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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: wollny
cipher variations:
xpmmoz yqnnpa zrooqb aspprc btqqsd
currte dvssuf ewttvg fxuuwh gyvvxi
hzwwyj iaxxzk jbyyal kczzbm ldaacn
mebbdo nfccep ogddfq pheegr qiffhs
rjggit skhhju tliikv umjjlw vnkkmx

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: wollny
Cipher: dloomb

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: wollny
Cipher: BABAA ABBAB ABABA ABABA ABBAA BABBA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: wollny
cipher variations:
xpmmozpriiovhteeorzvaaonrxwwojjzssoftdkkoxlfggot
dhccopvjyyolnluuohfnqqodyqnnpaqsjjpwiuffpsawbbpo
syxxpkkattpguellpymghhpueiddpqwkzzpmomvvpigorrpe
zrooqbrtkkqxjvggqtbxccqptzyyqllbuuqhvfmmqznhiiqv
fjeeqrxlaaqnpnwwqjhpssqfaspprcsullrykwhhrucyddrq
uazzrmmcvvriwgnnraoijjrwgkffrsymbbroqoxxrkiqttrg
btqqsdtvmmszlxiisvdzeesrvbaasnndwwsjxhoosbpjkksx
hlggstznccsprpyysljruushcurrteuwnntamyjjtweaffts
wcbbtooexxtkyipptcqklltyimhhtuaoddtqsqzztmksvvti
dvssufvxooubnzkkuxfbggutxdccuppfyyulzjqqudrlmmuz
jniiuvbpeeurtraaunltwwujewttvgwyppvcoallvygchhvu
yeddvqqgzzvmakrrvesmnnvakojjvwcqffvsusbbvomuxxvk
fxuuwhxzqqwdpbmmwzhdiiwvzfeewrrhaawnblsswftnoowb
lpkkwxdrggwtvtccwpnvyywlgyvvxiyarrxeqcnnxaiejjxw
agffxssibbxocmttxguoppxcmqllxyeshhxuwuddxqowzzxm
hzwwyjzbssyfrdooybjfkkyxbhggyttjccypdnuuyhvpqqyd
nrmmyzftiiyvxveeyrpxaayniaxxzkacttzgseppzckgllzy
cihhzuukddzqeovvziwqrrzeosnnzagujjzwywffzsqybbzo
jbyyalbduuahtfqqadlhmmazdjiiavvleearfpwwajxrssaf
ptooabhvkkaxzxggatrzccapkczzbmcevvbiugrrbeminnba
ekjjbwwmffbsgqxxbkysttbgquppbciwllbyayhhbusaddbq
ldaacndfwwcjvhsscfnjoocbflkkcxxnggcthryyclztuuch
rvqqcdjxmmczbziicvtbeecrmebbdoegxxdkwittdgokppdc
gmlldyyohhduiszzdmauvvdiswrrdekynndacajjdwucffds
nfccepfhyyelxjuuehplqqedhnmmezzpiievjtaaenbvwwej
txsseflzooebdbkkexvdggetogddfqgizzfmykvvfiqmrrfe
ionnfaaqjjfwkubbfocwxxfkuyttfgmappfcecllfywehhfu
pheegrhjaagnzlwwgjrnssgfjpoogbbrkkgxlvccgpdxyygl
vzuughnbqqgdfdmmgzxfiigvqiffhsikbbhoamxxhksotthg
kqpphccsllhymwddhqeyzzhmwavvhiocrrhegennhaygjjhw
rjggitjlccipbnyyiltpuuihlrqqiddtmmiznxeeirfzaain
xbwwijpdssifhfooibzhkkixskhhjukmddjqcozzjmuqvvji
msrrjeeunnjaoyffjsgabbjoycxxjkqettjgigppjcailljy
tliikvlneekrdpaaknvrwwkjntsskffvookbpzggkthbcckp
zdyyklrfuukhjhqqkdbjmmkzumjjlwmofflseqbblowsxxlk
outtlggwpplcqahhluicddlqaezzlmsgvvlikirrlecknnla
vnkkmxnpggmtfrccmpxtyymlpvuumhhxqqmdrbiimvjdeemr
bfaamnthwwmjljssmfdloombwollnyoqhhnugsddnqyuzznm
qwvvniiyrrnescjjnwkeffnscgbbnouixxnkmkttngemppnc

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: wollny
Cipher: jbyyal

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: wollny
Cipher: 254313133345

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: wollny
method variations:
btqqsdgyvvximdaacoriffht

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
w o l l n y 
2 4 1 1 3 4 
5 3 3 3 3 5 
They are then read out in rows:
241134533335
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: wollny
Cipher: raspnx

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: wollny
method variations:
uccnsk ccnsku cnskuc
nskucc skuccn kuccns

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: wollny

all 720 cipher variations:
wollny wollyn wolnly wolnyl wolynl wolyln wollny wollyn wolnly wolnyl wolynl
wolyln wonlly wonlyl wonlly wonlyl wonyll wonyll woylnl woylln woynll woynll
woylnl woylln wlolny wlolyn wlonly wlonyl wloynl wloyln wllony wlloyn wllnoy
wllnyo wllyno wllyon wlnloy wlnlyo wlnoly wlnoyl wlnyol wlnylo wlylno wlylon
wlynlo wlynol wlyonl wlyoln wllony wlloyn wllnoy wllnyo wllyno wllyon wlolny
wlolyn wlonly wlonyl wloynl wloyln wlnoly wlnoyl wlnloy wlnlyo wlnylo wlnyol
wlyonl wlyoln wlynol wlynlo wlylno wlylon wnlloy wnllyo wnloly wnloyl wnlyol
wnlylo wnlloy wnllyo wnloly wnloyl wnlyol wnlylo wnolly wnolyl wnolly wnolyl
wnoyll wnoyll wnylol wnyllo wnyoll wnyoll wnylol wnyllo wyllno wyllon wylnlo
wylnol wylonl wyloln wyllno wyllon wylnlo wylnol wylonl wyloln wynllo wynlol
wynllo wynlol wynoll wynoll wyolnl wyolln wyonll wyonll wyolnl wyolln owllny
owllyn owlnly owlnyl owlynl owlyln owllny owllyn owlnly owlnyl owlynl owlyln
ownlly ownlyl ownlly ownlyl ownyll ownyll owylnl owylln owynll owynll owylnl
owylln olwlny olwlyn olwnly olwnyl olwynl olwyln ollwny ollwyn ollnwy ollnyw
ollynw ollywn olnlwy olnlyw olnwly olnwyl olnywl olnylw olylnw olylwn olynlw
olynwl olywnl olywln ollwny ollwyn ollnwy ollnyw ollynw ollywn olwlny olwlyn
olwnly olwnyl olwynl olwyln olnwly olnwyl olnlwy olnlyw olnylw olnywl olywnl
olywln olynwl olynlw olylnw olylwn onllwy onllyw onlwly onlwyl onlywl onlylw
onllwy onllyw onlwly onlwyl onlywl onlylw onwlly onwlyl onwlly onwlyl onwyll
onwyll onylwl onyllw onywll onywll onylwl onyllw oyllnw oyllwn oylnlw oylnwl
oylwnl oylwln oyllnw oyllwn oylnlw oylnwl oylwnl oylwln oynllw oynlwl oynllw
oynlwl oynwll oynwll oywlnl oywlln oywnll oywnll oywlnl oywlln lowlny lowlyn
lownly lownyl lowynl lowyln lolwny lolwyn lolnwy lolnyw lolynw lolywn lonlwy
lonlyw lonwly lonwyl lonywl lonylw loylnw loylwn loynlw loynwl loywnl loywln
lwolny lwolyn lwonly lwonyl lwoynl lwoyln lwlony lwloyn lwlnoy lwlnyo lwlyno
lwlyon lwnloy lwnlyo lwnoly lwnoyl lwnyol lwnylo lwylno lwylon lwynlo lwynol
lwyonl lwyoln llwony llwoyn llwnoy llwnyo llwyno llwyon llowny llowyn llonwy
llonyw lloynw lloywn llnowy llnoyw llnwoy llnwyo llnywo llnyow llyonw llyown
llynow llynwo llywno llywon lnwloy lnwlyo lnwoly lnwoyl lnwyol lnwylo lnlwoy
lnlwyo lnlowy lnloyw lnlyow lnlywo lnolwy lnolyw lnowly lnowyl lnoywl lnoylw
lnylow lnylwo lnyolw lnyowl lnywol lnywlo lywlno lywlon lywnlo lywnol lywonl
lywoln lylwno lylwon lylnwo lylnow lylonw lylown lynlwo lynlow lynwlo lynwol
lynowl lynolw lyolnw lyolwn lyonlw lyonwl lyownl lyowln lolwny lolwyn lolnwy
lolnyw lolynw lolywn lowlny lowlyn lownly lownyl lowynl lowyln lonwly lonwyl
lonlwy lonlyw lonylw lonywl loywnl loywln loynwl loynlw loylnw loylwn llowny
llowyn llonwy llonyw lloynw lloywn llwony llwoyn llwnoy llwnyo llwyno llwyon
llnwoy llnwyo llnowy llnoyw llnyow llnywo llywno llywon llynwo llynow llyonw
llyown lwlony lwloyn lwlnoy lwlnyo lwlyno lwlyon lwolny lwolyn lwonly lwonyl
lwoynl lwoyln lwnoly lwnoyl lwnloy lwnlyo lwnylo lwnyol lwyonl lwyoln lwynol
lwynlo lwylno lwylon lnlwoy lnlwyo lnlowy lnloyw lnlyow lnlywo lnwloy lnwlyo
lnwoly lnwoyl lnwyol lnwylo lnowly lnowyl lnolwy lnolyw lnoylw lnoywl lnywol
lnywlo lnyowl lnyolw lnylow lnylwo lylwno lylwon lylnwo lylnow lylonw lylown
lywlno lywlon lywnlo lywnol lywonl lywoln lynwlo lynwol lynlwo lynlow lynolw
lynowl lyownl lyowln lyonwl lyonlw lyolnw lyolwn nollwy nollyw nolwly nolwyl
nolywl nolylw nollwy nollyw nolwly nolwyl nolywl nolylw nowlly nowlyl nowlly
nowlyl nowyll nowyll noylwl noyllw noywll noywll noylwl noyllw nlolwy nlolyw
nlowly nlowyl nloywl nloylw nllowy nlloyw nllwoy nllwyo nllywo nllyow nlwloy
nlwlyo nlwoly nlwoyl nlwyol nlwylo nlylwo nlylow nlywlo nlywol nlyowl nlyolw
nllowy nlloyw nllwoy nllwyo nllywo nllyow nlolwy nlolyw nlowly nlowyl nloywl
nloylw nlwoly nlwoyl nlwloy nlwlyo nlwylo nlwyol nlyowl nlyolw nlywol nlywlo
nlylwo nlylow nwlloy nwllyo nwloly nwloyl nwlyol nwlylo nwlloy nwllyo nwloly
nwloyl nwlyol nwlylo nwolly nwolyl nwolly nwolyl nwoyll nwoyll nwylol nwyllo
nwyoll nwyoll nwylol nwyllo nyllwo nyllow nylwlo nylwol nylowl nylolw nyllwo
nyllow nylwlo nylwol nylowl nylolw nywllo nywlol nywllo nywlol nywoll nywoll
nyolwl nyollw nyowll nyowll nyolwl nyollw yollnw yollwn yolnlw yolnwl yolwnl
yolwln yollnw yollwn yolnlw yolnwl yolwnl yolwln yonllw yonlwl yonllw yonlwl
yonwll yonwll yowlnl yowlln yownll yownll yowlnl yowlln ylolnw ylolwn ylonlw
ylonwl ylownl ylowln yllonw yllown yllnow yllnwo yllwno yllwon ylnlow ylnlwo
ylnolw ylnowl ylnwol ylnwlo ylwlno ylwlon ylwnlo ylwnol ylwonl ylwoln yllonw
yllown yllnow yllnwo yllwno yllwon ylolnw ylolwn ylonlw ylonwl ylownl ylowln
ylnolw ylnowl ylnlow ylnlwo ylnwlo ylnwol ylwonl ylwoln ylwnol ylwnlo ylwlno
ylwlon ynllow ynllwo ynlolw ynlowl ynlwol ynlwlo ynllow ynllwo ynlolw ynlowl
ynlwol ynlwlo ynollw ynolwl ynollw ynolwl ynowll ynowll ynwlol ynwllo ynwoll
ynwoll ynwlol ynwllo ywllno ywllon ywlnlo ywlnol ywlonl ywloln ywllno ywllon
ywlnlo ywlnol ywlonl ywloln ywnllo ywnlol ywnllo ywnlol ywnoll ywnoll ywolnl
ywolln ywonll ywonll ywolnl ywolln

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History of cryptography
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