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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: whiner
cipher variations:
xijofs yjkpgt zklqhu almriv bmnsjw
cnotkx dopuly epqvmz fqrwna grsxob
hstypc ituzqd juvare kvwbsf lwxctg
mxyduh nyzevi ozafwj pabgxk qbchyl
rcdizm sdejan tefkbo ufglcp vghmdq

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: whiner
Cipher: dsrmvi

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: whiner

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: whiner
cipher variations:

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x

An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: whiner
Cipher: juvare

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: whiner
Cipher: 253242335124

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: whiner
method variations:

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
w h i n e r 
2 3 4 3 5 2 
5 2 2 3 1 4 
They are then read out in rows:
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: whiner
Cipher: mokkmq

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Method #3

Plaintext: whiner
method variations:
prmxfi rmxfip mxfipr
xfiprm fiprmx iprmxf

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: whiner

all 720 cipher variations:
whiner whinre whienr whiern whiren whirne whnier whnire whneir whneri whnrei
whnrie whenir whenri wheinr wheirn wherin wherni whrnei whrnie whreni whrein
whrien whrine wihner wihnre wihenr wihern wihren wihrne winher winhre winehr
winerh winreh winrhe wienhr wienrh wiehnr wiehrn wierhn wiernh wirneh wirnhe
wirenh wirehn wirhen wirhne wniher wnihre wniehr wnierh wnireh wnirhe wnhier
wnhire wnheir wnheri wnhrei wnhrie wnehir wnehri wneihr wneirh wnerih wnerhi
wnrhei wnrhie wnrehi wnreih wnrieh wnrihe weinhr weinrh weihnr weihrn weirhn
weirnh wenihr wenirh wenhir wenhri wenrhi wenrih wehnir wehnri wehinr wehirn
wehrin wehrni wernhi wernih werhni werhin werihn werinh wrineh wrinhe wrienh
wriehn wrihen wrihne wrnieh wrnihe wrneih wrnehi wrnhei wrnhie wrenih wrenhi
wreinh wreihn wrehin wrehni wrhnei wrhnie wrheni wrhein wrhien wrhine hwiner
hwinre hwienr hwiern hwiren hwirne hwnier hwnire hwneir hwneri hwnrei hwnrie
hwenir hwenri hweinr hweirn hwerin hwerni hwrnei hwrnie hwreni hwrein hwrien
hwrine hiwner hiwnre hiwenr hiwern hiwren hiwrne hinwer hinwre hinewr hinerw
hinrew hinrwe hienwr hienrw hiewnr hiewrn hierwn hiernw hirnew hirnwe hirenw
hirewn hirwen hirwne hniwer hniwre hniewr hnierw hnirew hnirwe hnwier hnwire
hnweir hnweri hnwrei hnwrie hnewir hnewri hneiwr hneirw hneriw hnerwi hnrwei
hnrwie hnrewi hnreiw hnriew hnriwe heinwr heinrw heiwnr heiwrn heirwn heirnw
heniwr henirw henwir henwri henrwi henriw hewnir hewnri hewinr hewirn hewrin
hewrni hernwi herniw herwni herwin heriwn herinw hrinew hrinwe hrienw hriewn
hriwen hriwne hrniew hrniwe hrneiw hrnewi hrnwei hrnwie hreniw hrenwi hreinw
hreiwn hrewin hrewni hrwnei hrwnie hrweni hrwein hrwien hrwine ihwner ihwnre
ihwenr ihwern ihwren ihwrne ihnwer ihnwre ihnewr ihnerw ihnrew ihnrwe ihenwr
ihenrw ihewnr ihewrn iherwn ihernw ihrnew ihrnwe ihrenw ihrewn ihrwen ihrwne
iwhner iwhnre iwhenr iwhern iwhren iwhrne iwnher iwnhre iwnehr iwnerh iwnreh
iwnrhe iwenhr iwenrh iwehnr iwehrn iwerhn iwernh iwrneh iwrnhe iwrenh iwrehn
iwrhen iwrhne inwher inwhre inwehr inwerh inwreh inwrhe inhwer inhwre inhewr
inherw inhrew inhrwe inehwr inehrw inewhr inewrh inerwh inerhw inrhew inrhwe
inrehw inrewh inrweh inrwhe iewnhr iewnrh iewhnr iewhrn iewrhn iewrnh ienwhr
ienwrh ienhwr ienhrw ienrhw ienrwh iehnwr iehnrw iehwnr iehwrn iehrwn iehrnw
iernhw iernwh ierhnw ierhwn ierwhn ierwnh irwneh irwnhe irwenh irwehn irwhen
irwhne irnweh irnwhe irnewh irnehw irnhew irnhwe irenwh irenhw irewnh irewhn
irehwn irehnw irhnew irhnwe irhenw irhewn irhwen irhwne nhiwer nhiwre nhiewr
nhierw nhirew nhirwe nhwier nhwire nhweir nhweri nhwrei nhwrie nhewir nhewri
nheiwr nheirw nheriw nherwi nhrwei nhrwie nhrewi nhreiw nhriew nhriwe nihwer
nihwre nihewr niherw nihrew nihrwe niwher niwhre niwehr niwerh niwreh niwrhe
niewhr niewrh niehwr niehrw nierhw nierwh nirweh nirwhe nirewh nirehw nirhew
nirhwe nwiher nwihre nwiehr nwierh nwireh nwirhe nwhier nwhire nwheir nwheri
nwhrei nwhrie nwehir nwehri nweihr nweirh nwerih nwerhi nwrhei nwrhie nwrehi
nwreih nwrieh nwrihe neiwhr neiwrh neihwr neihrw neirhw neirwh newihr newirh
newhir newhri newrhi newrih nehwir nehwri nehiwr nehirw nehriw nehrwi nerwhi
nerwih nerhwi nerhiw nerihw neriwh nriweh nriwhe nriewh nriehw nrihew nrihwe
nrwieh nrwihe nrweih nrwehi nrwhei nrwhie nrewih nrewhi nreiwh nreihw nrehiw
nrehwi nrhwei nrhwie nrhewi nrheiw nrhiew nrhiwe ehinwr ehinrw ehiwnr ehiwrn
ehirwn ehirnw ehniwr ehnirw ehnwir ehnwri ehnrwi ehnriw ehwnir ehwnri ehwinr
ehwirn ehwrin ehwrni ehrnwi ehrniw ehrwni ehrwin ehriwn ehrinw eihnwr eihnrw
eihwnr eihwrn eihrwn eihrnw einhwr einhrw einwhr einwrh einrwh einrhw eiwnhr
eiwnrh eiwhnr eiwhrn eiwrhn eiwrnh eirnwh eirnhw eirwnh eirwhn eirhwn eirhnw
enihwr enihrw eniwhr eniwrh enirwh enirhw enhiwr enhirw enhwir enhwri enhrwi
enhriw enwhir enwhri enwihr enwirh enwrih enwrhi enrhwi enrhiw enrwhi enrwih
enriwh enrihw ewinhr ewinrh ewihnr ewihrn ewirhn ewirnh ewnihr ewnirh ewnhir
ewnhri ewnrhi ewnrih ewhnir ewhnri ewhinr ewhirn ewhrin ewhrni ewrnhi ewrnih
ewrhni ewrhin ewrihn ewrinh erinwh erinhw eriwnh eriwhn erihwn erihnw erniwh
ernihw ernwih ernwhi ernhwi ernhiw erwnih erwnhi erwinh erwihn erwhin erwhni
erhnwi erhniw erhwni erhwin erhiwn erhinw rhinew rhinwe rhienw rhiewn rhiwen
rhiwne rhniew rhniwe rhneiw rhnewi rhnwei rhnwie rheniw rhenwi rheinw rheiwn
rhewin rhewni rhwnei rhwnie rhweni rhwein rhwien rhwine rihnew rihnwe rihenw
rihewn rihwen rihwne rinhew rinhwe rinehw rinewh rinweh rinwhe rienhw rienwh
riehnw riehwn riewhn riewnh riwneh riwnhe riwenh riwehn riwhen riwhne rnihew
rnihwe rniehw rniewh rniweh rniwhe rnhiew rnhiwe rnheiw rnhewi rnhwei rnhwie
rnehiw rnehwi rneihw rneiwh rnewih rnewhi rnwhei rnwhie rnwehi rnweih rnwieh
rnwihe reinhw reinwh reihnw reihwn reiwhn reiwnh renihw reniwh renhiw renhwi
renwhi renwih rehniw rehnwi rehinw rehiwn rehwin rehwni rewnhi rewnih rewhni
rewhin rewihn rewinh rwineh rwinhe rwienh rwiehn rwihen rwihne rwnieh rwnihe
rwneih rwnehi rwnhei rwnhie rwenih rwenhi rweinh rweihn rwehin rwehni rwhnei
rwhnie rwheni rwhein rwhien rwhine

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History of cryptography
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