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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: wigger
cipher variations:
xjhhfs ykiigt zljjhu amkkiv bnlljw
commkx dpnnly eqoomz frppna gsqqob
htrrpc iussqd jvttre kwuusf lxvvtg
mywwuh nzxxvi oayywj pbzzxk qcaayl
rdbbzm seccan tfddbo ugeecp vhffdq

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: wigger
Cipher: drttvi

Read more ...

 

Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: wigger
Cipher: BABAA ABAAA AABBA AABBA AABAA BAAAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: wigger
cipher variations:
xjhhfspzttnahpffvizfrrdqrvddlyjlpptgtrnnjwlhzzre
dxllzmvnxxhundjjpcftvvxkykiigtqauuobiqggwjagsser
sweemzkmqquhusookxmiaasfeymmanwoyyivoekkqdguwwyl
zljjhurbvvpcjrhhxkbhttfstxffnalnrrvivtpplynjbbtg
fznnboxpzzjwpfllrehvxxzmamkkivscwwqdksiiylciuugt
uyggobmosswjwuqqmzokccuhgaoocpyqaakxqgmmsfiwyyan
bnlljwtdxxreltjjzmdjvvhuvzhhpcnpttxkxvrrnaplddvi
hbppdqzrbblyrhnntgjxzzbocommkxueyysfmukkanekwwiv
waiiqdoquuylywssobqmeewjicqqerasccmzsioouhkyaacp
dpnnlyvfzztgnvllboflxxjwxbjjreprvvzmzxttpcrnffxk
jdrrfsbtddnatjppvilzbbdqeqoomzwgaauhowmmcpgmyykx
yckksfqswwanayuuqdsoggylkessgtcueeobukqqwjmaccer
frppnaxhbbvipxnndqhnzzlyzdlltgrtxxbobzvvretphhzm
lftthudvffpcvlrrxknbddfsgsqqobyiccwjqyooerioaamz
aemmuhsuyycpcawwsfuqiianmguuivewggqdwmssyloceegt
htrrpczjddxkrzppfsjpbbnabfnnvitvzzdqdbxxtgvrjjbo
nhvvjwfxhhrexnttzmpdffhuiussqdakeeylsaqqgtkqccob
cgoowjuwaaerecyyuhwskkcpoiwwkxgyiisfyouuanqeggiv
jvttreblffzmtbrrhulrddpcdhppxkvxbbfsfdzzvixtlldq
pjxxlyhzjjtgzpvvborfhhjwkwuusfcmgganucssivmseeqd
eiqqylwyccgtgeaawjyummerqkyymziakkuhaqwwcpsgiikx
lxvvtgdnhhbovdttjwntffrefjrrzmxzddhuhfbbxkzvnnfs
rlzznajbllvibrxxdqthjjlymywwuheoiicpweuukxouggsf
gkssanyaeeivigccylawoogtsmaaobkcmmwjcsyyeruikkmz
nzxxvifpjjdqxfvvlypvhhtghlttbozbffjwjhddzmbxpphu
tnbbpcldnnxkdtzzfsvjllnaoayywjgqkkerygwwmzqwiiuh
imuucpacggkxkieeancyqqivuoccqdmeooyleuaagtwkmmob
pbzzxkhrllfszhxxnarxjjvijnvvdqbdhhlyljffbodzrrjw
vpddrenfppzmfvbbhuxlnnpcqcaaylismmgtaiyyobsykkwj
kowwerceiimzmkggcpeasskxwqeesfogqqangwccivymooqd
rdbbzmjtnnhubjzzpctzllxklpxxfsdfjjnanlhhdqfbttly
xrfftgphrrbohxddjwznppreseccankuooivckaaqduammyl
mqyygtegkkobomiiergcuumzysgguhqisscpiyeekxaoqqsf
tfddbolvppjwdlbbrevbnnzmnrzzhufhllpcpnjjfshdvvna
zthhvirjttdqjzfflybprrtgugeecpmwqqkxemccsfwcooan
osaaivgimmqdqokkgtiewwobauiiwjskuuerkaggmzcqssuh
vhffdqnxrrlyfnddtgxdppboptbbjwhjnnrerpllhujfxxpc
bvjjxktlvvfslbhhnadrttviwiggeroyssmzgoeeuhyeqqcp
qucckxikoosfsqmmivkgyyqdcwkkylumwwgtmciiobesuuwj

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: wigger
Cipher: jvttre

Read more ...

 

Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: wigger
Cipher: 254222225124

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: wigger
method variations:
bommkwgtrrpbmywwugrdbbzm

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
w i g g e r 
2 4 2 2 5 2 
5 2 2 2 1 4 
They are then read out in rows:
242252522214
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: wigger
Cipher: rgkkgq

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: wigger
method variations:
uggwfi ggwfiu gwfiug
wfiugg fiuggw iuggwf

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: wigger

all 720 cipher variations:
wigger wiggre wigegr wigerg wigreg wigrge wigger wiggre wigegr wigerg wigreg
wigrge wieggr wiegrg wieggr wiegrg wiergg wiergg wirgeg wirgge wiregg wiregg
wirgeg wirgge wgiger wgigre wgiegr wgierg wgireg wgirge wggier wggire wggeir
wggeri wggrei wggrie wgegir wgegri wgeigr wgeirg wgerig wgergi wgrgei wgrgie
wgregi wgreig wgrieg wgrige wggier wggire wggeir wggeri wggrei wggrie wgiger
wgigre wgiegr wgierg wgireg wgirge wgeigr wgeirg wgegir wgegri wgergi wgerig
wgrieg wgrige wgreig wgregi wgrgei wgrgie weggir weggri wegigr wegirg wegrig
wegrgi weggir weggri wegigr wegirg wegrig wegrgi weiggr weigrg weiggr weigrg
weirgg weirgg wergig werggi werigg werigg wergig werggi wrggei wrggie wrgegi
wrgeig wrgieg wrgige wrggei wrggie wrgegi wrgeig wrgieg wrgige wreggi wregig
wreggi wregig wreigg wreigg wrigeg wrigge wriegg wriegg wrigeg wrigge iwgger
iwggre iwgegr iwgerg iwgreg iwgrge iwgger iwggre iwgegr iwgerg iwgreg iwgrge
iweggr iwegrg iweggr iwegrg iwergg iwergg iwrgeg iwrgge iwregg iwregg iwrgeg
iwrgge igwger igwgre igwegr igwerg igwreg igwrge iggwer iggwre iggewr iggerw
iggrew iggrwe igegwr igegrw igewgr igewrg igerwg igergw igrgew igrgwe igregw
igrewg igrweg igrwge iggwer iggwre iggewr iggerw iggrew iggrwe igwger igwgre
igwegr igwerg igwreg igwrge igewgr igewrg igegwr igegrw igergw igerwg igrweg
igrwge igrewg igregw igrgew igrgwe ieggwr ieggrw iegwgr iegwrg iegrwg iegrgw
ieggwr ieggrw iegwgr iegwrg iegrwg iegrgw iewggr iewgrg iewggr iewgrg iewrgg
iewrgg iergwg ierggw ierwgg ierwgg iergwg ierggw irggew irggwe irgegw irgewg
irgweg irgwge irggew irggwe irgegw irgewg irgweg irgwge ireggw iregwg ireggw
iregwg irewgg irewgg irwgeg irwgge irwegg irwegg irwgeg irwgge giwger giwgre
giwegr giwerg giwreg giwrge gigwer gigwre gigewr gigerw gigrew gigrwe giegwr
giegrw giewgr giewrg gierwg giergw girgew girgwe giregw girewg girweg girwge
gwiger gwigre gwiegr gwierg gwireg gwirge gwgier gwgire gwgeir gwgeri gwgrei
gwgrie gwegir gwegri gweigr gweirg gwerig gwergi gwrgei gwrgie gwregi gwreig
gwrieg gwrige ggwier ggwire ggweir ggweri ggwrei ggwrie ggiwer ggiwre ggiewr
ggierw ggirew ggirwe ggeiwr ggeirw ggewir ggewri ggerwi ggeriw ggriew ggriwe
ggreiw ggrewi ggrwei ggrwie gewgir gewgri gewigr gewirg gewrig gewrgi gegwir
gegwri gegiwr gegirw gegriw gegrwi geigwr geigrw geiwgr geiwrg geirwg geirgw
gergiw gergwi gerigw geriwg gerwig gerwgi grwgei grwgie grwegi grweig grwieg
grwige grgwei grgwie grgewi grgeiw grgiew grgiwe gregwi gregiw grewgi grewig
greiwg greigw grigew grigwe griegw griewg griweg griwge gigwer gigwre gigewr
gigerw gigrew gigrwe giwger giwgre giwegr giwerg giwreg giwrge giewgr giewrg
giegwr giegrw giergw gierwg girweg girwge girewg giregw girgew girgwe ggiwer
ggiwre ggiewr ggierw ggirew ggirwe ggwier ggwire ggweir ggweri ggwrei ggwrie
ggewir ggewri ggeiwr ggeirw ggeriw ggerwi ggrwei ggrwie ggrewi ggreiw ggriew
ggriwe gwgier gwgire gwgeir gwgeri gwgrei gwgrie gwiger gwigre gwiegr gwierg
gwireg gwirge gweigr gweirg gwegir gwegri gwergi gwerig gwrieg gwrige gwreig
gwregi gwrgei gwrgie gegwir gegwri gegiwr gegirw gegriw gegrwi gewgir gewgri
gewigr gewirg gewrig gewrgi geiwgr geiwrg geigwr geigrw geirgw geirwg gerwig
gerwgi geriwg gerigw gergiw gergwi grgwei grgwie grgewi grgeiw grgiew grgiwe
grwgei grwgie grwegi grweig grwieg grwige grewgi grewig gregwi gregiw greigw
greiwg griweg griwge griewg griegw grigew grigwe eiggwr eiggrw eigwgr eigwrg
eigrwg eigrgw eiggwr eiggrw eigwgr eigwrg eigrwg eigrgw eiwggr eiwgrg eiwggr
eiwgrg eiwrgg eiwrgg eirgwg eirggw eirwgg eirwgg eirgwg eirggw egigwr egigrw
egiwgr egiwrg egirwg egirgw eggiwr eggirw eggwir eggwri eggrwi eggriw egwgir
egwgri egwigr egwirg egwrig egwrgi egrgwi egrgiw egrwgi egrwig egriwg egrigw
eggiwr eggirw eggwir eggwri eggrwi eggriw egigwr egigrw egiwgr egiwrg egirwg
egirgw egwigr egwirg egwgir egwgri egwrgi egwrig egriwg egrigw egrwig egrwgi
egrgwi egrgiw ewggir ewggri ewgigr ewgirg ewgrig ewgrgi ewggir ewggri ewgigr
ewgirg ewgrig ewgrgi ewiggr ewigrg ewiggr ewigrg ewirgg ewirgg ewrgig ewrggi
ewrigg ewrigg ewrgig ewrggi erggwi erggiw ergwgi ergwig ergiwg ergigw erggwi
erggiw ergwgi ergwig ergiwg ergigw erwggi erwgig erwggi erwgig erwigg erwigg
erigwg eriggw eriwgg eriwgg erigwg eriggw riggew riggwe rigegw rigewg rigweg
rigwge riggew riggwe rigegw rigewg rigweg rigwge rieggw riegwg rieggw riegwg
riewgg riewgg riwgeg riwgge riwegg riwegg riwgeg riwgge rgigew rgigwe rgiegw
rgiewg rgiweg rgiwge rggiew rggiwe rggeiw rggewi rggwei rggwie rgegiw rgegwi
rgeigw rgeiwg rgewig rgewgi rgwgei rgwgie rgwegi rgweig rgwieg rgwige rggiew
rggiwe rggeiw rggewi rggwei rggwie rgigew rgigwe rgiegw rgiewg rgiweg rgiwge
rgeigw rgeiwg rgegiw rgegwi rgewgi rgewig rgwieg rgwige rgweig rgwegi rgwgei
rgwgie reggiw reggwi regigw regiwg regwig regwgi reggiw reggwi regigw regiwg
regwig regwgi reiggw reigwg reiggw reigwg reiwgg reiwgg rewgig rewggi rewigg
rewigg rewgig rewggi rwggei rwggie rwgegi rwgeig rwgieg rwgige rwggei rwggie
rwgegi rwgeig rwgieg rwgige rweggi rwegig rweggi rwegig rweigg rweigg rwigeg
rwigge rwiegg rwiegg rwigeg rwigge

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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