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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: wagers
cipher variations:
xbhfst ycigtu zdjhuv aekivw bfljwx
cgmkxy dhnlyz eiomza fjpnab gkqobc
hlrpcd imsqde jntref kousfg lpvtgh
mqwuhi nrxvij osywjk ptzxkl quaylm
rvbzmn swcano txdbop uyecpq vzfdqr

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: wagers
Cipher: dztvih

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: wagers

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: wagers
cipher variations:

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x

An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: wagers
Cipher: jntref

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: wagers
Cipher: 251122512434

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: wagers
method variations:

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
w a g e r s 
2 1 2 5 2 3 
5 1 2 1 4 4 
They are then read out in rows:
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: wagers
Cipher: bwmebt

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Method #3

Plaintext: wagers
method variations:
efwfoi fwfoie wfoief
foiefw oiefwf iefwfo

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: wagers

all 720 cipher variations:
wagers wagesr wagres wagrse wagsre wagser waegrs waegsr waergs waersg waesrg
waesgr waregs waresg warges wargse warsge warseg waserg wasegr wasreg wasrge
wasgre wasger wgaers wgaesr wgares wgarse wgasre wgaser wgears wgeasr wgeras
wgersa wgesra wgesar wgreas wgresa wgraes wgrase wgrsae wgrsea wgsera wgsear
wgsrea wgsrae wgsare wgsaer wegars wegasr wegras wegrsa wegsra wegsar weagrs
weagsr weargs wearsg weasrg weasgr werags werasg wergas wergsa wersga wersag
wesarg wesagr wesrag wesrga wesgra wesgar wrgeas wrgesa wrgaes wrgase wrgsae
wrgsea wregas wregsa wreags wreasg wresag wresga wraegs wraesg wrages wragse
wrasge wraseg wrseag wrsega wrsaeg wrsage wrsgae wrsgea wsgera wsgear wsgrea
wsgrae wsgare wsgaer wsegra wsegar wserga wserag wsearg wseagr wsrega wsreag
wsrgea wsrgae wsrage wsraeg wsaerg wsaegr wsareg wsarge wsagre wsager awgers
awgesr awgres awgrse awgsre awgser awegrs awegsr awergs awersg awesrg awesgr
awregs awresg awrges awrgse awrsge awrseg awserg awsegr awsreg awsrge awsgre
awsger agwers agwesr agwres agwrse agwsre agwser agewrs agewsr agerws agersw
agesrw ageswr agrews agresw agrwes agrwse agrswe agrsew agserw agsewr agsrew
agsrwe agswre agswer aegwrs aegwsr aegrws aegrsw aegsrw aegswr aewgrs aewgsr
aewrgs aewrsg aewsrg aewsgr aerwgs aerwsg aergws aergsw aersgw aerswg aeswrg
aeswgr aesrwg aesrgw aesgrw aesgwr argews argesw argwes argwse argswe argsew
aregws aregsw arewgs arewsg areswg aresgw arwegs arwesg arwges arwgse arwsge
arwseg arsewg arsegw arsweg arswge arsgwe arsgew asgerw asgewr asgrew asgrwe
asgwre asgwer asegrw asegwr asergw aserwg asewrg asewgr asregw asrewg asrgew
asrgwe asrwge asrweg aswerg aswegr aswreg aswrge aswgre aswger gawers gawesr
gawres gawrse gawsre gawser gaewrs gaewsr gaerws gaersw gaesrw gaeswr garews
garesw garwes garwse garswe garsew gaserw gasewr gasrew gasrwe gaswre gaswer
gwaers gwaesr gwares gwarse gwasre gwaser gwears gweasr gweras gwersa gwesra
gwesar gwreas gwresa gwraes gwrase gwrsae gwrsea gwsera gwsear gwsrea gwsrae
gwsare gwsaer gewars gewasr gewras gewrsa gewsra gewsar geawrs geawsr gearws
gearsw geasrw geaswr geraws gerasw gerwas gerwsa gerswa gersaw gesarw gesawr
gesraw gesrwa geswra geswar grweas grwesa grwaes grwase grwsae grwsea grewas
grewsa greaws greasw gresaw greswa graews graesw grawes grawse graswe grasew
grseaw grsewa grsaew grsawe grswae grswea gswera gswear gswrea gswrae gsware
gswaer gsewra gsewar gserwa gseraw gsearw gseawr gsrewa gsreaw gsrwea gsrwae
gsrawe gsraew gsaerw gsaewr gsarew gsarwe gsawre gsawer eagwrs eagwsr eagrws
eagrsw eagsrw eagswr eawgrs eawgsr eawrgs eawrsg eawsrg eawsgr earwgs earwsg
eargws eargsw earsgw earswg easwrg easwgr easrwg easrgw easgrw easgwr egawrs
egawsr egarws egarsw egasrw egaswr egwars egwasr egwras egwrsa egwsra egwsar
egrwas egrwsa egraws egrasw egrsaw egrswa egswra egswar egsrwa egsraw egsarw
egsawr ewgars ewgasr ewgras ewgrsa ewgsra ewgsar ewagrs ewagsr ewargs ewarsg
ewasrg ewasgr ewrags ewrasg ewrgas ewrgsa ewrsga ewrsag ewsarg ewsagr ewsrag
ewsrga ewsgra ewsgar ergwas ergwsa ergaws ergasw ergsaw ergswa erwgas erwgsa
erwags erwasg erwsag erwsga erawgs erawsg eragws eragsw erasgw eraswg erswag
erswga ersawg ersagw ersgaw ersgwa esgwra esgwar esgrwa esgraw esgarw esgawr
eswgra eswgar eswrga eswrag eswarg eswagr esrwga esrwag esrgwa esrgaw esragw
esrawg esawrg esawgr esarwg esargw esagrw esagwr ragews ragesw ragwes ragwse
ragswe ragsew raegws raegsw raewgs raewsg raeswg raesgw rawegs rawesg rawges
rawgse rawsge rawseg rasewg rasegw rasweg raswge rasgwe rasgew rgaews rgaesw
rgawes rgawse rgaswe rgasew rgeaws rgeasw rgewas rgewsa rgeswa rgesaw rgweas
rgwesa rgwaes rgwase rgwsae rgwsea rgsewa rgseaw rgswea rgswae rgsawe rgsaew
regaws regasw regwas regwsa regswa regsaw reagws reagsw reawgs reawsg reaswg
reasgw rewags rewasg rewgas rewgsa rewsga rewsag resawg resagw reswag reswga
resgwa resgaw rwgeas rwgesa rwgaes rwgase rwgsae rwgsea rwegas rwegsa rweags
rweasg rwesag rwesga rwaegs rwaesg rwages rwagse rwasge rwaseg rwseag rwsega
rwsaeg rwsage rwsgae rwsgea rsgewa rsgeaw rsgwea rsgwae rsgawe rsgaew rsegwa
rsegaw rsewga rsewag rseawg rseagw rswega rsweag rswgea rswgae rswage rswaeg
rsaewg rsaegw rsaweg rsawge rsagwe rsagew sagerw sagewr sagrew sagrwe sagwre
sagwer saegrw saegwr saergw saerwg saewrg saewgr saregw sarewg sargew sargwe
sarwge sarweg sawerg sawegr sawreg sawrge sawgre sawger sgaerw sgaewr sgarew
sgarwe sgawre sgawer sgearw sgeawr sgeraw sgerwa sgewra sgewar sgreaw sgrewa
sgraew sgrawe sgrwae sgrwea sgwera sgwear sgwrea sgwrae sgware sgwaer segarw
segawr segraw segrwa segwra segwar seagrw seagwr seargw searwg seawrg seawgr
seragw serawg sergaw sergwa serwga serwag sewarg sewagr sewrag sewrga sewgra
sewgar srgeaw srgewa srgaew srgawe srgwae srgwea sregaw sregwa sreagw sreawg
srewag srewga sraegw sraewg sragew sragwe srawge sraweg srweag srwega srwaeg
srwage srwgae srwgea swgera swgear swgrea swgrae swgare swgaer swegra swegar
swerga swerag swearg sweagr swrega swreag swrgea swrgae swrage swraeg swaerg
swaegr swareg swarge swagre swager

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History of cryptography
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