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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: wharff
cipher variations:
xibsgg yjcthh zkduii alevjj bmfwkk
cngxll dohymm epiznn fqjaoo grkbpp
hslcqq itmdrr juness kvoftt lwpguu
mxqhvv nyriww ozsjxx patkyy qbulzz
rcvmaa sdwnbb texocc ufypdd vgzqee

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: wharff
Cipher: dsziuu

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: wharff

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: wharff
cipher variations:

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x

An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: wharff
Cipher: juness

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: wharff
Cipher: 253211241212

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: wharff
method variations:

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
w h a r f f 
2 3 1 2 1 1 
5 2 1 4 2 2 
They are then read out in rows:
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: wharff
Cipher: mfakqg

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Method #3

Plaintext: wharff
method variations:
pbfdbg bfdbgp fdbgpb
dbgpbf bgpbfd gpbfdb

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: wharff

all 720 cipher variations:
wharff wharff whafrf whaffr whaffr whafrf whraff whraff whrfaf whrffa whrffa
whrfaf whfraf whfrfa whfarf whfafr whffar whffra whfrfa whfraf whffra whffar
whfafr whfarf wahrff wahrff wahfrf wahffr wahffr wahfrf warhff warhff warfhf
warffh warffh warfhf wafrhf wafrfh wafhrf wafhfr waffhr waffrh wafrfh wafrhf
waffrh waffhr wafhfr wafhrf wrahff wrahff wrafhf wraffh wraffh wrafhf wrhaff
wrhaff wrhfaf wrhffa wrhffa wrhfaf wrfhaf wrfhfa wrfahf wrfafh wrffah wrffha
wrfhfa wrfhaf wrffha wrffah wrfafh wrfahf wfarhf wfarfh wfahrf wfahfr wfafhr
wfafrh wfrahf wfrafh wfrhaf wfrhfa wfrfha wfrfah wfhraf wfhrfa wfharf wfhafr
wfhfar wfhfra wffrha wffrah wffhra wffhar wffahr wffarh wfarfh wfarhf wfafrh
wfafhr wfahfr wfahrf wfrafh wfrahf wfrfah wfrfha wfrhfa wfrhaf wffrah wffrha
wffarh wffahr wffhar wffhra wfhrfa wfhraf wfhfra wfhfar wfhafr wfharf hwarff
hwarff hwafrf hwaffr hwaffr hwafrf hwraff hwraff hwrfaf hwrffa hwrffa hwrfaf
hwfraf hwfrfa hwfarf hwfafr hwffar hwffra hwfrfa hwfraf hwffra hwffar hwfafr
hwfarf hawrff hawrff hawfrf hawffr hawffr hawfrf harwff harwff harfwf harffw
harffw harfwf hafrwf hafrfw hafwrf hafwfr haffwr haffrw hafrfw hafrwf haffrw
haffwr hafwfr hafwrf hrawff hrawff hrafwf hraffw hraffw hrafwf hrwaff hrwaff
hrwfaf hrwffa hrwffa hrwfaf hrfwaf hrfwfa hrfawf hrfafw hrffaw hrffwa hrfwfa
hrfwaf hrffwa hrffaw hrfafw hrfawf hfarwf hfarfw hfawrf hfawfr hfafwr hfafrw
hfrawf hfrafw hfrwaf hfrwfa hfrfwa hfrfaw hfwraf hfwrfa hfwarf hfwafr hfwfar
hfwfra hffrwa hffraw hffwra hffwar hffawr hffarw hfarfw hfarwf hfafrw hfafwr
hfawfr hfawrf hfrafw hfrawf hfrfaw hfrfwa hfrwfa hfrwaf hffraw hffrwa hffarw
hffawr hffwar hffwra hfwrfa hfwraf hfwfra hfwfar hfwafr hfwarf ahwrff ahwrff
ahwfrf ahwffr ahwffr ahwfrf ahrwff ahrwff ahrfwf ahrffw ahrffw ahrfwf ahfrwf
ahfrfw ahfwrf ahfwfr ahffwr ahffrw ahfrfw ahfrwf ahffrw ahffwr ahfwfr ahfwrf
awhrff awhrff awhfrf awhffr awhffr awhfrf awrhff awrhff awrfhf awrffh awrffh
awrfhf awfrhf awfrfh awfhrf awfhfr awffhr awffrh awfrfh awfrhf awffrh awffhr
awfhfr awfhrf arwhff arwhff arwfhf arwffh arwffh arwfhf arhwff arhwff arhfwf
arhffw arhffw arhfwf arfhwf arfhfw arfwhf arfwfh arffwh arffhw arfhfw arfhwf
arffhw arffwh arfwfh arfwhf afwrhf afwrfh afwhrf afwhfr afwfhr afwfrh afrwhf
afrwfh afrhwf afrhfw afrfhw afrfwh afhrwf afhrfw afhwrf afhwfr afhfwr afhfrw
affrhw affrwh affhrw affhwr affwhr affwrh afwrfh afwrhf afwfrh afwfhr afwhfr
afwhrf afrwfh afrwhf afrfwh afrfhw afrhfw afrhwf affrwh affrhw affwrh affwhr
affhwr affhrw afhrfw afhrwf afhfrw afhfwr afhwfr afhwrf rhawff rhawff rhafwf
rhaffw rhaffw rhafwf rhwaff rhwaff rhwfaf rhwffa rhwffa rhwfaf rhfwaf rhfwfa
rhfawf rhfafw rhffaw rhffwa rhfwfa rhfwaf rhffwa rhffaw rhfafw rhfawf rahwff
rahwff rahfwf rahffw rahffw rahfwf rawhff rawhff rawfhf rawffh rawffh rawfhf
rafwhf rafwfh rafhwf rafhfw raffhw raffwh rafwfh rafwhf raffwh raffhw rafhfw
rafhwf rwahff rwahff rwafhf rwaffh rwaffh rwafhf rwhaff rwhaff rwhfaf rwhffa
rwhffa rwhfaf rwfhaf rwfhfa rwfahf rwfafh rwffah rwffha rwfhfa rwfhaf rwffha
rwffah rwfafh rwfahf rfawhf rfawfh rfahwf rfahfw rfafhw rfafwh rfwahf rfwafh
rfwhaf rfwhfa rfwfha rfwfah rfhwaf rfhwfa rfhawf rfhafw rfhfaw rfhfwa rffwha
rffwah rffhwa rffhaw rffahw rffawh rfawfh rfawhf rfafwh rfafhw rfahfw rfahwf
rfwafh rfwahf rfwfah rfwfha rfwhfa rfwhaf rffwah rffwha rffawh rffahw rffhaw
rffhwa rfhwfa rfhwaf rfhfwa rfhfaw rfhafw rfhawf fharwf fharfw fhawrf fhawfr
fhafwr fhafrw fhrawf fhrafw fhrwaf fhrwfa fhrfwa fhrfaw fhwraf fhwrfa fhwarf
fhwafr fhwfar fhwfra fhfrwa fhfraw fhfwra fhfwar fhfawr fhfarw fahrwf fahrfw
fahwrf fahwfr fahfwr fahfrw farhwf farhfw farwhf farwfh farfwh farfhw fawrhf
fawrfh fawhrf fawhfr fawfhr fawfrh fafrwh fafrhw fafwrh fafwhr fafhwr fafhrw
frahwf frahfw frawhf frawfh frafwh frafhw frhawf frhafw frhwaf frhwfa frhfwa
frhfaw frwhaf frwhfa frwahf frwafh frwfah frwfha frfhwa frfhaw frfwha frfwah
frfawh frfahw fwarhf fwarfh fwahrf fwahfr fwafhr fwafrh fwrahf fwrafh fwrhaf
fwrhfa fwrfha fwrfah fwhraf fwhrfa fwharf fwhafr fwhfar fwhfra fwfrha fwfrah
fwfhra fwfhar fwfahr fwfarh ffarwh ffarhw ffawrh ffawhr ffahwr ffahrw ffrawh
ffrahw ffrwah ffrwha ffrhwa ffrhaw ffwrah ffwrha ffwarh ffwahr ffwhar ffwhra
ffhrwa ffhraw ffhwra ffhwar ffhawr ffharw fharfw fharwf fhafrw fhafwr fhawfr
fhawrf fhrafw fhrawf fhrfaw fhrfwa fhrwfa fhrwaf fhfraw fhfrwa fhfarw fhfawr
fhfwar fhfwra fhwrfa fhwraf fhwfra fhwfar fhwafr fhwarf fahrfw fahrwf fahfrw
fahfwr fahwfr fahwrf farhfw farhwf farfhw farfwh farwfh farwhf fafrhw fafrwh
fafhrw fafhwr fafwhr fafwrh fawrfh fawrhf fawfrh fawfhr fawhfr fawhrf frahfw
frahwf frafhw frafwh frawfh frawhf frhafw frhawf frhfaw frhfwa frhwfa frhwaf
frfhaw frfhwa frfahw frfawh frfwah frfwha frwhfa frwhaf frwfha frwfah frwafh
frwahf ffarhw ffarwh ffahrw ffahwr ffawhr ffawrh ffrahw ffrawh ffrhaw ffrhwa
ffrwha ffrwah ffhraw ffhrwa ffharw ffhawr ffhwar ffhwra ffwrha ffwrah ffwhra
ffwhar ffwahr ffwarh fwarfh fwarhf fwafrh fwafhr fwahfr fwahrf fwrafh fwrahf
fwrfah fwrfha fwrhfa fwrhaf fwfrah fwfrha fwfarh fwfahr fwfhar fwfhra fwhrfa
fwhraf fwhfra fwhfar fwhafr fwharf

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History of cryptography
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