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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: weewee
cipher variations:
xffxff yggygg zhhzhh aiiaii bjjbjj
ckkckk dlldll emmemm fnnfnn googoo
hpphpp iqqiqq jrrjrr ksskss lttltt
muumuu nvvnvv owwoww pxxpxx qyyqyy
rzzrzz saasaa tbbtbb uccucc vddvdd

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: weewee
Cipher: dvvdvv

Read more ...

 

Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: weewee
Cipher: BABAA AABAA AABAA BABAA AABAA AABAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: weewee
cipher variations:
xffxffpnnpnnhvvhvvzddzddrllrlljttjtttjjtjjlrrlrr
dzzdzzvhhvhhnppnppfxxfxxyggyggqooqooiwwiwwaeeaee
smmsmmkuukuuukkukkmssmsseaaeaawiiwiioqqoqqgyygyy
zhhzhhrpprppjxxjxxbffbfftnntnnlvvlvvvllvllnttntt
fbbfbbxjjxjjprrprrhzzhzzaiiaiisqqsqqkyykyycggcgg
uoouoomwwmwwwmmwmmouuouugccgccykkykkqssqssiaaiaa
bjjbjjtrrtrrlzzlzzdhhdhhvppvppnxxnxxxnnxnnpvvpvv
hddhddzllzllrttrttjbbjbbckkckkussussmaamaaeiieii
wqqwqqoyyoyyyooyooqwwqwwieeieeammammsuusuukcckcc
dlldllvttvttnbbnbbfjjfjjxrrxrrpzzpzzzppzpprxxrxx
jffjffbnnbnntvvtvvlddlddemmemmwuuwuuoccoccgkkgkk
yssyssqaaqaaaqqaqqsyysyykggkggcoocoouwwuwwmeemee
fnnfnnxvvxvvpddpddhllhllzttzttrbbrbbbrrbrrtzztzz
lhhlhhdppdppvxxvxxnffnffgoogooywwywwqeeqeeimmimm
auuauusccscccsscssuaauaamiimiieqqeqqwyywyyoggogg
hpphppzxxzxxrffrffjnnjnnbvvbvvtddtdddttdttvbbvbb
njjnjjfrrfrrxzzxzzphhphhiqqiqqayyayysggsggkookoo
cwwcwwueeueeeuueuuwccwccokkokkgssgssyaayaaqiiqii
jrrjrrbzzbzzthhthhlpplppdxxdxxvffvfffvvfvvxddxdd
pllpllhtthttzbbzbbrjjrjjkssksscaacaauiiuiimqqmqq
eyyeyywggwgggwwgwwyeeyeeqmmqmmiuuiuuaccaccskkskk
lttlttdbbdbbvjjvjjnrrnrrfzzfzzxhhxhhhxxhxxzffzff
rnnrnnjvvjvvbddbddtlltllmuumuuecceccwkkwkkossoss
gaagaayiiyiiiyyiyyaggaggsoosookwwkwwceeceeummumm
nvvnvvfddfddxllxllpttptthbbhbbzjjzjjjzzjzzbhhbhh
tpptpplxxlxxdffdffvnnvnnowwowwgeegeeymmymmquuquu
icciccakkakkkaakaaciiciiuqquqqmyymyyeggeggwoowoo
pxxpxxhffhffznnznnrvvrvvjddjddbllblllbblbbdjjdjj
vrrvrrnzznzzfhhfhhxppxppqyyqyyiggiggaooaooswwsww
keekeecmmcmmmccmccekkekkwsswssoaaoaagiigiiyqqyqq
rzzrzzjhhjhhbppbpptxxtxxlfflffdnndnnnddnddfllfll
xttxttpbbpbbhjjhjjzrrzrrsaasaakiikiicqqcqquyyuyy
mggmggeooeoooeeoeegmmgmmyuuyuuqccqccikkikkassass
tbbtbbljjljjdrrdrrvzzvzznhhnhhfppfpppffpffhnnhnn
zvvzvvrddrddjlljllbttbttuccuccmkkmkkessesswaawaa
oiioiigqqgqqqggqggiooiooawwawwseeseekmmkmmcuucuu
vddvddnllnllfttfttxbbxbbpjjpjjhrrhrrrhhrhhjppjpp
bxxbxxtfftfflnnlnndvvdvvweeweeommommguuguuyccycc
qkkqkkississsiisiikqqkqqcyycyyugguggmoomooewweww

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: weewee
Cipher: jrrjrr

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: weewee
Cipher: 255151255151

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: weewee
method variations:
bkkbkkgppgppmuumuurzzrzz

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
w e e w e e 
2 5 5 2 5 5 
5 1 1 5 1 1 
They are then read out in rows:
255255511511
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: weewee
Cipher: wkzeva

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: weewee
method variations:
zvfzvf vfzvfz fzvfzv
zvfzvf vfzvfz fzvfzv

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: weewee

all 720 cipher variations:
weewee weewee weeewe weeeew weeeew weeewe weweee weweee weweee weweee weweee
weweee weewee weewee weeewe weeeew weeeew weeewe weewee weewee weeewe weeeew
weeeew weeewe weewee weewee weeewe weeeew weeeew weeewe weweee weweee weweee
weweee weweee weweee weewee weewee weeewe weeeew weeeew weeewe weewee weewee
weeewe weeeew weeeew weeewe wweeee wweeee wweeee wweeee wweeee wweeee wweeee
wweeee wweeee wweeee wweeee wweeee wweeee wweeee wweeee wweeee wweeee wweeee
wweeee wweeee wweeee wweeee wweeee wweeee weewee weewee weeewe weeeew weeeew
weeewe weweee weweee weweee weweee weweee weweee weewee weewee weeewe weeeew
weeeew weeewe weewee weewee weeewe weeeew weeeew weeewe weewee weewee weeewe
weeeew weeeew weeewe weweee weweee weweee weweee weweee weweee weewee weewee
weeewe weeeew weeeew weeewe weewee weewee weeewe weeeew weeeew weeewe ewewee
ewewee eweewe eweeew eweeew eweewe ewweee ewweee ewweee ewweee ewweee ewweee
ewewee ewewee eweewe eweeew eweeew eweewe ewewee ewewee eweewe eweeew eweeew
eweewe eewwee eewwee eewewe eeweew eeweew eewewe eewwee eewwee eewewe eeweew
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ewweee ewweee ewweee ewweee ewewee ewewee eweewe eweeew eweeew eweewe ewewee
ewewee eweewe eweeew eweeew eweewe eeewwe eeewew eeewwe eeewew eeeeww eeeeww
eewewe eeweew eewwee eewwee eewewe eeweew eewwee eewwee eewewe eeweew eeweew
eewewe eeewwe eeewew eeewwe eeewew eeeeww eeeeww eeewew eeewwe eeeeww eeeeww
eeewew eeewwe eeweew eewewe eeweew eewewe eewwee eewwee eeewew eeewwe eeeeww
eeeeww eeewew eeewwe eewwee eewwee eewewe eeweew eeweew eewewe eewwee eewwee
eewewe eeweew eeweew eewewe eewwee eewwee eewewe eeweew eeweew eewewe eeewwe
eeewew eeewwe eeewew eeeeww eeeeww eeewew eeewwe eeeeww eeeeww eeewew eeewwe
ewewee ewewee eweewe eweeew eweeew eweewe ewweee ewweee ewweee ewweee ewweee
ewweee ewewee ewewee eweewe eweeew eweeew eweewe ewewee ewewee eweewe eweeew
eweeew eweewe ewweee ewweee ewweee ewweee ewweee ewweee ewewee ewewee eweewe
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eewwee eewewe eeweew eeweew eewewe eeewwe eeewew eeewwe eeewew eeeeww eeeeww
eeewew eeewwe eeeeww eeeeww eeewew eeewwe eewwee eewwee eewewe eeweew eeweew
eewewe eewwee eewwee eewewe eeweew eeweew eewewe eeewwe eeewew eeewwe eeewew
eeeeww eeeeww eeewew eeewwe eeeeww eeeeww eeewew eeewwe weewee weewee weeewe
weeeew weeeew weeewe weweee weweee weweee weweee weweee weweee weewee weewee
weeewe weeeew weeeew weeewe weewee weewee weeewe weeeew weeeew weeewe weewee
weewee weeewe weeeew weeeew weeewe weweee weweee weweee weweee weweee weweee
weewee weewee weeewe weeeew weeeew weeewe weewee weewee weeewe weeeew weeeew
weeewe wweeee wweeee wweeee wweeee wweeee wweeee wweeee wweeee wweeee wweeee
wweeee wweeee wweeee wweeee wweeee wweeee wweeee wweeee wweeee wweeee wweeee
wweeee wweeee wweeee weewee weewee weeewe weeeew weeeew weeewe weweee weweee
weweee weweee weweee weweee weewee weewee weeewe weeeew weeeew weeewe weewee
weewee weeewe weeeew weeeew weeewe weewee weewee weeewe weeeew weeeew weeewe
weweee weweee weweee weweee weweee weweee weewee weewee weeewe weeeew weeeew
weeewe weewee weewee weeewe weeeew weeeew weeewe eeewwe eeewew eeewwe eeewew
eeeeww eeeeww eewewe eeweew eewwee eewwee eewewe eeweew eewwee eewwee eewewe
eeweew eeweew eewewe eeewwe eeewew eeewwe eeewew eeeeww eeeeww eeewwe eeewew
eeewwe eeewew eeeeww eeeeww eewewe eeweew eewwee eewwee eewewe eeweew eewwee
eewwee eewewe eeweew eeweew eewewe eeewwe eeewew eeewwe eeewew eeeeww eeeeww
eweewe eweeew ewewee ewewee eweewe eweeew eweewe eweeew ewewee ewewee eweewe
eweeew ewweee ewweee ewweee ewweee ewweee ewweee eweewe eweeew ewewee ewewee
eweewe eweeew ewewee ewewee eweewe eweeew eweeew eweewe ewweee ewweee ewweee
ewweee ewweee ewweee ewewee ewewee eweewe eweeew eweeew eweewe ewewee ewewee
eweewe eweeew eweeew eweewe eeewwe eeewew eeewwe eeewew eeeeww eeeeww eewewe
eeweew eewwee eewwee eewewe eeweew eewwee eewwee eewewe eeweew eeweew eewewe
eeewwe eeewew eeewwe eeewew eeeeww eeeeww eeewew eeewwe eeeeww eeeeww eeewew
eeewwe eeweew eewewe eeweew eewewe eewwee eewwee eeewew eeewwe eeeeww eeeeww
eeewew eeewwe eewwee eewwee eewewe eeweew eeweew eewewe eeewew eeewwe eeeeww
eeeeww eeewew eeewwe eeweew eewewe eeweew eewewe eewwee eewwee eeewew eeewwe
eeeeww eeeeww eeewew eeewwe eewwee eewwee eewewe eeweew eeweew eewewe eweeew
eweewe eweeew eweewe ewewee ewewee eweeew eweewe eweeew eweewe ewewee ewewee
eweeew eweewe eweeew eweewe ewewee ewewee ewweee ewweee ewweee ewweee ewweee
ewweee eeewew eeewwe eeeeww eeeeww eeewew eeewwe eeweew eewewe eeweew eewewe
eewwee eewwee eeewew eeewwe eeeeww eeeeww eeewew eeewwe eewwee eewwee eewewe
eeweew eeweew eewewe ewewee ewewee eweewe eweeew eweeew eweewe ewweee ewweee
ewweee ewweee ewweee ewweee ewewee ewewee eweewe eweeew eweeew eweewe ewewee
ewewee eweewe eweeew eweeew eweewe

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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