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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: wedbed
cipher variations:
xfecfe ygfdgf zhgehg aihfih bjigji
ckjhkj dlkilk emljml fnmknm gonlon
hpompo iqpnqp jrqorq ksrpsr ltsqts
mutrut nvusvu owvtwv pxwuxw qyxvyx
rzywzy sazxaz tbayba ucbzcb vdcadc

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: wedbed
Cipher: dvwyvw

Read more ...

 

Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: wedbed
Cipher: BABAA AABAA AAABB AAAAB AABAA AAABB

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: wedbed
cipher variations:
xfecfepnkenkhvqgvqzdwidwrlcklcjtimtitjuqjulrasra
dzguzgvhmwhmnpsypsfxyaxyygfdgfqolfoliwrhwraexjex
smdlmdkujnujukvrkvmsbtsbeahvahwinxinoqtzqtgyzbyz
zhgehgrpmgpmjxsixsbfykfytnemnelvkovkvlwslwntcutc
fbiwbixjoyjopruaruhzaczaaihfihsqnhqnkytjytcgzlgz
uofnofmwlpwlwmxtmxoudvudgcjxcjykpzkpqsvbsviabdab
bjigjitroirolzukzudhamhavpgopgnxmqxmxnyunypvewve
hdkydkzlqalqrtwctwjbcebcckjhkjuspjspmavlaveibnib
wqhpqhoynrynyozvozqwfxwfielzelamrbmrsuxduxkcdfcd
dlkilkvtqktqnbwmbwfjcojcxriqripzoszozpawparxgyxg
jfmafmbnscnstvyevyldegdeemljmlwurlurocxncxgkdpkd
ysjrsjqaptapaqbxqbsyhzyhkgnbgncotdotuwzfwzmefhef
fnmknmxvsmvspdyodyhleqleztkstkrbqubqbrcyrctziazi
lhochodpuepuvxagxanfgifggonlonywtnwtqezpezimfrmf
aultulscrvcrcsdzsduajbajmipdipeqvfqvwybhyboghjgh
hpompozxuoxurfaqfajngsngbvmuvmtdswdsdteatevbkcbk
njqejqfrwgrwxzcizcphikhiiqpnqpayvpyvsgbrgbkohtoh
cwnvwnuetxeteufbufwcldclokrfkrgsxhsxyadjadqijlij
jrqorqbzwqzwthcshclpiupidxowxovfuyfufvgcvgxdmedm
plsglshtyityzbekberjkmjkksrpsrcaxraxuidtidmqjvqj
eypxypwgvzgvgwhdwhyenfenqmthmtiuzjuzacflcfsklnkl
ltsqtsdbysbyvjeujenrkwrkfzqyzqxhwahwhxiexizfogfo
rnuinujvakvabdgmdgtlmolmmutrutecztczwkfvkfoslxsl
garzaryixbixiyjfyjagphgpsovjovkwblwbcehnehumnpmn
nvusvufdaudaxlgwlgptmytmhbsabszjycjyjzkgzkbhqihq
tpwkpwlxcmxcdfiofivnoqnoowvtwvgebvebymhxmhqunzun
ictbctakzdkzkalhalcirjiruqxlqxmydnydegjpgjwoprop
pxwuxwhfcwfczniynirvoavojducdublaelalbmibmdjskjs
vrymrynzeozefhkqhkxpqspqqyxvyxigdxgdaojzojswpbwp
kevdevcmbfmbmcnjcnektlktwsznszoafpafgilrilyqrtqr
rzywzyjheyhebpkapktxqcxqlfwefwdncgncndokdoflumlu
xtaotapbgqbghjmsjmzrsurssazxazkifzifcqlbqluyrdyr
mgxfgxeodhodoeplepgmvnmvyubpubqchrchikntknastvst
tbaybaljgajgdrmcrmvzsezsnhyghyfpeipepfqmfqhnwonw
zvcqvcrdisdijloulobtuwtuucbzcbmkhbkhesndsnwatfat
oizhizgqfjqfqgrngrioxpoxawdrwdsejtejkmpvmpcuvxuv
vdcadcnlicliftoetoxbugbupjaijahrgkrgrhsohsjpyqpy
bxesxetfkufklnqwnqdvwyvwwedbedomjdmjgupfupycvhcv
qkbjkbishlshsitpitkqzrqzcyftyfuglvglmorxorewxzwx

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: wedbed
Cipher: jrqorq

Read more ...

 

Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: wedbed
Cipher: 255141215141

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: wedbed
method variations:
bkigkigpompomutrutrzywzy

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
w e d b e d 
2 5 4 2 5 4 
5 1 1 1 1 1 
They are then read out in rows:
254254511111
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: wedbed
Cipher: wiueaa

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: wedbed
method variations:
zqfvqf qfvqfz fvqfzq
vqfzqf qfzqfv fzqfvq

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: wedbed

all 720 cipher variations:
wedbed wedbde wedebd wededb weddeb weddbe webded webdde webedd webedd webded
webdde weebdd weebdd weedbd weeddb weeddb weedbd wedbed wedbde wedebd wededb
weddeb weddbe wdebed wdebde wdeebd wdeedb wdedeb wdedbe wdbeed wdbede wdbeed
wdbede wdbdee wdbdee wdebed wdebde wdeebd wdeedb wdedeb wdedbe wddbee wddbee
wddebe wddeeb wddeeb wddebe wbdeed wbdede wbdeed wbdede wbddee wbddee wbeded
wbedde wbeedd wbeedd wbeded wbedde wbeedd wbeedd wbeded wbedde wbedde wbeded
wbdeed wbdede wbdeed wbdede wbddee wbddee wedbed wedbde wedebd wededb weddeb
weddbe webded webdde webedd webedd webded webdde weebdd weebdd weedbd weeddb
weeddb weedbd wedbed wedbde wedebd wededb weddeb weddbe wddbee wddbee wddebe
wddeeb wddeeb wddebe wdbdee wdbdee wdbede wdbeed wdbeed wdbede wdebde wdebed
wdedbe wdedeb wdeedb wdeebd wdebed wdebde wdeebd wdeedb wdedeb wdedbe ewdbed
ewdbde ewdebd ewdedb ewddeb ewddbe ewbded ewbdde ewbedd ewbedd ewbded ewbdde
ewebdd ewebdd ewedbd eweddb eweddb ewedbd ewdbed ewdbde ewdebd ewdedb ewddeb
ewddbe edwbed edwbde edwebd edwedb edwdeb edwdbe edbwed edbwde edbewd edbedw
edbdew edbdwe edebwd edebdw edewbd edewdb ededwb ededbw eddbew eddbwe eddebw
eddewb eddweb eddwbe ebdwed ebdwde ebdewd ebdedw ebddew ebddwe ebwded ebwdde
ebwedd ebwedd ebwded ebwdde ebewdd ebewdd ebedwd ebeddw ebeddw ebedwd ebdwed
ebdwde ebdewd ebdedw ebddew ebddwe eedbwd eedbdw eedwbd eedwdb eeddwb eeddbw
eebdwd eebddw eebwdd eebwdd eebdwd eebddw eewbdd eewbdd eewdbd eewddb eewddb
eewdbd eedbwd eedbdw eedwbd eedwdb eeddwb eeddbw eddbew eddbwe eddebw eddewb
eddweb eddwbe edbdew edbdwe edbedw edbewd edbwed edbwde edebdw edebwd ededbw
ededwb edewdb edewbd edwbed edwbde edwebd edwedb edwdeb edwdbe dewbed dewbde
dewebd dewedb dewdeb dewdbe debwed debwde debewd debedw debdew debdwe deebwd
deebdw deewbd deewdb deedwb deedbw dedbew dedbwe dedebw dedewb dedweb dedwbe
dwebed dwebde dweebd dweedb dwedeb dwedbe dwbeed dwbede dwbeed dwbede dwbdee
dwbdee dwebed dwebde dweebd dweedb dwedeb dwedbe dwdbee dwdbee dwdebe dwdeeb
dwdeeb dwdebe dbweed dbwede dbweed dbwede dbwdee dbwdee dbewed dbewde dbeewd
dbeedw dbedew dbedwe dbeewd dbeedw dbewed dbewde dbedwe dbedew dbdeew dbdewe
dbdeew dbdewe dbdwee dbdwee dewbed dewbde dewebd dewedb dewdeb dewdbe debwed
debwde debewd debedw debdew debdwe deebwd deebdw deewbd deewdb deedwb deedbw
dedbew dedbwe dedebw dedewb dedweb dedwbe ddwbee ddwbee ddwebe ddweeb ddweeb
ddwebe ddbwee ddbwee ddbewe ddbeew ddbeew ddbewe ddebwe ddebew ddewbe ddeweb
ddeewb ddeebw ddebew ddebwe ddeebw ddeewb ddeweb ddewbe bedwed bedwde bedewd
bededw beddew beddwe bewded bewdde bewedd bewedd bewded bewdde beewdd beewdd
beedwd beeddw beeddw beedwd bedwed bedwde bedewd bededw beddew beddwe bdewed
bdewde bdeewd bdeedw bdedew bdedwe bdweed bdwede bdweed bdwede bdwdee bdwdee
bdewed bdewde bdeewd bdeedw bdedew bdedwe bddwee bddwee bddewe bddeew bddeew
bddewe bwdeed bwdede bwdeed bwdede bwddee bwddee bweded bwedde bweedd bweedd
bweded bwedde bweedd bweedd bweded bwedde bwedde bweded bwdeed bwdede bwdeed
bwdede bwddee bwddee bedwed bedwde bedewd bededw beddew beddwe bewded bewdde
bewedd bewedd bewded bewdde beewdd beewdd beedwd beeddw beeddw beedwd bedwed
bedwde bedewd bededw beddew beddwe bddwee bddwee bddewe bddeew bddeew bddewe
bdwdee bdwdee bdwede bdweed bdweed bdwede bdewde bdewed bdedwe bdedew bdeedw
bdeewd bdewed bdewde bdeewd bdeedw bdedew bdedwe eedbwd eedbdw eedwbd eedwdb
eeddwb eeddbw eebdwd eebddw eebwdd eebwdd eebdwd eebddw eewbdd eewbdd eewdbd
eewddb eewddb eewdbd eedbwd eedbdw eedwbd eedwdb eeddwb eeddbw edebwd edebdw
edewbd edewdb ededwb ededbw edbewd edbedw edbwed edbwde edbdwe edbdew edwbed
edwbde edwebd edwedb edwdeb edwdbe eddbwe eddbew eddwbe eddweb eddewb eddebw
ebdewd ebdedw ebdwed ebdwde ebddwe ebddew ebedwd ebeddw ebewdd ebewdd ebedwd
ebeddw ebwedd ebwedd ebwded ebwdde ebwdde ebwded ebdewd ebdedw ebdwed ebdwde
ebddwe ebddew ewdbed ewdbde ewdebd ewdedb ewddeb ewddbe ewbded ewbdde ewbedd
ewbedd ewbded ewbdde ewebdd ewebdd ewedbd eweddb eweddb ewedbd ewdbed ewdbde
ewdebd ewdedb ewddeb ewddbe eddbwe eddbew eddwbe eddweb eddewb eddebw edbdwe
edbdew edbwde edbwed edbewd edbedw edwbde edwbed edwdbe edwdeb edwedb edwebd
edebwd edebdw edewbd edewdb ededwb ededbw dedbew dedbwe dedebw dedewb dedweb
dedwbe debdew debdwe debedw debewd debwed debwde deebdw deebwd deedbw deedwb
deewdb deewbd dewbed dewbde dewebd dewedb dewdeb dewdbe ddebew ddebwe ddeebw
ddeewb ddeweb ddewbe ddbeew ddbewe ddbeew ddbewe ddbwee ddbwee ddebew ddebwe
ddeebw ddeewb ddeweb ddewbe ddwbee ddwbee ddwebe ddweeb ddweeb ddwebe dbdeew
dbdewe dbdeew dbdewe dbdwee dbdwee dbedew dbedwe dbeedw dbeewd dbewed dbewde
dbeedw dbeewd dbedew dbedwe dbewde dbewed dbweed dbwede dbweed dbwede dbwdee
dbwdee dedbew dedbwe dedebw dedewb dedweb dedwbe debdew debdwe debedw debewd
debwed debwde deebdw deebwd deedbw deedwb deewdb deewbd dewbed dewbde dewebd
dewedb dewdeb dewdbe dwdbee dwdbee dwdebe dwdeeb dwdeeb dwdebe dwbdee dwbdee
dwbede dwbeed dwbeed dwbede dwebde dwebed dwedbe dwedeb dweedb dweebd dwebed
dwebde dweebd dweedb dwedeb dwedbe

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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