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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: weeder
cipher variations:
xffefs yggfgt zhhghu aiihiv bjjijw
ckkjkx dllkly emmlmz fnnmna goonob
hppopc iqqpqd jrrqre kssrsf lttstg
muutuh nvvuvi owwvwj pxxwxk qyyxyl
rzzyzm saazan tbbabo uccbcp vddcdq

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: weeder
Cipher: dvvwvi

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: weeder
Cipher: BABAA AABAA AABAA AAABB AABAA BAAAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: weeder
cipher variations:
xffefspnnknahvvqvizddwdqrllclyjttitgtjjujwlrrare
dzzgzmvhhmhunppspcfxxyxkyggfgtqoolobiwwrwjaeexer
smmdmzkuujuhukkvkxmssbsfeaahanwiinivoqqtqdgyyzyl
zhhghurppmpcjxxsxkbffyfstnnenalvvkvivllwlynttctg
fbbiboxjjojwprrurehzzazmaiihivsqqnqdkyytylcggzgt
uoofobmwwlwjwmmxmzouuduhgccjcpykkpkxqssvsfiaaban
bjjijwtrrorelzzuzmdhhahuvppgpcnxxmxkxnnynapvvevi
hddkdqzllqlyrttwtgjbbcbockkjkxusspsfmaavaneiibiv
wqqhqdoyynylyoozobqwwfwjieelerammrmzsuuxuhkccdcp
dllklyvttqtgnbbwbofjjcjwxrrirepzzozmzppapcrxxgxk
jffmfsbnnsnatvvyvilddedqemmlmzwuuruhoccxcpgkkdkx
yssjsfqaapanaqqbqdsyyhylkggngtcootobuwwzwjmeefer
fnnmnaxvvsvipddydqhllelyzttktgrbbqbobrrcretzzizm
lhhohudppupcvxxaxknffgfsgoonobywwtwjqeezerimmfmz
auuluhsccrcpcssdsfuaajanmiipiveqqvqdwyybylogghgt
hppopczxxuxkrffafsjnngnabvvmvitddsdqdttetgvbbkbo
njjqjwfrrwrexzzczmphhihuiqqpqdayyvylsggbgtkoohob
cwwnwjueetereuufuhwcclcpokkrkxgssxsfyaadanqiijiv
jrrqrebzzwzmthhchulppipcdxxoxkvffufsfvvgvixddmdq
pllslyhttytgzbbeborjjkjwkssrsfcaaxanuiidivmqqjqd
eyypylwggvgtgwwhwjyeenerqmmtmziuuzuhaccfcpskklkx
lttstgdbbybovjjejwnrrkrefzzqzmxhhwhuhxxixkzffofs
rnnunajvvavibddgdqtllmlymuutuhecczcpwkkfkxosslsf
gaaranyiixiviyyjylaggpgtsoovobkwwbwjceeherummnmz
nvvuvifddadqxllglypttmtghbbsbozjjyjwjzzkzmbhhqhu
tppwpclxxcxkdffifsvnnonaowwvwjgeeberymmhmzquunuh
icctcpakkzkxkaalanciirivuqqxqdmyydyleggjgtwoopob
pxxwxkhffcfsznninarvvovijddudqbllalylbbmbodjjsjw
vrryrenzzezmfhhkhuxppqpcqyyxyliggdgtaoojobswwpwj
keevercmmbmzmccncpekktkxwsszsfoaafangiilivyqqrqd
rzzyzmjhhehubppkpctxxqxklffwfsdnncnanddodqflluly
xttatgpbbgbohjjmjwzrrsresaazankiifivcqqlqduyyryl
mggxgteoodoboeepergmmvmzyuubuhqcchcpikknkxasstsf
tbbaboljjgjwdrrmrevzzszmnhhyhufppepcpffqfshnnwna
zvvcvirddidqjllolybttutguccbcpmkkhkxessnsfwaatan
oiizivgqqfqdqggrgtiooxobawwdwjseejerkmmpmzcuuvuh
vddcdqnllilyfttotgxbbubopjjajwhrrgrerhhshujppypc
bxxexktffkfslnnqnadvvwviweederommjmzguupuhyccvcp
qkkbkxisshsfsiitivkqqzqdcyyfylugglgtmoorobewwxwj

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: weeder
Cipher: jrrqre

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: weeder
Cipher: 255151415124

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: weeder
method variations:
bkkikwgppopbmuutugrzzyzm

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
w e e d e r 
2 5 5 4 5 2 
5 1 1 1 1 4 
They are then read out in rows:
255452511114
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: weeder
Cipher: wukeaq

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: weeder
method variations:
zvqvfi vqvfiz qvfizv
vfizvq fizvqv izvqvf

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: weeder

all 720 cipher variations:
weeder weedre weeedr weeerd weered weerde wedeer wedere wedeer wedere wedree
wedree weeder weedre weeedr weeerd weered weerde werdee werdee werede wereed
wereed werede weeder weedre weeedr weeerd weered weerde wedeer wedere wedeer
wedere wedree wedree weeder weedre weeedr weeerd weered weerde werdee werdee
werede wereed wereed werede wdeeer wdeere wdeeer wdeere wderee wderee wdeeer
wdeere wdeeer wdeere wderee wderee wdeeer wdeere wdeeer wdeere wderee wderee
wdreee wdreee wdreee wdreee wdreee wdreee weeder weedre weeedr weeerd weered
weerde wedeer wedere wedeer wedere wedree wedree weeder weedre weeedr weeerd
weered weerde werdee werdee werede wereed wereed werede wredee wredee wreede
wreeed wreeed wreede wrdeee wrdeee wrdeee wrdeee wrdeee wrdeee wredee wredee
wreede wreeed wreeed wreede wredee wredee wreede wreeed wreeed wreede eweder
ewedre eweedr eweerd ewered ewerde ewdeer ewdere ewdeer ewdere ewdree ewdree
eweder ewedre eweedr eweerd ewered ewerde ewrdee ewrdee ewrede ewreed ewreed
ewrede eewder eewdre eewedr eewerd eewred eewrde eedwer eedwre eedewr eederw
eedrew eedrwe eeedwr eeedrw eeewdr eeewrd eeerwd eeerdw eerdew eerdwe eeredw
eerewd eerwed eerwde edewer edewre edeewr edeerw ederew ederwe edweer edwere
edweer edwere edwree edwree edewer edewre edeewr edeerw ederew ederwe edrwee
edrwee edrewe edreew edreew edrewe eeedwr eeedrw eeewdr eeewrd eeerwd eeerdw
eedewr eederw eedwer eedwre eedrwe eedrew eewder eewdre eewedr eewerd eewred
eewrde eerdwe eerdew eerwde eerwed eerewd eeredw eredew eredwe ereedw ereewd
erewed erewde erdeew erdewe erdeew erdewe erdwee erdwee eredew eredwe ereedw
ereewd erewed erewde erwdee erwdee erwede erweed erweed erwede eewder eewdre
eewedr eewerd eewred eewrde eedwer eedwre eedewr eederw eedrew eedrwe eeedwr
eeedrw eeewdr eeewrd eeerwd eeerdw eerdew eerdwe eeredw eerewd eerwed eerwde
eweder ewedre eweedr eweerd ewered ewerde ewdeer ewdere ewdeer ewdere ewdree
ewdree eweder ewedre eweedr eweerd ewered ewerde ewrdee ewrdee ewrede ewreed
ewreed ewrede edweer edwere edweer edwere edwree edwree edewer edewre edeewr
edeerw ederew ederwe edeewr edeerw edewer edewre ederwe ederew edreew edrewe
edreew edrewe edrwee edrwee eewder eewdre eewedr eewerd eewred eewrde eedwer
eedwre eedewr eederw eedrew eedrwe eeedwr eeedrw eeewdr eeewrd eeerwd eeerdw
eerdew eerdwe eeredw eerewd eerwed eerwde erwdee erwdee erwede erweed erweed
erwede erdwee erdwee erdewe erdeew erdeew erdewe eredwe eredew erewde erewed
ereewd ereedw eredew eredwe ereedw ereewd erewed erewde deewer deewre deeewr
deeerw deerew deerwe deweer dewere deweer dewere dewree dewree deewer deewre
deeewr deeerw deerew deerwe derwee derwee derewe dereew dereew derewe deewer
deewre deeewr deeerw deerew deerwe deweer dewere deweer dewere dewree dewree
deewer deewre deeewr deeerw deerew deerwe derwee derwee derewe dereew dereew
derewe dweeer dweere dweeer dweere dweree dweree dweeer dweere dweeer dweere
dweree dweree dweeer dweere dweeer dweere dweree dweree dwreee dwreee dwreee
dwreee dwreee dwreee deewer deewre deeewr deeerw deerew deerwe deweer dewere
deweer dewere dewree dewree deewer deewre deeewr deeerw deerew deerwe derwee
derwee derewe dereew dereew derewe drewee drewee dreewe dreeew dreeew dreewe
drweee drweee drweee drweee drweee drweee drewee drewee dreewe dreeew dreeew
dreewe drewee drewee dreewe dreeew dreeew dreewe eeedwr eeedrw eeewdr eeewrd
eeerwd eeerdw eedewr eederw eedwer eedwre eedrwe eedrew eewder eewdre eewedr
eewerd eewred eewrde eerdwe eerdew eerwde eerwed eerewd eeredw eeedwr eeedrw
eeewdr eeewrd eeerwd eeerdw eedewr eederw eedwer eedwre eedrwe eedrew eewder
eewdre eewedr eewerd eewred eewrde eerdwe eerdew eerwde eerwed eerewd eeredw
edeewr edeerw edewer edewre ederwe ederew edeewr edeerw edewer edewre ederwe
ederew edweer edwere edweer edwere edwree edwree edrewe edreew edrwee edrwee
edrewe edreew eweder ewedre eweedr eweerd ewered ewerde ewdeer ewdere ewdeer
ewdere ewdree ewdree eweder ewedre eweedr eweerd ewered ewerde ewrdee ewrdee
ewrede ewreed ewreed ewrede eredwe eredew erewde erewed ereewd ereedw erdewe
erdeew erdwee erdwee erdewe erdeew erwdee erwdee erwede erweed erweed erwede
eredwe eredew erewde erewed ereewd ereedw reedew reedwe reeedw reeewd reewed
reewde redeew redewe redeew redewe redwee redwee reedew reedwe reeedw reeewd
reewed reewde rewdee rewdee rewede reweed reweed rewede reedew reedwe reeedw
reeewd reewed reewde redeew redewe redeew redewe redwee redwee reedew reedwe
reeedw reeewd reewed reewde rewdee rewdee rewede reweed reweed rewede rdeeew
rdeewe rdeeew rdeewe rdewee rdewee rdeeew rdeewe rdeeew rdeewe rdewee rdewee
rdeeew rdeewe rdeeew rdeewe rdewee rdewee rdweee rdweee rdweee rdweee rdweee
rdweee reedew reedwe reeedw reeewd reewed reewde redeew redewe redeew redewe
redwee redwee reedew reedwe reeedw reeewd reewed reewde rewdee rewdee rewede
reweed reweed rewede rwedee rwedee rweede rweeed rweeed rweede rwdeee rwdeee
rwdeee rwdeee rwdeee rwdeee rwedee rwedee rweede rweeed rweeed rweede rwedee
rwedee rweede rweeed rweeed rweede

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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