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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: whacky
cipher variations:
xibdlz yjcema zkdfnb alegoc bmfhpd
cngiqe dohjrf epiksg fqjlth grkmui
hslnvj itmowk junpxl kvoqym lwprzn
mxqsao nyrtbp ozsucq patvdr qbuwes
rcvxft sdwygu texzhv ufyaiw vgzbjx

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: whacky
Cipher: dszxpb

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: whacky

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: whacky
cipher variations:

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x

An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: whacky
Cipher: junpxl

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: whacky
Cipher: 253211315245

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: whacky
method variations:

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
w h a c k y 
2 3 1 3 5 4 
5 2 1 1 2 5 
They are then read out in rows:
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: whacky
Cipher: mlukaw

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Method #3

Plaintext: whacky
method variations:
pblvrk blvrkp lvrkpb
vrkpbl rkpblv kpblvr

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: whacky

all 720 cipher variations:
whacky whacyk whakcy whakyc whaykc whayck whcaky whcayk whckay whckya whcyka
whcyak whkcay whkcya whkacy whkayc whkyac whkyca whycka whycak whykca whykac
whyakc whyack wahcky wahcyk wahkcy wahkyc wahykc wahyck wachky wachyk wackhy
wackyh wacykh wacyhk wakchy wakcyh wakhcy wakhyc wakyhc wakych wayckh waychk
waykch waykhc wayhkc wayhck wcahky wcahyk wcakhy wcakyh wcaykh wcayhk wchaky
wchayk wchkay wchkya wchyka wchyak wckhay wckhya wckahy wckayh wckyah wckyha
wcyhka wcyhak wcykha wcykah wcyakh wcyahk wkachy wkacyh wkahcy wkahyc wkayhc
wkaych wkcahy wkcayh wkchay wkchya wkcyha wkcyah wkhcay wkhcya wkhacy wkhayc
wkhyac wkhyca wkycha wkycah wkyhca wkyhac wkyahc wkyach wyackh wyachk wyakch
wyakhc wyahkc wyahck wycakh wycahk wyckah wyckha wychka wychak wykcah wykcha
wykach wykahc wykhac wykhca wyhcka wyhcak wyhkca wyhkac wyhakc wyhack hwacky
hwacyk hwakcy hwakyc hwaykc hwayck hwcaky hwcayk hwckay hwckya hwcyka hwcyak
hwkcay hwkcya hwkacy hwkayc hwkyac hwkyca hwycka hwycak hwykca hwykac hwyakc
hwyack hawcky hawcyk hawkcy hawkyc hawykc hawyck hacwky hacwyk hackwy hackyw
hacykw hacywk hakcwy hakcyw hakwcy hakwyc hakywc hakycw hayckw haycwk haykcw
haykwc haywkc haywck hcawky hcawyk hcakwy hcakyw hcaykw hcaywk hcwaky hcwayk
hcwkay hcwkya hcwyka hcwyak hckway hckwya hckawy hckayw hckyaw hckywa hcywka
hcywak hcykwa hcykaw hcyakw hcyawk hkacwy hkacyw hkawcy hkawyc hkaywc hkaycw
hkcawy hkcayw hkcway hkcwya hkcywa hkcyaw hkwcay hkwcya hkwacy hkwayc hkwyac
hkwyca hkycwa hkycaw hkywca hkywac hkyawc hkyacw hyackw hyacwk hyakcw hyakwc
hyawkc hyawck hycakw hycawk hyckaw hyckwa hycwka hycwak hykcaw hykcwa hykacw
hykawc hykwac hykwca hywcka hywcak hywkca hywkac hywakc hywack ahwcky ahwcyk
ahwkcy ahwkyc ahwykc ahwyck ahcwky ahcwyk ahckwy ahckyw ahcykw ahcywk ahkcwy
ahkcyw ahkwcy ahkwyc ahkywc ahkycw ahyckw ahycwk ahykcw ahykwc ahywkc ahywck
awhcky awhcyk awhkcy awhkyc awhykc awhyck awchky awchyk awckhy awckyh awcykh
awcyhk awkchy awkcyh awkhcy awkhyc awkyhc awkych awyckh awychk awykch awykhc
awyhkc awyhck acwhky acwhyk acwkhy acwkyh acwykh acwyhk achwky achwyk achkwy
achkyw achykw achywk ackhwy ackhyw ackwhy ackwyh ackywh ackyhw acyhkw acyhwk
acykhw acykwh acywkh acywhk akwchy akwcyh akwhcy akwhyc akwyhc akwych akcwhy
akcwyh akchwy akchyw akcyhw akcywh akhcwy akhcyw akhwcy akhwyc akhywc akhycw
akychw akycwh akyhcw akyhwc akywhc akywch aywckh aywchk aywkch aywkhc aywhkc
aywhck aycwkh aycwhk ayckwh ayckhw aychkw aychwk aykcwh aykchw aykwch aykwhc
aykhwc aykhcw ayhckw ayhcwk ayhkcw ayhkwc ayhwkc ayhwck chawky chawyk chakwy
chakyw chaykw chaywk chwaky chwayk chwkay chwkya chwyka chwyak chkway chkwya
chkawy chkayw chkyaw chkywa chywka chywak chykwa chykaw chyakw chyawk cahwky
cahwyk cahkwy cahkyw cahykw cahywk cawhky cawhyk cawkhy cawkyh cawykh cawyhk
cakwhy cakwyh cakhwy cakhyw cakyhw cakywh caywkh caywhk caykwh caykhw cayhkw
cayhwk cwahky cwahyk cwakhy cwakyh cwaykh cwayhk cwhaky cwhayk cwhkay cwhkya
cwhyka cwhyak cwkhay cwkhya cwkahy cwkayh cwkyah cwkyha cwyhka cwyhak cwykha
cwykah cwyakh cwyahk ckawhy ckawyh ckahwy ckahyw ckayhw ckaywh ckwahy ckwayh
ckwhay ckwhya ckwyha ckwyah ckhway ckhwya ckhawy ckhayw ckhyaw ckhywa ckywha
ckywah ckyhwa ckyhaw ckyahw ckyawh cyawkh cyawhk cyakwh cyakhw cyahkw cyahwk
cywakh cywahk cywkah cywkha cywhka cywhak cykwah cykwha cykawh cykahw cykhaw
cykhwa cyhwka cyhwak cyhkwa cyhkaw cyhakw cyhawk khacwy khacyw khawcy khawyc
khaywc khaycw khcawy khcayw khcway khcwya khcywa khcyaw khwcay khwcya khwacy
khwayc khwyac khwyca khycwa khycaw khywca khywac khyawc khyacw kahcwy kahcyw
kahwcy kahwyc kahywc kahycw kachwy kachyw kacwhy kacwyh kacywh kacyhw kawchy
kawcyh kawhcy kawhyc kawyhc kawych kaycwh kaychw kaywch kaywhc kayhwc kayhcw
kcahwy kcahyw kcawhy kcawyh kcaywh kcayhw kchawy kchayw kchway kchwya kchywa
kchyaw kcwhay kcwhya kcwahy kcwayh kcwyah kcwyha kcyhwa kcyhaw kcywha kcywah
kcyawh kcyahw kwachy kwacyh kwahcy kwahyc kwayhc kwaych kwcahy kwcayh kwchay
kwchya kwcyha kwcyah kwhcay kwhcya kwhacy kwhayc kwhyac kwhyca kwycha kwycah
kwyhca kwyhac kwyahc kwyach kyacwh kyachw kyawch kyawhc kyahwc kyahcw kycawh
kycahw kycwah kycwha kychwa kychaw kywcah kywcha kywach kywahc kywhac kywhca
kyhcwa kyhcaw kyhwca kyhwac kyhawc kyhacw yhackw yhacwk yhakcw yhakwc yhawkc
yhawck yhcakw yhcawk yhckaw yhckwa yhcwka yhcwak yhkcaw yhkcwa yhkacw yhkawc
yhkwac yhkwca yhwcka yhwcak yhwkca yhwkac yhwakc yhwack yahckw yahcwk yahkcw
yahkwc yahwkc yahwck yachkw yachwk yackhw yackwh yacwkh yacwhk yakchw yakcwh
yakhcw yakhwc yakwhc yakwch yawckh yawchk yawkch yawkhc yawhkc yawhck ycahkw
ycahwk ycakhw ycakwh ycawkh ycawhk ychakw ychawk ychkaw ychkwa ychwka ychwak
yckhaw yckhwa yckahw yckawh yckwah yckwha ycwhka ycwhak ycwkha ycwkah ycwakh
ycwahk ykachw ykacwh ykahcw ykahwc ykawhc ykawch ykcahw ykcawh ykchaw ykchwa
ykcwha ykcwah ykhcaw ykhcwa ykhacw ykhawc ykhwac ykhwca ykwcha ykwcah ykwhca
ykwhac ykwahc ykwach ywackh ywachk ywakch ywakhc ywahkc ywahck ywcakh ywcahk
ywckah ywckha ywchka ywchak ywkcah ywkcha ywkach ywkahc ywkhac ywkhca ywhcka
ywhcak ywhkca ywhkac ywhakc ywhack

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History of cryptography
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