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farruca

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jerold

hungar


Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: waubay
cipher variations:
xbvcbz ycwdca zdxedb aeyfec bfzgfd
cgahge dhbihf eicjig fjdkjh gkelki
hlfmlj imgnmk jnhonl koipom lpjqpn
mqkrqo nrlsrp osmtsq ptnutr quovus
rvpwvt swqxwu txryxv uyszyw vztazx

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: waubay
Cipher: dzfyzb

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: waubay
Cipher: BABAA AAAAA BAABB AAAAB AAAAA BABBA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: waubay
cipher variations:
xbvcbzpbjebvhbxgbrzblibnrbzkbjjbnmbftbpqbxlbdsbt
dbrubpvbfwblnbtybhfbhabdycwdcaqckfcwicyhcsacmjco
scalckkconcgucqrcymcetcuecsvcqwcgxcmocuzcigcibce
zdxedbrdlgdxjdzidtbdnkdptdbmdlldpodhvdrsdzndfudv
fdtwdrxdhydnpdvadjhdjcdfaeyfecsemheykeajeuceoleq
uecnemmeqpeiwesteaoegvewgeuxesyeizeoqewbekiekdeg
bfzgfdtfnifzlfbkfvdfpmfrvfdofnnfrqfjxftufbpfhwfx
hfvyftzfjafprfxcfljflefhcgahgeugojgamgclgwegqngs
wgepgoogsrgkyguvgcqgixgyigwzguagkbgqsgydgmkgmfgi
dhbihfvhpkhbnhdmhxfhrohtxhfqhpphtshlzhvwhdrhjyhz
jhxahvbhlchrthzehnlhnghjeicjigwiqlicoieniygispiu
yigriqqiutimaiwxiesikziakiybiwcimdisuiafiomiohik
fjdkjhxjrmjdpjfojzhjtqjvzjhsjrrjvujnbjxyjftjlajb
ljzcjxdjnejtvjbgjpnjpijlgkelkiyksnkeqkgpkaikurkw
akitksskwvkockyzkgukmbkcmkadkyekofkuwkchkqokqjkm
hlfmljzltolfrlhqlbjlvslxbljulttlxwlpdlzalhvlncld
nlbelzflpglvxldilrplrklnimgnmkamupmgsmirmckmwtmy
cmkvmuumyxmqemabmiwmodmeomcfmagmqhmwymejmsqmslmo
jnhonlbnvqnhtnjsndlnxunzdnlwnvvnzynrfnbcnjxnpenf
pndgnbhnrinxznfkntrntmnpkoipomcowroiuoktoemoyvoa
eomxowwoazosgocdokyoqfogqoehociosjoyaoglousounoq
lpjqpndpxspjvplupfnpzwpbfpnypxxpbapthpdeplzprgph
rpfipdjptkpzbphmpvtpvoprmqkrqoeqytqkwqmvqgoqaxqc
gqozqyyqcbquiqefqmaqshqisqgjqekqulqacqinqwuqwpqs
nrlsrpfrzurlxrnwrhprbyrdhrparzzrdcrvjrfgrnbrtirj
trhkrflrvmrbdrjorxvrxqrtosmtsqgsavsmysoxsiqsczse
isqbsaasedswksghsocsujskusilsgmswnsceskpsywsyrsu
ptnutrhtbwtnztpytjrtdatfjtrctbbtfetxlthitpdtvktl
vtjmthntxotdftlqtzxtzstvquovusiucxuoauqzuksuebug
kusduccugfuymuijuqeuwlumwuknuiouypuegumruayuatuw
rvpwvtjvdyvpbvravltvfcvhlvtevddvhgvznvjkvrfvxmvn
xvlovjpvzqvfhvnsvbzvbuvxswqxwukwezwqcwsbwmuwgdwi
mwufweewihwaowklwsgwynwoywmpwkqwarwgiwotwcawcvwy
txryxvlxfaxrdxtcxnvxhexjnxvgxffxjixbpxlmxthxzoxp
zxnqxlrxbsxhjxpuxdbxdwxzuyszywmygbyseyudyowyifyk
oywhyggykjycqymnyuiyapyqayorymsyctyikyqvyecyexya
vztazxnzhcztfzvezpxzjgzlpzxizhhzlkzdrznozvjzbqzr
bzpszntzduzjlzrwzfdzfyzbwaubayoaidaugawfaqyakham
qayjaiiamlaesaopawkacrascaqtaouaevakmasxageagzac

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: waubay
Cipher: jnhonl

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: waubay
Cipher: 251154211145

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: waubay
method variations:
bfzgfdglemlimqkrqorvpwvt

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
w a u b a y 
2 1 5 2 1 4 
5 1 4 1 1 5 
They are then read out in rows:
215214514115
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: waubay
Cipher: bkqedv

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: waubay
method variations:
eviaqk viaqke iaqkev
aqkevi qkevia keviaq

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: waubay

all 720 cipher variations:
waubay waubya wauaby wauayb wauyab wauyba wabuay wabuya wabauy wabayu wabyau
wabyua waabuy waabyu waauby waauyb waayub waaybu waybau waybua wayabu wayaub
wayuab wayuba wuabay wuabya wuaaby wuaayb wuayab wuayba wubaay wubaya wubaay
wubaya wubyaa wubyaa wuabay wuabya wuaaby wuaayb wuayab wuayba wuybaa wuybaa
wuyaba wuyaab wuyaab wuyaba wbuaay wbuaya wbuaay wbuaya wbuyaa wbuyaa wbauay
wbauya wbaauy wbaayu wbayau wbayua wbaauy wbaayu wbauay wbauya wbayua wbayau
wbyaau wbyaua wbyaau wbyaua wbyuaa wbyuaa waubay waubya wauaby wauayb wauyab
wauyba wabuay wabuya wabauy wabayu wabyau wabyua waabuy waabyu waauby waauyb
waayub waaybu waybau waybua wayabu wayaub wayuab wayuba wyubaa wyubaa wyuaba
wyuaab wyuaab wyuaba wybuaa wybuaa wybaua wybaau wybaau wybaua wyabua wyabau
wyauba wyauab wyaaub wyaabu wyabau wyabua wyaabu wyaaub wyauab wyauba awubay
awubya awuaby awuayb awuyab awuyba awbuay awbuya awbauy awbayu awbyau awbyua
awabuy awabyu awauby awauyb awayub awaybu awybau awybua awyabu awyaub awyuab
awyuba auwbay auwbya auwaby auwayb auwyab auwyba aubway aubwya aubawy aubayw
aubyaw aubywa auabwy auabyw auawby auawyb auaywb auaybw auybaw auybwa auyabw
auyawb auywab auywba abuway abuwya abuawy abuayw abuyaw abuywa abwuay abwuya
abwauy abwayu abwyau abwyua abawuy abawyu abauwy abauyw abayuw abaywu abywau
abywua abyawu abyauw abyuaw abyuwa aaubwy aaubyw aauwby aauwyb aauywb aauybw
aabuwy aabuyw aabwuy aabwyu aabywu aabyuw aawbuy aawbyu aawuby aawuyb aawyub
aawybu aaybwu aaybuw aaywbu aaywub aayuwb aayubw ayubaw ayubwa ayuabw ayuawb
ayuwab ayuwba aybuaw aybuwa aybauw aybawu aybwau aybwua ayabuw ayabwu ayaubw
ayauwb ayawub ayawbu aywbau aywbua aywabu aywaub aywuab aywuba uawbay uawbya
uawaby uawayb uawyab uawyba uabway uabwya uabawy uabayw uabyaw uabywa uaabwy
uaabyw uaawby uaawyb uaaywb uaaybw uaybaw uaybwa uayabw uayawb uaywab uaywba
uwabay uwabya uwaaby uwaayb uwayab uwayba uwbaay uwbaya uwbaay uwbaya uwbyaa
uwbyaa uwabay uwabya uwaaby uwaayb uwayab uwayba uwybaa uwybaa uwyaba uwyaab
uwyaab uwyaba ubwaay ubwaya ubwaay ubwaya ubwyaa ubwyaa ubaway ubawya ubaawy
ubaayw ubayaw ubaywa ubaawy ubaayw ubaway ubawya ubaywa ubayaw ubyaaw ubyawa
ubyaaw ubyawa ubywaa ubywaa uawbay uawbya uawaby uawayb uawyab uawyba uabway
uabwya uabawy uabayw uabyaw uabywa uaabwy uaabyw uaawby uaawyb uaaywb uaaybw
uaybaw uaybwa uayabw uayawb uaywab uaywba uywbaa uywbaa uywaba uywaab uywaab
uywaba uybwaa uybwaa uybawa uybaaw uybaaw uybawa uyabwa uyabaw uyawba uyawab
uyaawb uyaabw uyabaw uyabwa uyaabw uyaawb uyawab uyawba bauway bauwya bauawy
bauayw bauyaw bauywa bawuay bawuya bawauy bawayu bawyau bawyua baawuy baawyu
baauwy baauyw baayuw baaywu baywau baywua bayawu bayauw bayuaw bayuwa buaway
buawya buaawy buaayw buayaw buaywa buwaay buwaya buwaay buwaya buwyaa buwyaa
buaway buawya buaawy buaayw buayaw buaywa buywaa buywaa buyawa buyaaw buyaaw
buyawa bwuaay bwuaya bwuaay bwuaya bwuyaa bwuyaa bwauay bwauya bwaauy bwaayu
bwayau bwayua bwaauy bwaayu bwauay bwauya bwayua bwayau bwyaau bwyaua bwyaau
bwyaua bwyuaa bwyuaa bauway bauwya bauawy bauayw bauyaw bauywa bawuay bawuya
bawauy bawayu bawyau bawyua baawuy baawyu baauwy baauyw baayuw baaywu baywau
baywua bayawu bayauw bayuaw bayuwa byuwaa byuwaa byuawa byuaaw byuaaw byuawa
bywuaa bywuaa bywaua bywaau bywaau bywaua byawua byawau byauwa byauaw byaauw
byaawu byawau byawua byaawu byaauw byauaw byauwa aaubwy aaubyw aauwby aauwyb
aauywb aauybw aabuwy aabuyw aabwuy aabwyu aabywu aabyuw aawbuy aawbyu aawuby
aawuyb aawyub aawybu aaybwu aaybuw aaywbu aaywub aayuwb aayubw auabwy auabyw
auawby auawyb auaywb auaybw aubawy aubayw aubway aubwya aubywa aubyaw auwbay
auwbya auwaby auwayb auwyab auwyba auybwa auybaw auywba auywab auyawb auyabw
abuawy abuayw abuway abuwya abuywa abuyaw abauwy abauyw abawuy abawyu abaywu
abayuw abwauy abwayu abwuay abwuya abwyua abwyau abyawu abyauw abywau abywua
abyuwa abyuaw awubay awubya awuaby awuayb awuyab awuyba awbuay awbuya awbauy
awbayu awbyau awbyua awabuy awabyu awauby awauyb awayub awaybu awybau awybua
awyabu awyaub awyuab awyuba ayubwa ayubaw ayuwba ayuwab ayuawb ayuabw aybuwa
aybuaw aybwua aybwau aybawu aybauw aywbua aywbau aywuba aywuab aywaub aywabu
ayabwu ayabuw ayawbu ayawub ayauwb ayaubw yaubaw yaubwa yauabw yauawb yauwab
yauwba yabuaw yabuwa yabauw yabawu yabwau yabwua yaabuw yaabwu yaaubw yaauwb
yaawub yaawbu yawbau yawbua yawabu yawaub yawuab yawuba yuabaw yuabwa yuaabw
yuaawb yuawab yuawba yubaaw yubawa yubaaw yubawa yubwaa yubwaa yuabaw yuabwa
yuaabw yuaawb yuawab yuawba yuwbaa yuwbaa yuwaba yuwaab yuwaab yuwaba ybuaaw
ybuawa ybuaaw ybuawa ybuwaa ybuwaa ybauaw ybauwa ybaauw ybaawu ybawau ybawua
ybaauw ybaawu ybauaw ybauwa ybawua ybawau ybwaau ybwaua ybwaau ybwaua ybwuaa
ybwuaa yaubaw yaubwa yauabw yauawb yauwab yauwba yabuaw yabuwa yabauw yabawu
yabwau yabwua yaabuw yaabwu yaaubw yaauwb yaawub yaawbu yawbau yawbua yawabu
yawaub yawuab yawuba ywubaa ywubaa ywuaba ywuaab ywuaab ywuaba ywbuaa ywbuaa
ywbaua ywbaau ywbaau ywbaua ywabua ywabau ywauba ywauab ywaaub ywaabu ywabau
ywabua ywaabu ywaaub ywauab ywauba

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History of cryptography
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