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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: waflib
cipher variations:
xbgmjc ychnkd zdiole aejpmf bfkqng
cglroh dhmspi eintqj fjourk gkpvsl
hlqwtm imrxun jnsyvo kotzwp lpuaxq
mqvbyr nrwczs osxdat ptyebu quzfcv
rvagdw swbhex txcify uydjgz vzekha

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: waflib
Cipher: dzuory

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: waflib

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: waflib
cipher variations:

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x

An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: waflib
Cipher: jnsyvo

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: waflib
Cipher: 251112134221

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: waflib
method variations:

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
w a f l i b 
2 1 1 1 4 2 
5 1 2 3 2 1 
They are then read out in rows:
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: waflib
Cipher: baiemb

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Method #3

Plaintext: waflib
method variations:
eabsgf absgfe bsgfea
sgfeab gfeabs feabsg

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: waflib

all 720 cipher variations:
waflib waflbi wafilb wafibl wafbil wafbli walfib walfbi walifb walibf walbif
walbfi wailfb wailbf waiflb waifbl waibfl waiblf wablif wablfi wabilf wabifl
wabfil wabfli wfalib wfalbi wfailb wfaibl wfabil wfabli wflaib wflabi wfliab
wfliba wflbia wflbai wfilab wfilba wfialb wfiabl wfibal wfibla wfblia wfblai
wfbila wfbial wfbail wfbali wlfaib wlfabi wlfiab wlfiba wlfbia wlfbai wlafib
wlafbi wlaifb wlaibf wlabif wlabfi wliafb wliabf wlifab wlifba wlibfa wlibaf
wlbaif wlbafi wlbiaf wlbifa wlbfia wlbfai wiflab wiflba wifalb wifabl wifbal
wifbla wilfab wilfba wilafb wilabf wilbaf wilbfa wialfb wialbf wiaflb wiafbl
wiabfl wiablf wiblaf wiblfa wibalf wibafl wibfal wibfla wbflia wbflai wbfila
wbfial wbfail wbfali wblfia wblfai wblifa wbliaf wblaif wblafi wbilfa wbilaf
wbifla wbifal wbiafl wbialf wbalif wbalfi wbailf wbaifl wbafil wbafli awflib
awflbi awfilb awfibl awfbil awfbli awlfib awlfbi awlifb awlibf awlbif awlbfi
awilfb awilbf awiflb awifbl awibfl awiblf awblif awblfi awbilf awbifl awbfil
awbfli afwlib afwlbi afwilb afwibl afwbil afwbli aflwib aflwbi afliwb aflibw
aflbiw aflbwi afilwb afilbw afiwlb afiwbl afibwl afiblw afbliw afblwi afbilw
afbiwl afbwil afbwli alfwib alfwbi alfiwb alfibw alfbiw alfbwi alwfib alwfbi
alwifb alwibf alwbif alwbfi aliwfb aliwbf alifwb alifbw alibfw alibwf albwif
albwfi albiwf albifw albfiw albfwi aiflwb aiflbw aifwlb aifwbl aifbwl aifblw
ailfwb ailfbw ailwfb ailwbf ailbwf ailbfw aiwlfb aiwlbf aiwflb aiwfbl aiwbfl
aiwblf aiblwf aiblfw aibwlf aibwfl aibfwl aibflw abfliw abflwi abfilw abfiwl
abfwil abfwli ablfiw ablfwi ablifw abliwf ablwif ablwfi abilfw abilwf abiflw
abifwl abiwfl abiwlf abwlif abwlfi abwilf abwifl abwfil abwfli fawlib fawlbi
fawilb fawibl fawbil fawbli falwib falwbi faliwb falibw falbiw falbwi failwb
failbw faiwlb faiwbl faibwl faiblw fabliw fablwi fabilw fabiwl fabwil fabwli
fwalib fwalbi fwailb fwaibl fwabil fwabli fwlaib fwlabi fwliab fwliba fwlbia
fwlbai fwilab fwilba fwialb fwiabl fwibal fwibla fwblia fwblai fwbila fwbial
fwbail fwbali flwaib flwabi flwiab flwiba flwbia flwbai flawib flawbi flaiwb
flaibw flabiw flabwi fliawb fliabw fliwab fliwba flibwa flibaw flbaiw flbawi
flbiaw flbiwa flbwia flbwai fiwlab fiwlba fiwalb fiwabl fiwbal fiwbla filwab
filwba filawb filabw filbaw filbwa fialwb fialbw fiawlb fiawbl fiabwl fiablw
fiblaw fiblwa fibalw fibawl fibwal fibwla fbwlia fbwlai fbwila fbwial fbwail
fbwali fblwia fblwai fbliwa fbliaw fblaiw fblawi fbilwa fbilaw fbiwla fbiwal
fbiawl fbialw fbaliw fbalwi fbailw fbaiwl fbawil fbawli lafwib lafwbi lafiwb
lafibw lafbiw lafbwi lawfib lawfbi lawifb lawibf lawbif lawbfi laiwfb laiwbf
laifwb laifbw laibfw laibwf labwif labwfi labiwf labifw labfiw labfwi lfawib
lfawbi lfaiwb lfaibw lfabiw lfabwi lfwaib lfwabi lfwiab lfwiba lfwbia lfwbai
lfiwab lfiwba lfiawb lfiabw lfibaw lfibwa lfbwia lfbwai lfbiwa lfbiaw lfbaiw
lfbawi lwfaib lwfabi lwfiab lwfiba lwfbia lwfbai lwafib lwafbi lwaifb lwaibf
lwabif lwabfi lwiafb lwiabf lwifab lwifba lwibfa lwibaf lwbaif lwbafi lwbiaf
lwbifa lwbfia lwbfai lifwab lifwba lifawb lifabw lifbaw lifbwa liwfab liwfba
liwafb liwabf liwbaf liwbfa liawfb liawbf liafwb liafbw liabfw liabwf libwaf
libwfa libawf libafw libfaw libfwa lbfwia lbfwai lbfiwa lbfiaw lbfaiw lbfawi
lbwfia lbwfai lbwifa lbwiaf lbwaif lbwafi lbiwfa lbiwaf lbifwa lbifaw lbiafw
lbiawf lbawif lbawfi lbaiwf lbaifw lbafiw lbafwi iaflwb iaflbw iafwlb iafwbl
iafbwl iafblw ialfwb ialfbw ialwfb ialwbf ialbwf ialbfw iawlfb iawlbf iawflb
iawfbl iawbfl iawblf iablwf iablfw iabwlf iabwfl iabfwl iabflw ifalwb ifalbw
ifawlb ifawbl ifabwl ifablw iflawb iflabw iflwab iflwba iflbwa iflbaw ifwlab
ifwlba ifwalb ifwabl ifwbal ifwbla ifblwa ifblaw ifbwla ifbwal ifbawl ifbalw
ilfawb ilfabw ilfwab ilfwba ilfbwa ilfbaw ilafwb ilafbw ilawfb ilawbf ilabwf
ilabfw ilwafb ilwabf ilwfab ilwfba ilwbfa ilwbaf ilbawf ilbafw ilbwaf ilbwfa
ilbfwa ilbfaw iwflab iwflba iwfalb iwfabl iwfbal iwfbla iwlfab iwlfba iwlafb
iwlabf iwlbaf iwlbfa iwalfb iwalbf iwaflb iwafbl iwabfl iwablf iwblaf iwblfa
iwbalf iwbafl iwbfal iwbfla ibflwa ibflaw ibfwla ibfwal ibfawl ibfalw iblfwa
iblfaw iblwfa iblwaf iblawf iblafw ibwlfa ibwlaf ibwfla ibwfal ibwafl ibwalf
ibalwf ibalfw ibawlf ibawfl ibafwl ibaflw bafliw baflwi bafilw bafiwl bafwil
bafwli balfiw balfwi balifw baliwf balwif balwfi bailfw bailwf baiflw baifwl
baiwfl baiwlf bawlif bawlfi bawilf bawifl bawfil bawfli bfaliw bfalwi bfailw
bfaiwl bfawil bfawli bflaiw bflawi bfliaw bfliwa bflwia bflwai bfilaw bfilwa
bfialw bfiawl bfiwal bfiwla bfwlia bfwlai bfwila bfwial bfwail bfwali blfaiw
blfawi blfiaw blfiwa blfwia blfwai blafiw blafwi blaifw blaiwf blawif blawfi
bliafw bliawf blifaw blifwa bliwfa bliwaf blwaif blwafi blwiaf blwifa blwfia
blwfai biflaw biflwa bifalw bifawl bifwal bifwla bilfaw bilfwa bilafw bilawf
bilwaf bilwfa bialfw bialwf biaflw biafwl biawfl biawlf biwlaf biwlfa biwalf
biwafl biwfal biwfla bwflia bwflai bwfila bwfial bwfail bwfali bwlfia bwlfai
bwlifa bwliaf bwlaif bwlafi bwilfa bwilaf bwifla bwifal bwiafl bwialf bwalif
bwalfi bwailf bwaifl bwafil bwafli

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History of cryptography
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