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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: wbrown
cipher variations:
xcspxo ydtqyp zeurzq afvsar bgwtbs
chxuct diyvdu ejzwev fkaxfw glbygx
hmczhy indaiz joebja kpfckb lqgdlc
mrhemd nsifne otjgof pukhpg qvliqh
rwmjri sxnksj tyoltk uzpmul vaqnvm

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: wbrown
Cipher: dyildm

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: wbrown
Cipher: BABAA AAAAB BAAAA ABBAB BABAA ABBAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: wbrown
cipher variations:
xcspxopearpohgithoziqvzorkyxrojmgzjotqwdtolseflo
dumhdovwujvonyclnofaknfoydtqypqfbsqpihjuipajrwap
slzyspknhakpurxeupmtfgmpevniepwxvkwpozdmopgblogp
zeurzqrgctrqjikvjqbksxbqtmaztqloiblqvsyfvqnughnq
fwojfqxywlxqpaenpqhcmphqafvsarshdusrkjlwkrcltycr
unbaurmpjcmrwtzgwrovhiorgxpkgryzxmyrqbfoqridnqir
bgwtbstievtslkmxlsdmuzdsvocbvsnqkdnsxuahxspwijps
hyqlhszaynzsrcgprsjeorjschxuctujfwutmlnymtenvaet
wpdcwtorleotyvbiytqxjkqtizrmitabzoatsdhqstkfpskt
diyvduvkgxvunmoznufowbfuxqedxupsmfpuzwcjzuryklru
jasnjubcapbuteirtulgqtluejzwevwlhywvonpaovgpxcgv
yrfeyvqtngqvaxdkavszlmsvkbtokvcdbqcvufjsuvmhrumv
fkaxfwxmizxwpoqbpwhqydhwzsgfzwruohrwbyelbwtamntw
lcuplwdecrdwvgktvwnisvnwglbygxynjayxqprcqxirzeix
athgaxsvpisxczfmcxubnouxmdvqmxefdsexwhluwxojtwox
hmczhyzokbzyrqsdryjsafjybuihbytwqjtydagndyvcopvy
newrnyfgetfyximvxypkuxpyindaizaplcazsrteszktbgkz
cvjiczuxrkuzebhoezwdpqwzofxsozghfugzyjnwyzqlvyqz
joebjabqmdbatsuftaluchladwkjdavyslvafcipfaxeqrxa
pgytpahigvhazkoxzarmwzrakpfckbcrnecbutvgubmvdimb
exlkebwztmwbgdjqgbyfrsybqhzuqbijhwibalpyabsnxasb
lqgdlcdsofdcvuwhvcnwejncfymlfcxaunxchekrhczgstzc
riavrcjkixjcbmqzbctoybtcmrhemdetpgedwvxiwdoxfkod
gznmgdybvoydiflsidahtuadsjbwsdkljykdcnracdupzcud
nsifnefuqhfexwyjxepyglpehaonhezcwpzejgmtjebiuvbe
tkcxtelmkzledosbdevqadveotjgofgvrigfyxzkyfqzhmqf
ibpoifadxqafkhnukfcjvwcfuldyufmnlamfeptcefwrbewf
pukhpghwsjhgzyalzgrainrgjcqpjgbeyrbgliovlgdkwxdg
vmezvgnombngfqudfgxscfxgqvliqhixtkihazbmahsbjosh
kdrqkhcfzschmjpwmhelxyehwnfawhopncohgrveghytdgyh
rwmjrijyuljibacnbitckptilesrlidgatdinkqxnifmyzfi
xogbxipqodpihswfhizuehzisxnksjkzvmkjcbdocjudlquj
mftsmjehbuejolryojgnzagjyphcyjqrpeqjitxgijavfiaj
tyoltklawnlkdcepdkvemrvkngutnkficvfkpmszpkhoabhk
zqidzkrsqfrkjuyhjkbwgjbkuzpmulmbxomledfqelwfnswl
ohvuolgjdwglqntaqlipbcilarjealstrgslkvziklcxhkcl
vaqnvmncypnmfegrfmxgotxmpiwvpmhkexhmroubrmjqcdjm
bskfbmtushtmlwajlmdyildmwbrownodzqongfhsgnyhpuyn
qjxwqnilfyinspvcsnkrdeknctlgcnuvtiunmxbkmnezjmen

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: wbrown
Cipher: joebja

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: wbrown
Cipher: 252124432533

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: wbrown
method variations:
bgwtbsgmbygxmrgdmcrwmirh

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
w b r o w n 
2 2 2 4 2 3 
5 1 4 3 5 3 
They are then read out in rows:
222423514353
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: wbrown
Cipher: grmeop

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: wbrown
method variations:
kfthph fthphk thphkf
hphkft phkfth hkfthp

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: wbrown

all 720 cipher variations:
wbrown wbronw wbrwon wbrwno wbrnwo wbrnow wborwn wbornw wbowrn wbownr wbonwr
wbonrw wbworn wbwonr wbwron wbwrno wbwnro wbwnor wbnowr wbnorw wbnwor wbnwro
wbnrwo wbnrow wrbown wrbonw wrbwon wrbwno wrbnwo wrbnow wrobwn wrobnw wrowbn
wrownb wronwb wronbw wrwobn wrwonb wrwbon wrwbno wrwnbo wrwnob wrnowb wrnobw
wrnwob wrnwbo wrnbwo wrnbow worbwn worbnw worwbn worwnb wornwb wornbw wobrwn
wobrnw wobwrn wobwnr wobnwr wobnrw wowbrn wowbnr wowrbn wowrnb wownrb wownbr
wonbwr wonbrw wonwbr wonwrb wonrwb wonrbw wwrobn wwronb wwrbon wwrbno wwrnbo
wwrnob wworbn wwornb wwobrn wwobnr wwonbr wwonrb wwborn wwbonr wwbron wwbrno
wwbnro wwbnor wwnobr wwnorb wwnbor wwnbro wwnrbo wwnrob wnrowb wnrobw wnrwob
wnrwbo wnrbwo wnrbow wnorwb wnorbw wnowrb wnowbr wnobwr wnobrw wnworb wnwobr
wnwrob wnwrbo wnwbro wnwbor wnbowr wnborw wnbwor wnbwro wnbrwo wnbrow bwrown
bwronw bwrwon bwrwno bwrnwo bwrnow bworwn bwornw bwowrn bwownr bwonwr bwonrw
bwworn bwwonr bwwron bwwrno bwwnro bwwnor bwnowr bwnorw bwnwor bwnwro bwnrwo
bwnrow brwown brwonw brwwon brwwno brwnwo brwnow browwn brownw browwn brownw
bronww bronww brwown brwonw brwwon brwwno brwnwo brwnow brnoww brnoww brnwow
brnwwo brnwwo brnwow borwwn borwnw borwwn borwnw bornww bornww bowrwn bowrnw
bowwrn bowwnr bownwr bownrw bowwrn bowwnr bowrwn bowrnw bownrw bownwr bonwwr
bonwrw bonwwr bonwrw bonrww bonrww bwrown bwronw bwrwon bwrwno bwrnwo bwrnow
bworwn bwornw bwowrn bwownr bwonwr bwonrw bwworn bwwonr bwwron bwwrno bwwnro
bwwnor bwnowr bwnorw bwnwor bwnwro bwnrwo bwnrow bnroww bnroww bnrwow bnrwwo
bnrwwo bnrwow bnorww bnorww bnowrw bnowwr bnowwr bnowrw bnworw bnwowr bnwrow
bnwrwo bnwwro bnwwor bnwowr bnworw bnwwor bnwwro bnwrwo bnwrow rbwown rbwonw
rbwwon rbwwno rbwnwo rbwnow rbowwn rbownw rbowwn rbownw rbonww rbonww rbwown
rbwonw rbwwon rbwwno rbwnwo rbwnow rbnoww rbnoww rbnwow rbnwwo rbnwwo rbnwow
rwbown rwbonw rwbwon rwbwno rwbnwo rwbnow rwobwn rwobnw rwowbn rwownb rwonwb
rwonbw rwwobn rwwonb rwwbon rwwbno rwwnbo rwwnob rwnowb rwnobw rwnwob rwnwbo
rwnbwo rwnbow rowbwn rowbnw rowwbn rowwnb rownwb rownbw robwwn robwnw robwwn
robwnw robnww robnww rowbwn rowbnw rowwbn rowwnb rownwb rownbw ronbww ronbww
ronwbw ronwwb ronwwb ronwbw rwwobn rwwonb rwwbon rwwbno rwwnbo rwwnob rwowbn
rwownb rwobwn rwobnw rwonbw rwonwb rwbown rwbonw rwbwon rwbwno rwbnwo rwbnow
rwnobw rwnowb rwnbow rwnbwo rwnwbo rwnwob rnwowb rnwobw rnwwob rnwwbo rnwbwo
rnwbow rnowwb rnowbw rnowwb rnowbw rnobww rnobww rnwowb rnwobw rnwwob rnwwbo
rnwbwo rnwbow rnboww rnboww rnbwow rnbwwo rnbwwo rnbwow obrwwn obrwnw obrwwn
obrwnw obrnww obrnww obwrwn obwrnw obwwrn obwwnr obwnwr obwnrw obwwrn obwwnr
obwrwn obwrnw obwnrw obwnwr obnwwr obnwrw obnwwr obnwrw obnrww obnrww orbwwn
orbwnw orbwwn orbwnw orbnww orbnww orwbwn orwbnw orwwbn orwwnb orwnwb orwnbw
orwwbn orwwnb orwbwn orwbnw orwnbw orwnwb ornwwb ornwbw ornwwb ornwbw ornbww
ornbww owrbwn owrbnw owrwbn owrwnb owrnwb owrnbw owbrwn owbrnw owbwrn owbwnr
owbnwr owbnrw owwbrn owwbnr owwrbn owwrnb owwnrb owwnbr ownbwr ownbrw ownwbr
ownwrb ownrwb ownrbw owrwbn owrwnb owrbwn owrbnw owrnbw owrnwb owwrbn owwrnb
owwbrn owwbnr owwnbr owwnrb owbwrn owbwnr owbrwn owbrnw owbnrw owbnwr ownwbr
ownwrb ownbwr ownbrw ownrbw ownrwb onrwwb onrwbw onrwwb onrwbw onrbww onrbww
onwrwb onwrbw onwwrb onwwbr onwbwr onwbrw onwwrb onwwbr onwrwb onwrbw onwbrw
onwbwr onbwwr onbwrw onbwwr onbwrw onbrww onbrww wbrown wbronw wbrwon wbrwno
wbrnwo wbrnow wborwn wbornw wbowrn wbownr wbonwr wbonrw wbworn wbwonr wbwron
wbwrno wbwnro wbwnor wbnowr wbnorw wbnwor wbnwro wbnrwo wbnrow wrbown wrbonw
wrbwon wrbwno wrbnwo wrbnow wrobwn wrobnw wrowbn wrownb wronwb wronbw wrwobn
wrwonb wrwbon wrwbno wrwnbo wrwnob wrnowb wrnobw wrnwob wrnwbo wrnbwo wrnbow
worbwn worbnw worwbn worwnb wornwb wornbw wobrwn wobrnw wobwrn wobwnr wobnwr
wobnrw wowbrn wowbnr wowrbn wowrnb wownrb wownbr wonbwr wonbrw wonwbr wonwrb
wonrwb wonrbw wwrobn wwronb wwrbon wwrbno wwrnbo wwrnob wworbn wwornb wwobrn
wwobnr wwonbr wwonrb wwborn wwbonr wwbron wwbrno wwbnro wwbnor wwnobr wwnorb
wwnbor wwnbro wwnrbo wwnrob wnrowb wnrobw wnrwob wnrwbo wnrbwo wnrbow wnorwb
wnorbw wnowrb wnowbr wnobwr wnobrw wnworb wnwobr wnwrob wnwrbo wnwbro wnwbor
wnbowr wnborw wnbwor wnbwro wnbrwo wnbrow nbroww nbroww nbrwow nbrwwo nbrwwo
nbrwow nborww nborww nbowrw nbowwr nbowwr nbowrw nbworw nbwowr nbwrow nbwrwo
nbwwro nbwwor nbwowr nbworw nbwwor nbwwro nbwrwo nbwrow nrboww nrboww nrbwow
nrbwwo nrbwwo nrbwow nrobww nrobww nrowbw nrowwb nrowwb nrowbw nrwobw nrwowb
nrwbow nrwbwo nrwwbo nrwwob nrwowb nrwobw nrwwob nrwwbo nrwbwo nrwbow norbww
norbww norwbw norwwb norwwb norwbw nobrww nobrww nobwrw nobwwr nobwwr nobwrw
nowbrw nowbwr nowrbw nowrwb nowwrb nowwbr nowbwr nowbrw nowwbr nowwrb nowrwb
nowrbw nwrobw nwrowb nwrbow nwrbwo nwrwbo nwrwob nworbw nworwb nwobrw nwobwr
nwowbr nwowrb nwborw nwbowr nwbrow nwbrwo nwbwro nwbwor nwwobr nwworb nwwbor
nwwbro nwwrbo nwwrob nwrowb nwrobw nwrwob nwrwbo nwrbwo nwrbow nworwb nworbw
nwowrb nwowbr nwobwr nwobrw nwworb nwwobr nwwrob nwwrbo nwwbro nwwbor nwbowr
nwborw nwbwor nwbwro nwbrwo nwbrow

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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