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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: wahloo
cipher variations:
xbimpp ycjnqq zdkorr aelpss bfmqtt
cgnruu dhosvv eiptww fjquxx gkrvyy
hlswzz imtxaa jnuybb kovzcc lpwadd
mqxbee nrycff oszdgg ptaehh qubfii
rvcgjj swdhkk txeill uyfjmm vzgknn

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: wahloo
Cipher: dzsoll

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: wahloo

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: wahloo
cipher variations:

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x

An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: wahloo
Cipher: jnuybb

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: wahloo
Cipher: 251132134343

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: wahloo
method variations:

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
w a h l o o 
2 1 3 1 4 4 
5 1 2 3 3 3 
They are then read out in rows:
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: wahloo
Cipher: bctemn

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Method #3

Plaintext: wahloo
method variations:
elbssh lbsshe bsshel
sshelb shelbs helbss

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: wahloo

all 720 cipher variations:
wahloo wahloo waholo wahool wahool waholo walhoo walhoo waloho walooh walooh
waloho waolho waoloh waohlo waohol waoohl waoolh waoloh waolho waoolh waoohl
waohol waohlo whaloo whaloo whaolo whaool whaool whaolo whlaoo whlaoo whloao
whlooa whlooa whloao wholao wholoa whoalo whoaol whooal whoola wholoa wholao
whoola whooal whoaol whoalo wlhaoo wlhaoo wlhoao wlhooa wlhooa wlhoao wlahoo
wlahoo wlaoho wlaooh wlaooh wlaoho wloaho wloaoh wlohao wlohoa wlooha wlooah
wloaoh wloaho wlooah wlooha wlohoa wlohao wohlao wohloa wohalo wohaol wohoal
wohola wolhao wolhoa wolaho wolaoh woloah woloha woalho woaloh woahlo woahol
woaohl woaolh woolah woolha wooalh wooahl woohal woohla wohloa wohlao wohola
wohoal wohaol wohalo wolhoa wolhao woloha woloah wolaoh wolaho woolha woolah
woohla woohal wooahl wooalh woaloh woalho woaolh woaohl woahol woahlo awhloo
awhloo awholo awhool awhool awholo awlhoo awlhoo awloho awlooh awlooh awloho
awolho awoloh awohlo awohol awoohl awoolh awoloh awolho awoolh awoohl awohol
awohlo ahwloo ahwloo ahwolo ahwool ahwool ahwolo ahlwoo ahlwoo ahlowo ahloow
ahloow ahlowo aholwo aholow ahowlo ahowol ahoowl ahoolw aholow aholwo ahoolw
ahoowl ahowol ahowlo alhwoo alhwoo alhowo alhoow alhoow alhowo alwhoo alwhoo
alwoho alwooh alwooh alwoho alowho alowoh alohwo alohow aloohw aloowh alowoh
alowho aloowh aloohw alohow alohwo aohlwo aohlow aohwlo aohwol aohowl aoholw
aolhwo aolhow aolwho aolwoh aolowh aolohw aowlho aowloh aowhlo aowhol aowohl
aowolh aoolwh aoolhw aoowlh aoowhl aoohwl aoohlw aohlow aohlwo aoholw aohowl
aohwol aohwlo aolhow aolhwo aolohw aolowh aolwoh aolwho aoolhw aoolwh aoohlw
aoohwl aoowhl aoowlh aowloh aowlho aowolh aowohl aowhol aowhlo hawloo hawloo
hawolo hawool hawool hawolo halwoo halwoo halowo haloow haloow halowo haolwo
haolow haowlo haowol haoowl haoolw haolow haolwo haoolw haoowl haowol haowlo
hwaloo hwaloo hwaolo hwaool hwaool hwaolo hwlaoo hwlaoo hwloao hwlooa hwlooa
hwloao hwolao hwoloa hwoalo hwoaol hwooal hwoola hwoloa hwolao hwoola hwooal
hwoaol hwoalo hlwaoo hlwaoo hlwoao hlwooa hlwooa hlwoao hlawoo hlawoo hlaowo
hlaoow hlaoow hlaowo hloawo hloaow hlowao hlowoa hloowa hlooaw hloaow hloawo
hlooaw hloowa hlowoa hlowao howlao howloa howalo howaol howoal howola holwao
holwoa holawo holaow holoaw holowa hoalwo hoalow hoawlo hoawol hoaowl hoaolw
hoolaw hoolwa hooalw hooawl hoowal hoowla howloa howlao howola howoal howaol
howalo holwoa holwao holowa holoaw holaow holawo hoolwa hoolaw hoowla hoowal
hooawl hooalw hoalow hoalwo hoaolw hoaowl hoawol hoawlo lahwoo lahwoo lahowo
lahoow lahoow lahowo lawhoo lawhoo lawoho lawooh lawooh lawoho laowho laowoh
laohwo laohow laoohw laoowh laowoh laowho laoowh laoohw laohow laohwo lhawoo
lhawoo lhaowo lhaoow lhaoow lhaowo lhwaoo lhwaoo lhwoao lhwooa lhwooa lhwoao
lhowao lhowoa lhoawo lhoaow lhooaw lhoowa lhowoa lhowao lhoowa lhooaw lhoaow
lhoawo lwhaoo lwhaoo lwhoao lwhooa lwhooa lwhoao lwahoo lwahoo lwaoho lwaooh
lwaooh lwaoho lwoaho lwoaoh lwohao lwohoa lwooha lwooah lwoaoh lwoaho lwooah
lwooha lwohoa lwohao lohwao lohwoa lohawo lohaow lohoaw lohowa lowhao lowhoa
lowaho lowaoh lowoah lowoha loawho loawoh loahwo loahow loaohw loaowh loowah
loowha looawh looahw loohaw loohwa lohwoa lohwao lohowa lohoaw lohaow lohawo
lowhoa lowhao lowoha lowoah lowaoh lowaho loowha loowah loohwa loohaw looahw
looawh loawoh loawho loaowh loaohw loahow loahwo oahlwo oahlow oahwlo oahwol
oahowl oaholw oalhwo oalhow oalwho oalwoh oalowh oalohw oawlho oawloh oawhlo
oawhol oawohl oawolh oaolwh oaolhw oaowlh oaowhl oaohwl oaohlw ohalwo ohalow
ohawlo ohawol ohaowl ohaolw ohlawo ohlaow ohlwao ohlwoa ohlowa ohloaw ohwlao
ohwloa ohwalo ohwaol ohwoal ohwola oholwa oholaw ohowla ohowal ohoawl ohoalw
olhawo olhaow olhwao olhwoa olhowa olhoaw olahwo olahow olawho olawoh olaowh
olaohw olwaho olwaoh olwhao olwhoa olwoha olwoah oloawh oloahw olowah olowha
olohwa olohaw owhlao owhloa owhalo owhaol owhoal owhola owlhao owlhoa owlaho
owlaoh owloah owloha owalho owaloh owahlo owahol owaohl owaolh owolah owolha
owoalh owoahl owohal owohla oohlwa oohlaw oohwla oohwal oohawl oohalw oolhwa
oolhaw oolwha oolwah oolawh oolahw oowlha oowlah oowhla oowhal oowahl oowalh
ooalwh ooalhw ooawlh ooawhl ooahwl ooahlw oahlow oahlwo oaholw oahowl oahwol
oahwlo oalhow oalhwo oalohw oalowh oalwoh oalwho oaolhw oaolwh oaohlw oaohwl
oaowhl oaowlh oawloh oawlho oawolh oawohl oawhol oawhlo ohalow ohalwo ohaolw
ohaowl ohawol ohawlo ohlaow ohlawo ohloaw ohlowa ohlwoa ohlwao oholaw oholwa
ohoalw ohoawl ohowal ohowla ohwloa ohwlao ohwola ohwoal ohwaol ohwalo olhaow
olhawo olhoaw olhowa olhwoa olhwao olahow olahwo olaohw olaowh olawoh olawho
oloahw oloawh olohaw olohwa olowha olowah olwaoh olwaho olwoah olwoha olwhoa
olwhao oohlaw oohlwa oohalw oohawl oohwal oohwla oolhaw oolhwa oolahw oolawh
oolwah oolwha ooalhw ooalwh ooahlw ooahwl ooawhl ooawlh oowlah oowlha oowalh
oowahl oowhal oowhla owhloa owhlao owhola owhoal owhaol owhalo owlhoa owlhao
owloha owloah owlaoh owlaho owolha owolah owohla owohal owoahl owoalh owaloh
owalho owaolh owaohl owahol owahlo

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History of cryptography
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