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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: wojnar
cipher variations:
xpkobs yqlpct zrmqdu asnrev btosfw
cuptgx dvquhy ewrviz fxswja gytxkb
hzuylc iavzmd jbwane kcxbof ldycpg
mezdqh nfaeri ogbfsj phcgtk qidhul
rjeivm skfjwn tlgkxo umhlyp vnimzq

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: wojnar
Cipher: dlqmzi

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: wojnar

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: wojnar
cipher variations:

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x

An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: wojnar
Cipher: jbwane

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: wojnar
Cipher: 254342331124

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: wojnar
method variations:

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
w o j n a r 
2 4 4 3 1 2 
5 3 2 3 1 4 
They are then read out in rows:
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: wojnar
Cipher: rofpmq

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Method #3

Plaintext: wojnar
method variations:
usmcfi smcfiu mcfius
cfiusm fiusmc iusmcf

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: wojnar

all 720 cipher variations:
wojnar wojnra wojanr wojarn wojran wojrna wonjar wonjra wonajr wonarj wonraj
wonrja woanjr woanrj woajnr woajrn woarjn woarnj wornaj wornja woranj worajn
worjan worjna wjonar wjonra wjoanr wjoarn wjoran wjorna wjnoar wjnora wjnaor
wjnaro wjnrao wjnroa wjanor wjanro wjaonr wjaorn wjaron wjarno wjrnao wjrnoa
wjrano wjraon wjroan wjrona wnjoar wnjora wnjaor wnjaro wnjrao wnjroa wnojar
wnojra wnoajr wnoarj wnoraj wnorja wnaojr wnaorj wnajor wnajro wnarjo wnaroj
wnroaj wnroja wnraoj wnrajo wnrjao wnrjoa wajnor wajnro wajonr wajorn wajron
wajrno wanjor wanjro wanojr wanorj wanroj wanrjo waonjr waonrj waojnr waojrn
waorjn waornj warnoj warnjo waronj warojn warjon warjno wrjnao wrjnoa wrjano
wrjaon wrjoan wrjona wrnjao wrnjoa wrnajo wrnaoj wrnoaj wrnoja wranjo wranoj
wrajno wrajon wraojn wraonj wronaj wronja wroanj wroajn wrojan wrojna owjnar
owjnra owjanr owjarn owjran owjrna ownjar ownjra ownajr ownarj ownraj ownrja
owanjr owanrj owajnr owajrn owarjn owarnj owrnaj owrnja owranj owrajn owrjan
owrjna ojwnar ojwnra ojwanr ojwarn ojwran ojwrna ojnwar ojnwra ojnawr ojnarw
ojnraw ojnrwa ojanwr ojanrw ojawnr ojawrn ojarwn ojarnw ojrnaw ojrnwa ojranw
ojrawn ojrwan ojrwna onjwar onjwra onjawr onjarw onjraw onjrwa onwjar onwjra
onwajr onwarj onwraj onwrja onawjr onawrj onajwr onajrw onarjw onarwj onrwaj
onrwja onrawj onrajw onrjaw onrjwa oajnwr oajnrw oajwnr oajwrn oajrwn oajrnw
oanjwr oanjrw oanwjr oanwrj oanrwj oanrjw oawnjr oawnrj oawjnr oawjrn oawrjn
oawrnj oarnwj oarnjw oarwnj oarwjn oarjwn oarjnw orjnaw orjnwa orjanw orjawn
orjwan orjwna ornjaw ornjwa ornajw ornawj ornwaj ornwja oranjw oranwj orajnw
orajwn orawjn orawnj orwnaj orwnja orwanj orwajn orwjan orwjna jownar jownra
jowanr jowarn jowran jowrna jonwar jonwra jonawr jonarw jonraw jonrwa joanwr
joanrw joawnr joawrn joarwn joarnw jornaw jornwa joranw jorawn jorwan jorwna
jwonar jwonra jwoanr jwoarn jworan jworna jwnoar jwnora jwnaor jwnaro jwnrao
jwnroa jwanor jwanro jwaonr jwaorn jwaron jwarno jwrnao jwrnoa jwrano jwraon
jwroan jwrona jnwoar jnwora jnwaor jnwaro jnwrao jnwroa jnowar jnowra jnoawr
jnoarw jnoraw jnorwa jnaowr jnaorw jnawor jnawro jnarwo jnarow jnroaw jnrowa
jnraow jnrawo jnrwao jnrwoa jawnor jawnro jawonr jaworn jawron jawrno janwor
janwro janowr janorw janrow janrwo jaonwr jaonrw jaownr jaowrn jaorwn jaornw
jarnow jarnwo jaronw jarown jarwon jarwno jrwnao jrwnoa jrwano jrwaon jrwoan
jrwona jrnwao jrnwoa jrnawo jrnaow jrnoaw jrnowa jranwo jranow jrawno jrawon
jraown jraonw jronaw jronwa jroanw jroawn jrowan jrowna nojwar nojwra nojawr
nojarw nojraw nojrwa nowjar nowjra nowajr nowarj nowraj nowrja noawjr noawrj
noajwr noajrw noarjw noarwj norwaj norwja norawj norajw norjaw norjwa njowar
njowra njoawr njoarw njoraw njorwa njwoar njwora njwaor njwaro njwrao njwroa
njawor njawro njaowr njaorw njarow njarwo njrwao njrwoa njrawo njraow njroaw
njrowa nwjoar nwjora nwjaor nwjaro nwjrao nwjroa nwojar nwojra nwoajr nwoarj
nworaj nworja nwaojr nwaorj nwajor nwajro nwarjo nwaroj nwroaj nwroja nwraoj
nwrajo nwrjao nwrjoa najwor najwro najowr najorw najrow najrwo nawjor nawjro
nawojr naworj nawroj nawrjo naowjr naowrj naojwr naojrw naorjw naorwj narwoj
narwjo narowj narojw narjow narjwo nrjwao nrjwoa nrjawo nrjaow nrjoaw nrjowa
nrwjao nrwjoa nrwajo nrwaoj nrwoaj nrwoja nrawjo nrawoj nrajwo nrajow nraojw
nraowj nrowaj nrowja nroawj nroajw nrojaw nrojwa aojnwr aojnrw aojwnr aojwrn
aojrwn aojrnw aonjwr aonjrw aonwjr aonwrj aonrwj aonrjw aownjr aownrj aowjnr
aowjrn aowrjn aowrnj aornwj aornjw aorwnj aorwjn aorjwn aorjnw ajonwr ajonrw
ajownr ajowrn ajorwn ajornw ajnowr ajnorw ajnwor ajnwro ajnrwo ajnrow ajwnor
ajwnro ajwonr ajworn ajwron ajwrno ajrnwo ajrnow ajrwno ajrwon ajrown ajronw
anjowr anjorw anjwor anjwro anjrwo anjrow anojwr anojrw anowjr anowrj anorwj
anorjw anwojr anworj anwjor anwjro anwrjo anwroj anrowj anrojw anrwoj anrwjo
anrjwo anrjow awjnor awjnro awjonr awjorn awjron awjrno awnjor awnjro awnojr
awnorj awnroj awnrjo awonjr awonrj awojnr awojrn aworjn awornj awrnoj awrnjo
awronj awrojn awrjon awrjno arjnwo arjnow arjwno arjwon arjown arjonw arnjwo
arnjow arnwjo arnwoj arnowj arnojw arwnjo arwnoj arwjno arwjon arwojn arwonj
aronwj aronjw arownj arowjn arojwn arojnw rojnaw rojnwa rojanw rojawn rojwan
rojwna ronjaw ronjwa ronajw ronawj ronwaj ronwja roanjw roanwj roajnw roajwn
roawjn roawnj rownaj rownja rowanj rowajn rowjan rowjna rjonaw rjonwa rjoanw
rjoawn rjowan rjowna rjnoaw rjnowa rjnaow rjnawo rjnwao rjnwoa rjanow rjanwo
rjaonw rjaown rjawon rjawno rjwnao rjwnoa rjwano rjwaon rjwoan rjwona rnjoaw
rnjowa rnjaow rnjawo rnjwao rnjwoa rnojaw rnojwa rnoajw rnoawj rnowaj rnowja
rnaojw rnaowj rnajow rnajwo rnawjo rnawoj rnwoaj rnwoja rnwaoj rnwajo rnwjao
rnwjoa rajnow rajnwo rajonw rajown rajwon rajwno ranjow ranjwo ranojw ranowj
ranwoj ranwjo raonjw raonwj raojnw raojwn raowjn raownj rawnoj rawnjo rawonj
rawojn rawjon rawjno rwjnao rwjnoa rwjano rwjaon rwjoan rwjona rwnjao rwnjoa
rwnajo rwnaoj rwnoaj rwnoja rwanjo rwanoj rwajno rwajon rwaojn rwaonj rwonaj
rwonja rwoanj rwoajn rwojan rwojna

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History of cryptography
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