjyuprojkizbejikttmjuyd
lujgmndcjsaxvkjeohnsjqcrgbkdrcyjkpfmqrkbtwizknhg
ahkzvqspkljacfkjluunkvzemvkhnoedktbywlkfpiotkrds
hclesdzklqgnrslcuxjaloihbilawrtqlmkbdglkmvvolwaf
nwliopfeluczxmlgqjpulsetidmftealmrhostmdvykbmpji
cjmbxsurmnlcehmlnwwpmxbgoxmjpqgfmvdaynmhrkqvmtfu
jengufbmnsiptunewzlcnqkjdkncytvsnomdfinmoxxqnych
pynkqrhgnwebzonislrwnugvkfohvgcnotjquvofxamdorlk
elodzuwtopnegjonpyyrozdiqzolrsihoxfcapojtmsxovhw
lgpiwhdopukrvwpgybnepsmlfmpeavxupqofhkpoqzzspaej
rapmstjipygdbqpkuntypwixmhqjxiepqvlswxqhzcofqtnm
gnqfbwyvqrpgilqpraatqbfksbqntukjqzhecrqlvouzqxjy
nirkyjfqrwmtxyriadpgruonhorgcxzwrsqhjmrqsbburcgl
tcrouvlkraifdsrmwpvarykzojslzkgrsxnuyzsjbeqhsvpo
ipshdyaxstriknsrtccvsdhmudspvwmlsbjgetsnxqwbszla
pktmalhstyovzatkcfritwqpjqtiezbytusjlotsuddwtein
vetqwxnmtckhfutoyrxctambqlunbmituzpwabuldgsjuxrq
krujfaczuvtkmputveexufjowfurxyonudligvupzsydubnc
rmvocnjuvaqxbcvmehtkvysrlsvkgbdavwulnqvuwffyvgkp
xgvsyzpovemjhwvqatzevcodsnwpdokvwbrycdwnfiulwzts
mtwlhcebwxvmorwvxggzwhlqyhwtzaqpwfnkixwrbuafwdpe
toxqeplwxcszdexogjvmxautnuxmidfcxywnpsxwyhhaximr
zixuabrqxgoljyxscvbgxeqfupyrfqmxydtaefyphkwnybvu
ovynjegdyzxoqtyxziibyjnsajyvbcsryhpmkzytdwchyfrg
vqzsgrnyzeubfgzqilxozcwvpwzokfhezaypruzyajjczkot
bkzwcdtsziqnlazuexdizgshwrathsozafvcgharjmypadxw
qxaplgifabzqsvazbkkdalpuclaxdeutajrombavfyejahti

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: wraths
Cipher: jenguf

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: wraths
Cipher: 252411443234

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: wraths
method variations:
bwfynxgbldscmgqixhrmvocn

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
w r a t h s 
2 2 1 4 3 3 
5 4 1 4 2 4 
They are then read out in rows:
221433541424
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: wraths
Cipher: gqnuqr

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: wraths
method variations:
kdqomi dqomik qomikd
omikdq mikdqo ikdqom

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: wraths

all 720 cipher variations:
wraths wratsh wrahts wrahst wrasht wrasth wrtahs wrtash wrthas wrthsa wrtsha
wrtsah wrhtas wrhtsa wrhats wrhast wrhsat wrhsta wrstha wrstah wrshta wrshat
wrsaht wrsath warths wartsh warhts warhst warsht warsth watrhs watrsh wathrs
wathsr watshr watsrh wahtrs wahtsr wahrts wahrst wahsrt wahstr wasthr wastrh
washtr washrt wasrht wasrth wtarhs wtarsh wtahrs wtahsr wtashr wtasrh wtrahs
wtrash wtrhas wtrhsa wtrsha wtrsah wthras wthrsa wthars wthasr wthsar wthsra
wtsrha wtsrah wtshra wtshar wtsahr wtsarh whatrs whatsr wharts wharst whasrt
whastr whtars whtasr whtras whtrsa whtsra whtsar whrtas whrtsa whrats whrast
whrsat whrsta whstra whstar whsrta whsrat whsart whsatr wsathr wsatrh wsahtr
wsahrt wsarht wsarth wstahr wstarh wsthar wsthra wstrha wstrah wshtar wshtra
wshatr wshart wshrat wshrta wsrtha wsrtah wsrhta wsrhat wsraht wsrath rwaths
rwatsh rwahts rwahst rwasht rwasth rwtahs rwtash rwthas rwthsa rwtsha rwtsah
rwhtas rwhtsa rwhats rwhast rwhsat rwhsta rwstha rwstah rwshta rwshat rwsaht
rwsath rawths rawtsh rawhts rawhst rawsht rawsth ratwhs ratwsh rathws rathsw
ratshw ratswh rahtws rahtsw rahwts rahwst rahswt rahstw rasthw rastwh rashtw
rashwt raswht raswth rtawhs rtawsh rtahws rtahsw rtashw rtaswh rtwahs rtwash
rtwhas rtwhsa rtwsha rtwsah rthwas rthwsa rthaws rthasw rthsaw rthswa rtswha
rtswah rtshwa rtshaw rtsahw rtsawh rhatws rhatsw rhawts rhawst rhaswt rhastw
rhtaws rhtasw rhtwas rhtwsa rhtswa rhtsaw rhwtas rhwtsa rhwats rhwast rhwsat
rhwsta rhstwa rhstaw rhswta rhswat rhsawt rhsatw rsathw rsatwh rsahtw rsahwt
rsawht rsawth rstahw rstawh rsthaw rsthwa rstwha rstwah rshtaw rshtwa rshatw
rshawt rshwat rshwta rswtha rswtah rswhta rswhat rswaht rswath arwths arwtsh
arwhts arwhst arwsht arwsth artwhs artwsh arthws arthsw artshw artswh arhtws
arhtsw arhwts arhwst arhswt arhstw arsthw arstwh arshtw arshwt arswht arswth
awrths awrtsh awrhts awrhst awrsht awrsth awtrhs awtrsh awthrs awthsr awtshr
awtsrh awhtrs awhtsr awhrts awhrst awhsrt awhstr awsthr awstrh awshtr awshrt
awsrht awsrth atwrhs atwrsh atwhrs atwhsr atwshr atwsrh atrwhs atrwsh atrhws
atrhsw atrshw atrswh athrws athrsw athwrs athwsr athswr athsrw atsrhw atsrwh
atshrw atshwr atswhr atswrh ahwtrs ahwtsr ahwrts ahwrst ahwsrt ahwstr ahtwrs
ahtwsr ahtrws ahtrsw ahtsrw ahtswr ahrtws ahrtsw ahrwts ahrwst ahrswt ahrstw
ahstrw ahstwr ahsrtw ahsrwt ahswrt ahswtr aswthr aswtrh aswhtr aswhrt aswrht
aswrth astwhr astwrh asthwr asthrw astrhw astrwh ashtwr ashtrw ashwtr ashwrt
ashrwt ashrtw asrthw asrtwh asrhtw asrhwt asrwht asrwth trawhs trawsh trahws
trahsw trashw traswh trwahs trwash trwhas trwhsa trwsha trwsah trhwas trhwsa
trhaws trhasw trhsaw trhswa trswha trswah trshwa trshaw trsahw trsawh tarwhs
tarwsh tarhws tarhsw tarshw tarswh tawrhs tawrsh tawhrs tawhsr tawshr tawsrh
tahwrs tahwsr tahrws tahrsw tahsrw tahswr taswhr taswrh tashwr tashrw tasrhw
tasrwh twarhs twarsh twahrs twahsr twashr twasrh twrahs twrash twrhas twrhsa
twrsha twrsah twhras twhrsa twhars twhasr twhsar twhsra twsrha twsrah twshra
twshar twsahr twsarh thawrs thawsr tharws tharsw thasrw thaswr thwars thwasr
thwras thwrsa thwsra thwsar thrwas thrwsa thraws thrasw thrsaw thrswa thswra
thswar thsrwa thsraw thsarw thsawr tsawhr tsawrh tsahwr tsahrw tsarhw tsarwh
tswahr tswarh tswhar tswhra tswrha tswrah tshwar tshwra tshawr tsharw tshraw
tshrwa tsrwha tsrwah tsrhwa tsrhaw tsrahw tsrawh hratws hratsw hrawts hrawst
hraswt hrastw hrtaws hrtasw hrtwas hrtwsa hrtswa hrtsaw hrwtas hrwtsa hrwats
hrwast hrwsat hrwsta hrstwa hrstaw hrswta hrswat hrsawt hrsatw hartws hartsw
harwts harwst harswt harstw hatrws hatrsw hatwrs hatwsr hatswr hatsrw hawtrs
hawtsr hawrts hawrst hawsrt hawstr hastwr hastrw haswtr haswrt hasrwt hasrtw
htarws htarsw htawrs htawsr htaswr htasrw htraws htrasw htrwas htrwsa htrswa
htrsaw htwras htwrsa htwars htwasr htwsar htwsra htsrwa htsraw htswra htswar
htsawr htsarw hwatrs hwatsr hwarts hwarst hwasrt hwastr hwtars hwtasr hwtras
hwtrsa hwtsra hwtsar hwrtas hwrtsa hwrats hwrast hwrsat hwrsta hwstra hwstar
hwsrta hwsrat hwsart hwsatr hsatwr hsatrw hsawtr hsawrt hsarwt hsartw hstawr
hstarw hstwar hstwra hstrwa hstraw hswtar hswtra hswatr hswart hswrat hswrta
hsrtwa hsrtaw hsrwta hsrwat hsrawt hsratw srathw sratwh srahtw srahwt srawht
srawth srtahw srtawh srthaw srthwa srtwha srtwah srhtaw srhtwa srhatw srhawt
srhwat srhwta srwtha srwtah srwhta srwhat srwaht srwath sarthw sartwh sarhtw
sarhwt sarwht sarwth satrhw satrwh sathrw sathwr satwhr satwrh sahtrw sahtwr
sahrtw sahrwt sahwrt sahwtr sawthr sawtrh sawhtr sawhrt sawrht sawrth starhw
starwh stahrw stahwr stawhr stawrh strahw strawh strhaw strhwa strwha strwah
sthraw sthrwa stharw sthawr sthwar sthwra stwrha stwrah stwhra stwhar stwahr
stwarh shatrw shatwr shartw sharwt shawrt shawtr shtarw shtawr shtraw shtrwa
shtwra shtwar shrtaw shrtwa shratw shrawt shrwat shrwta shwtra shwtar shwrta
shwrat shwart shwatr swathr swatrh swahtr swahrt swarht swarth swtahr swtarh
swthar swthra swtrha swtrah swhtar swhtra swhatr swhart swhrat swhrta swrtha
swrtah swrhta swrhat swraht swrath

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History of cryptography
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