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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: wisdom
cipher variations:
xjtepn ykufqo zlvgrp amwhsq bnxitr
coyjus dpzkvt eqalwu frbmxv gscnyw
htdozx iuepay jvfqbz kwgrca lxhsdb
myitec nzjufd oakvge pblwhf qcmxig
rdnyjh seozki tfpalj ugqbmk vhrcnl

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: wisdom
Cipher: drhwln

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: wisdom

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: wisdom
cipher variations:

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x

An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: wisdom
Cipher: jvfqbz

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: wisdom
Cipher: 254234414323

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: wisdom
method variations:

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
w i s d o m 
2 4 3 4 4 2 
5 2 4 1 3 3 
They are then read out in rows:
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: wisdom
Cipher: rsikdn

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Method #3

Plaintext: wisdom
method variations:
umtqhh mtqhhu tqhhum
qhhumt hhumtq humtqh

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: wisdom

all 720 cipher variations:
wisdom wisdmo wisodm wisomd wismod wismdo widsom widsmo widosm widoms widmos
widmso wiodsm wiodms wiosdm wiosmd wiomsd wiomds wimdos wimdso wimods wimosd
wimsod wimsdo wsidom wsidmo wsiodm wsiomd wsimod wsimdo wsdiom wsdimo wsdoim
wsdomi wsdmoi wsdmio wsodim wsodmi wsoidm wsoimd wsomid wsomdi wsmdoi wsmdio
wsmodi wsmoid wsmiod wsmido wdsiom wdsimo wdsoim wdsomi wdsmoi wdsmio wdisom
wdismo wdiosm wdioms wdimos wdimso wdoism wdoims wdosim wdosmi wdomsi wdomis
wdmios wdmiso wdmois wdmosi wdmsoi wdmsio wosdim wosdmi wosidm wosimd wosmid
wosmdi wodsim wodsmi wodism wodims wodmis wodmsi woidsm woidms woisdm woismd
woimsd woimds womdis womdsi womids womisd womsid womsdi wmsdoi wmsdio wmsodi
wmsoid wmsiod wmsido wmdsoi wmdsio wmdosi wmdois wmdios wmdiso wmodsi wmodis
wmosdi wmosid wmoisd wmoids wmidos wmidso wmiods wmiosd wmisod wmisdo iwsdom
iwsdmo iwsodm iwsomd iwsmod iwsmdo iwdsom iwdsmo iwdosm iwdoms iwdmos iwdmso
iwodsm iwodms iwosdm iwosmd iwomsd iwomds iwmdos iwmdso iwmods iwmosd iwmsod
iwmsdo iswdom iswdmo iswodm iswomd iswmod iswmdo isdwom isdwmo isdowm isdomw
isdmow isdmwo isodwm isodmw isowdm isowmd isomwd isomdw ismdow ismdwo ismodw
ismowd ismwod ismwdo idswom idswmo idsowm idsomw idsmow idsmwo idwsom idwsmo
idwosm idwoms idwmos idwmso idowsm idowms idoswm idosmw idomsw idomws idmwos
idmwso idmows idmosw idmsow idmswo iosdwm iosdmw ioswdm ioswmd iosmwd iosmdw
iodswm iodsmw iodwsm iodwms iodmws iodmsw iowdsm iowdms iowsdm iowsmd iowmsd
iowmds iomdws iomdsw iomwds iomwsd iomswd iomsdw imsdow imsdwo imsodw imsowd
imswod imswdo imdsow imdswo imdosw imdows imdwos imdwso imodsw imodws imosdw
imoswd imowsd imowds imwdos imwdso imwods imwosd imwsod imwsdo siwdom siwdmo
siwodm siwomd siwmod siwmdo sidwom sidwmo sidowm sidomw sidmow sidmwo siodwm
siodmw siowdm siowmd siomwd siomdw simdow simdwo simodw simowd simwod simwdo
swidom swidmo swiodm swiomd swimod swimdo swdiom swdimo swdoim swdomi swdmoi
swdmio swodim swodmi swoidm swoimd swomid swomdi swmdoi swmdio swmodi swmoid
swmiod swmido sdwiom sdwimo sdwoim sdwomi sdwmoi sdwmio sdiwom sdiwmo sdiowm
sdiomw sdimow sdimwo sdoiwm sdoimw sdowim sdowmi sdomwi sdomiw sdmiow sdmiwo
sdmoiw sdmowi sdmwoi sdmwio sowdim sowdmi sowidm sowimd sowmid sowmdi sodwim
sodwmi sodiwm sodimw sodmiw sodmwi soidwm soidmw soiwdm soiwmd soimwd soimdw
somdiw somdwi somidw somiwd somwid somwdi smwdoi smwdio smwodi smwoid smwiod
smwido smdwoi smdwio smdowi smdoiw smdiow smdiwo smodwi smodiw smowdi smowid
smoiwd smoidw smidow smidwo smiodw smiowd smiwod smiwdo diswom diswmo disowm
disomw dismow dismwo diwsom diwsmo diwosm diwoms diwmos diwmso diowsm diowms
dioswm diosmw diomsw diomws dimwos dimwso dimows dimosw dimsow dimswo dsiwom
dsiwmo dsiowm dsiomw dsimow dsimwo dswiom dswimo dswoim dswomi dswmoi dswmio
dsowim dsowmi dsoiwm dsoimw dsomiw dsomwi dsmwoi dsmwio dsmowi dsmoiw dsmiow
dsmiwo dwsiom dwsimo dwsoim dwsomi dwsmoi dwsmio dwisom dwismo dwiosm dwioms
dwimos dwimso dwoism dwoims dwosim dwosmi dwomsi dwomis dwmios dwmiso dwmois
dwmosi dwmsoi dwmsio doswim doswmi dosiwm dosimw dosmiw dosmwi dowsim dowsmi
dowism dowims dowmis dowmsi doiwsm doiwms doiswm doismw doimsw doimws domwis
domwsi domiws domisw domsiw domswi dmswoi dmswio dmsowi dmsoiw dmsiow dmsiwo
dmwsoi dmwsio dmwosi dmwois dmwios dmwiso dmowsi dmowis dmoswi dmosiw dmoisw
dmoiws dmiwos dmiwso dmiows dmiosw dmisow dmiswo oisdwm oisdmw oiswdm oiswmd
oismwd oismdw oidswm oidsmw oidwsm oidwms oidmws oidmsw oiwdsm oiwdms oiwsdm
oiwsmd oiwmsd oiwmds oimdws oimdsw oimwds oimwsd oimswd oimsdw osidwm osidmw
osiwdm osiwmd osimwd osimdw osdiwm osdimw osdwim osdwmi osdmwi osdmiw oswdim
oswdmi oswidm oswimd oswmid oswmdi osmdwi osmdiw osmwdi osmwid osmiwd osmidw
odsiwm odsimw odswim odswmi odsmwi odsmiw odiswm odismw odiwsm odiwms odimws
odimsw odwism odwims odwsim odwsmi odwmsi odwmis odmiws odmisw odmwis odmwsi
odmswi odmsiw owsdim owsdmi owsidm owsimd owsmid owsmdi owdsim owdsmi owdism
owdims owdmis owdmsi owidsm owidms owisdm owismd owimsd owimds owmdis owmdsi
owmids owmisd owmsid owmsdi omsdwi omsdiw omswdi omswid omsiwd omsidw omdswi
omdsiw omdwsi omdwis omdiws omdisw omwdsi omwdis omwsdi omwsid omwisd omwids
omidws omidsw omiwds omiwsd omiswd omisdw misdow misdwo misodw misowd miswod
miswdo midsow midswo midosw midows midwos midwso miodsw miodws miosdw mioswd
miowsd miowds miwdos miwdso miwods miwosd miwsod miwsdo msidow msidwo msiodw
msiowd msiwod msiwdo msdiow msdiwo msdoiw msdowi msdwoi msdwio msodiw msodwi
msoidw msoiwd msowid msowdi mswdoi mswdio mswodi mswoid mswiod mswido mdsiow
mdsiwo mdsoiw mdsowi mdswoi mdswio mdisow mdiswo mdiosw mdiows mdiwos mdiwso
mdoisw mdoiws mdosiw mdoswi mdowsi mdowis mdwios mdwiso mdwois mdwosi mdwsoi
mdwsio mosdiw mosdwi mosidw mosiwd moswid moswdi modsiw modswi modisw modiws
modwis modwsi moidsw moidws moisdw moiswd moiwsd moiwds mowdis mowdsi mowids
mowisd mowsid mowsdi mwsdoi mwsdio mwsodi mwsoid mwsiod mwsido mwdsoi mwdsio
mwdosi mwdois mwdios mwdiso mwodsi mwodis mwosdi mwosid mwoisd mwoids mwidos
mwidso mwiods mwiosd mwisod mwisdo

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History of cryptography
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