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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: webste
cipher variations:
xfctuf ygduvg zhevwh aifwxi bjgxyj
ckhyzk dlizal emjabm fnkbcn golcdo
hpmdep iqnefq jrofgr kspghs ltqhit
muriju nvsjkv owtklw pxulmx qyvmny
rzwnoz saxopa tbypqb uczqrc vdarsd

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: webste
Cipher: dvyhgv

Read more ...

 

Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: webste
Cipher: BABAA AABAA AAAAB BAAAB BAABA AABAA

Read more ...

 

Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: webste
cipher variations:
xfctufpnedgnhvgnsvzdixedrlkhqljtmrcttjqlajlrsvmr
dzufyzvhwpkhnpyzwpfxajixygduvgqofehoiwhotwaejyfe
smlirmkunsduukrmbkmstwnseavgzawixqlioqzaxqgybkjy
zhevwhrpgfipjxipuxbfkzgftnmjsnlvotevvlsnclntuxot
fbwhabxjyrmjprabyrhzclkzaifwxisqhgjqkyjqvycglahg
uonktomwpufwwmtodmouvypugcxibcykzsnkqsbczsiadmla
bjgxyjtrihkrlzkrwzdhmbihvpolupnxqvgxxnupenpvwzqv
hdyjcdzlatolrtcdatjbenmbckhyzkusjilsmalsxaeincji
wqpmvqoyrwhyyovqfoqwxarwiezkdeambupmsudebukcfonc
dlizalvtkjmtnbmtybfjodkjxrqnwrpzsxizzpwrgprxybsx
jfalefbncvqntvefcvldgpodemjabmwulknuocnuzcgkpelk
ysroxsqatyjaaqxshqsyzctykgbmfgcodwrouwfgdwmehqpe
fnkbcnxvmlovpdovadhlqfmlztspytrbuzkbbrytirtzaduz
lhcnghdpexspvxghexnfirqfgolcdoywnmpwqepwbeimrgnm
autqzuscvalccszujsuabevamidohieqfytqwyhifyogjsrg
hpmdepzxonqxrfqxcfjnshonbvuravtdwbmddtavktvbcfwb
njepijfrgzurxzijgzphktshiqnefqayporysgrydgkotipo
cwvsbwuexcneeubwluwcdgxcokfqjkgshavsyajkhaqiluti
jrofgrbzqpszthszehlpujqpdxwtcxvfydoffvcxmvxdehyd
plgrklhtibwtzbklibrjmvujkspghscarqtauitafimqvkrq
eyxudywgzepggwdynwyefizeqmhslmiujcxuaclmjcsknwvk
ltqhitdbsrubvjubgjnrwlsrfzyvezxhafqhhxezoxzfgjaf
rnitmnjvkdyvbdmnkdtloxwlmurijuectsvcwkvchkosxmts
gazwfayibgriiyfapyaghkbgsojunokwlezwcenoleumpyxm
nvsjkvfdutwdxlwdilptynuthbaxgbzjchsjjzgbqzbhilch
tpkvoplxmfaxdfopmfvnqzynowtklwgevuxeymxejmquzovu
icbyhcakditkkahcracijmdiuqlwpqmyngbyegpqngworazo
pxulmxhfwvyfznyfknrvapwvjdczidblejullbidsbdjknej
vrmxqrnzohczfhqrohxpsbapqyvmnyigxwzgaozgloswbqxw
kedajecmfkvmmcjetceklofkwsnyrsoapidagirspiyqtcbq
rzwnozjhyxahbpahmptxcryxlfebkfdnglwnndkfudflmpgl
xtozstpbqjebhjstqjzrudcrsaxopakizybicqbinquydszy
mgfclgeohmxooelgvegmnqhmyupatuqcrkfcikturkasveds
tbypqbljazcjdrcjorvzetaznhgdmhfpinyppfmhwfhnorin
zvqbuvrdslgdjluvslbtwfetuczqrcmkbadkesdkpswafuba
oihenigqjozqqgnixgiopsjoawrcvwsetmhekmvwtmcuxgfu
vdarsdnlcbelftelqtxbgvcbpjifojhrkparrhojyhjpqtkp
bxsdwxtfuniflnwxundvyhgvwebsteomdcfmgufmruychwdc
qkjgpkislqbssipkzikqrulqcytexyugvojgmoxyvoewzihw

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: webste
Cipher: jrofgr

Read more ...

 

Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: webste
Cipher: 255121344451

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: webste
method variations:
bkgxykgpmcdpmurhiurzwnoz

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
w e b s t e 
2 5 2 3 4 5 
5 1 1 4 4 1 
They are then read out in rows:
252345511441
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: webste
Cipher: wmyeqd

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: webste
method variations:
zfltyf fltyfz ltyfzf
tyfzfl yfzflt fzflty

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: webste

all 720 cipher variations:
webste webset webtse webtes webets webest wesbte wesbet westbe westeb wesetb
wesebt wetsbe wetseb wetbse wetbes wetebs wetesb weestb weesbt weetsb weetbs
weebts weebst wbeste wbeset wbetse wbetes wbeets wbeest wbsete wbseet wbstee
wbstee wbsete wbseet wbtsee wbtsee wbtese wbtees wbtees wbtese wbeste wbeset
wbetse wbetes wbeets wbeest wsbete wsbeet wsbtee wsbtee wsbete wsbeet wsebte
wsebet wsetbe wseteb wseetb wseebt wstebe wsteeb wstbee wstbee wstebe wsteeb
wseetb wseebt wseteb wsetbe wsebte wsebet wtbsee wtbsee wtbese wtbees wtbees
wtbese wtsbee wtsbee wtsebe wtseeb wtseeb wtsebe wtesbe wteseb wtebse wtebes
wteebs wteesb wteseb wtesbe wteesb wteebs wtebes wtebse webste webset webtse
webtes webets webest wesbte wesbet westbe westeb wesetb wesebt wetsbe wetseb
wetbse wetbes wetebs wetesb weestb weesbt weetsb weetbs weebts weebst ewbste
ewbset ewbtse ewbtes ewbets ewbest ewsbte ewsbet ewstbe ewsteb ewsetb ewsebt
ewtsbe ewtseb ewtbse ewtbes ewtebs ewtesb ewestb ewesbt ewetsb ewetbs ewebts
ewebst ebwste ebwset ebwtse ebwtes ebwets ebwest ebswte ebswet ebstwe ebstew
ebsetw ebsewt ebtswe ebtsew ebtwse ebtwes ebtews ebtesw ebestw ebeswt ebetsw
ebetws ebewts ebewst esbwte esbwet esbtwe esbtew esbetw esbewt eswbte eswbet
eswtbe eswteb eswetb eswebt estwbe estweb estbwe estbew estebw estewb esewtb
esewbt esetwb esetbw esebtw esebwt etbswe etbsew etbwse etbwes etbews etbesw
etsbwe etsbew etswbe etsweb etsewb etsebw etwsbe etwseb etwbse etwbes etwebs
etwesb eteswb etesbw etewsb etewbs etebws etebsw eebstw eebswt eebtsw eebtws
eebwts eebwst eesbtw eesbwt eestbw eestwb eeswtb eeswbt eetsbw eetswb eetbsw
eetbws eetwbs eetwsb eewstb eewsbt eewtsb eewtbs eewbts eewbst bewste bewset
bewtse bewtes bewets bewest beswte beswet bestwe bestew besetw besewt betswe
betsew betwse betwes betews betesw beestw beeswt beetsw beetws beewts beewst
bweste bweset bwetse bwetes bweets bweest bwsete bwseet bwstee bwstee bwsete
bwseet bwtsee bwtsee bwtese bwtees bwtees bwtese bweste bweset bwetse bwetes
bweets bweest bswete bsweet bswtee bswtee bswete bsweet bsewte bsewet bsetwe
bsetew bseetw bseewt bstewe bsteew bstwee bstwee bstewe bsteew bseetw bseewt
bsetew bsetwe bsewte bsewet btwsee btwsee btwese btwees btwees btwese btswee
btswee btsewe btseew btseew btsewe bteswe btesew btewse btewes bteews bteesw
btesew bteswe bteesw bteews btewes btewse bewste bewset bewtse bewtes bewets
bewest beswte beswet bestwe bestew besetw besewt betswe betsew betwse betwes
betews betesw beestw beeswt beetsw beetws beewts beewst sebwte sebwet sebtwe
sebtew sebetw sebewt sewbte sewbet sewtbe sewteb sewetb sewebt setwbe setweb
setbwe setbew setebw setewb seewtb seewbt seetwb seetbw seebtw seebwt sbewte
sbewet sbetwe sbetew sbeetw sbeewt sbwete sbweet sbwtee sbwtee sbwete sbweet
sbtwee sbtwee sbtewe sbteew sbteew sbtewe sbewte sbewet sbetwe sbetew sbeetw
sbeewt swbete swbeet swbtee swbtee swbete swbeet swebte swebet swetbe sweteb
sweetb sweebt swtebe swteeb swtbee swtbee swtebe swteeb sweetb sweebt sweteb
swetbe swebte swebet stbwee stbwee stbewe stbeew stbeew stbewe stwbee stwbee
stwebe stweeb stweeb stwebe stewbe steweb stebwe stebew steebw steewb steweb
stewbe steewb steebw stebew stebwe sebwte sebwet sebtwe sebtew sebetw sebewt
sewbte sewbet sewtbe sewteb sewetb sewebt setwbe setweb setbwe setbew setebw
setewb seewtb seewbt seetwb seetbw seebtw seebwt tebswe tebsew tebwse tebwes
tebews tebesw tesbwe tesbew teswbe tesweb tesewb tesebw tewsbe tewseb tewbse
tewbes tewebs tewesb teeswb teesbw teewsb teewbs teebws teebsw tbeswe tbesew
tbewse tbewes tbeews tbeesw tbsewe tbseew tbswee tbswee tbsewe tbseew tbwsee
tbwsee tbwese tbwees tbwees tbwese tbeswe tbesew tbewse tbewes tbeews tbeesw
tsbewe tsbeew tsbwee tsbwee tsbewe tsbeew tsebwe tsebew tsewbe tseweb tseewb
tseebw tswebe tsweeb tswbee tswbee tswebe tsweeb tseewb tseebw tseweb tsewbe
tsebwe tsebew twbsee twbsee twbese twbees twbees twbese twsbee twsbee twsebe
twseeb twseeb twsebe twesbe tweseb twebse twebes tweebs tweesb tweseb twesbe
tweesb tweebs twebes twebse tebswe tebsew tebwse tebwes tebews tebesw tesbwe
tesbew teswbe tesweb tesewb tesebw tewsbe tewseb tewbse tewbes tewebs tewesb
teeswb teesbw teewsb teewbs teebws teebsw eebstw eebswt eebtsw eebtws eebwts
eebwst eesbtw eesbwt eestbw eestwb eeswtb eeswbt eetsbw eetswb eetbsw eetbws
eetwbs eetwsb eewstb eewsbt eewtsb eewtbs eewbts eewbst ebestw ebeswt ebetsw
ebetws ebewts ebewst ebsetw ebsewt ebstew ebstwe ebswte ebswet ebtsew ebtswe
ebtesw ebtews ebtwes ebtwse ebwste ebwset ebwtse ebwtes ebwets ebwest esbetw
esbewt esbtew esbtwe esbwte esbwet esebtw esebwt esetbw esetwb esewtb esewbt
estebw estewb estbew estbwe estwbe estweb eswetb eswebt eswteb eswtbe eswbte
eswbet etbsew etbswe etbesw etbews etbwes etbwse etsbew etsbwe etsebw etsewb
etsweb etswbe etesbw eteswb etebsw etebws etewbs etewsb etwseb etwsbe etwesb
etwebs etwbes etwbse ewbste ewbset ewbtse ewbtes ewbets ewbest ewsbte ewsbet
ewstbe ewsteb ewsetb ewsebt ewtsbe ewtseb ewtbse ewtbes ewtebs ewtesb ewestb
ewesbt ewetsb ewetbs ewebts ewebst

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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