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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: worley
cipher variations:
xpsmfz yqtnga zruohb asvpic btwqjd
cuxrke dvyslf ewztmg fxaunh gybvoi
hzcwpj iadxqk jbeyrl kcfzsm ldgatn
mehbuo nficvp ogjdwq phkexr qilfys
rjmgzt sknhau tloibv umpjcw vnqkdx

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: worley
Cipher: dliovb

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: worley

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: worley
cipher variations:

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x

An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: worley
Cipher: jbeyrl

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: worley
Cipher: 254324135145

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: worley
method variations:

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
w o r l e y 
2 4 2 1 5 4 
5 3 4 3 1 5 
They are then read out in rows:
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: worley
Cipher: rbupov

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Method #3

Plaintext: worley
method variations:
uhdxqk hdxqku dxqkuh
xqkuhd qkuhdx kuhdxq

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: worley

all 720 cipher variations:
worley worlye worely woreyl woryel woryle wolrey wolrye wolery woleyr wolyer
wolyre woelry woelyr woerly woeryl woeyrl woeylr woyler woylre woyelr woyerl
woyrel woyrle wroley wrolye wroely wroeyl wroyel wroyle wrloey wrloye wrleoy
wrleyo wrlyeo wrlyoe wreloy wrelyo wreoly wreoyl wreyol wreylo wryleo wryloe
wryelo wryeol wryoel wryole wlroey wlroye wlreoy wlreyo wlryeo wlryoe wlorey
wlorye wloery wloeyr wloyer wloyre wleory wleoyr wleroy wleryo wleyro wleyor
wlyoer wlyore wlyeor wlyero wlyreo wlyroe werloy werlyo weroly weroyl weryol
werylo welroy welryo welory weloyr welyor welyro weolry weolyr weorly weoryl
weoyrl weoylr weylor weylro weyolr weyorl weyrol weyrlo wyrleo wyrloe wyrelo
wyreol wyroel wyrole wylreo wylroe wylero wyleor wyloer wylore wyelro wyelor
wyerlo wyerol wyeorl wyeolr wyoler wyolre wyoelr wyoerl wyorel wyorle owrley
owrlye owrely owreyl owryel owryle owlrey owlrye owlery owleyr owlyer owlyre
owelry owelyr owerly oweryl oweyrl oweylr owyler owylre owyelr owyerl owyrel
owyrle orwley orwlye orwely orweyl orwyel orwyle orlwey orlwye orlewy orleyw
orlyew orlywe orelwy orelyw orewly orewyl oreywl oreylw orylew orylwe oryelw
oryewl orywel orywle olrwey olrwye olrewy olreyw olryew olrywe olwrey olwrye
olwery olweyr olwyer olwyre olewry olewyr olerwy oleryw oleyrw oleywr olywer
olywre olyewr olyerw olyrew olyrwe oerlwy oerlyw oerwly oerwyl oerywl oerylw
oelrwy oelryw oelwry oelwyr oelywr oelyrw oewlry oewlyr oewrly oewryl oewyrl
oewylr oeylwr oeylrw oeywlr oeywrl oeyrwl oeyrlw oyrlew oyrlwe oyrelw oyrewl
oyrwel oyrwle oylrew oylrwe oylerw oylewr oylwer oylwre oyelrw oyelwr oyerlw
oyerwl oyewrl oyewlr oywler oywlre oywelr oywerl oywrel oywrle rowley rowlye
rowely roweyl rowyel rowyle rolwey rolwye rolewy roleyw rolyew rolywe roelwy
roelyw roewly roewyl roeywl roeylw roylew roylwe royelw royewl roywel roywle
rwoley rwolye rwoely rwoeyl rwoyel rwoyle rwloey rwloye rwleoy rwleyo rwlyeo
rwlyoe rweloy rwelyo rweoly rweoyl rweyol rweylo rwyleo rwyloe rwyelo rwyeol
rwyoel rwyole rlwoey rlwoye rlweoy rlweyo rlwyeo rlwyoe rlowey rlowye rloewy
rloeyw rloyew rloywe rleowy rleoyw rlewoy rlewyo rleywo rleyow rlyoew rlyowe
rlyeow rlyewo rlyweo rlywoe rewloy rewlyo rewoly rewoyl rewyol rewylo relwoy
relwyo relowy reloyw relyow relywo reolwy reolyw reowly reowyl reoywl reoylw
reylow reylwo reyolw reyowl reywol reywlo rywleo rywloe rywelo ryweol rywoel
rywole rylweo rylwoe rylewo ryleow ryloew rylowe ryelwo ryelow ryewlo ryewol
ryeowl ryeolw ryolew ryolwe ryoelw ryoewl ryowel ryowle lorwey lorwye lorewy
loreyw loryew lorywe lowrey lowrye lowery loweyr lowyer lowyre loewry loewyr
loerwy loeryw loeyrw loeywr loywer loywre loyewr loyerw loyrew loyrwe lrowey
lrowye lroewy lroeyw lroyew lroywe lrwoey lrwoye lrweoy lrweyo lrwyeo lrwyoe
lrewoy lrewyo lreowy lreoyw lreyow lreywo lryweo lrywoe lryewo lryeow lryoew
lryowe lwroey lwroye lwreoy lwreyo lwryeo lwryoe lworey lworye lwoery lwoeyr
lwoyer lwoyre lweory lweoyr lweroy lweryo lweyro lweyor lwyoer lwyore lwyeor
lwyero lwyreo lwyroe lerwoy lerwyo lerowy leroyw leryow lerywo lewroy lewryo
lewory lewoyr lewyor lewyro leowry leowyr leorwy leoryw leoyrw leoywr leywor
leywro leyowr leyorw leyrow leyrwo lyrweo lyrwoe lyrewo lyreow lyroew lyrowe
lywreo lywroe lywero lyweor lywoer lywore lyewro lyewor lyerwo lyerow lyeorw
lyeowr lyower lyowre lyoewr lyoerw lyorew lyorwe eorlwy eorlyw eorwly eorwyl
eorywl eorylw eolrwy eolryw eolwry eolwyr eolywr eolyrw eowlry eowlyr eowrly
eowryl eowyrl eowylr eoylwr eoylrw eoywlr eoywrl eoyrwl eoyrlw erolwy erolyw
erowly erowyl eroywl eroylw erlowy erloyw erlwoy erlwyo erlywo erlyow erwloy
erwlyo erwoly erwoyl erwyol erwylo erylwo erylow erywlo erywol eryowl eryolw
elrowy elroyw elrwoy elrwyo elrywo elryow elorwy eloryw elowry elowyr eloywr
eloyrw elwory elwoyr elwroy elwryo elwyro elwyor elyowr elyorw elywor elywro
elyrwo elyrow ewrloy ewrlyo ewroly ewroyl ewryol ewrylo ewlroy ewlryo ewlory
ewloyr ewlyor ewlyro ewolry ewolyr eworly eworyl ewoyrl ewoylr ewylor ewylro
ewyolr ewyorl ewyrol ewyrlo eyrlwo eyrlow eyrwlo eyrwol eyrowl eyrolw eylrwo
eylrow eylwro eylwor eylowr eylorw eywlro eywlor eywrlo eywrol eyworl eywolr
eyolwr eyolrw eyowlr eyowrl eyorwl eyorlw yorlew yorlwe yorelw yorewl yorwel
yorwle yolrew yolrwe yolerw yolewr yolwer yolwre yoelrw yoelwr yoerlw yoerwl
yoewrl yoewlr yowler yowlre yowelr yowerl yowrel yowrle yrolew yrolwe yroelw
yroewl yrowel yrowle yrloew yrlowe yrleow yrlewo yrlweo yrlwoe yrelow yrelwo
yreolw yreowl yrewol yrewlo yrwleo yrwloe yrwelo yrweol yrwoel yrwole ylroew
ylrowe ylreow ylrewo ylrweo ylrwoe ylorew ylorwe yloerw yloewr ylower ylowre
yleorw yleowr ylerow ylerwo ylewro ylewor ylwoer ylwore ylweor ylwero ylwreo
ylwroe yerlow yerlwo yerolw yerowl yerwol yerwlo yelrow yelrwo yelorw yelowr
yelwor yelwro yeolrw yeolwr yeorlw yeorwl yeowrl yeowlr yewlor yewlro yewolr
yeworl yewrol yewrlo ywrleo ywrloe ywrelo ywreol ywroel ywrole ywlreo ywlroe
ywlero ywleor ywloer ywlore ywelro ywelor ywerlo ywerol yweorl yweolr ywoler
ywolre ywoelr ywoerl yworel yworle

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History of cryptography
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