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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: wadena
cipher variations:
xbefob ycfgpc zdghqd aehire bfijsf
cgjktg dhkluh eilmvi fjmnwj gknoxk
hlopyl impqzm jnqran korsbo lpstcp
mqtudq nruver osvwfs ptwxgt quxyhu
rvyziv swzajw txabkx uybcly vzcdmz

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: wadena
Cipher: dzwvmz

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: wadena
Cipher: BABAA AAAAA AAABB AABAA ABBAA AAAAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: wadena
cipher variations:
xbefobpbknobhbqvobzbwdobrbclobjbitobtbujoblbarob
dbgzobvbmhobnbspobfbyxobycfgpcqclopcicrwpcacxepc
scdmpckcjupcucvkpcmcbspcechapcwcnipcoctqpcgczypc
zdghqdrdmpqdjdsxqdbdyfqdtdenqdldkvqdvdwlqdndctqd
fdibqdxdojqdpdurqdhdazqdaehiresenqreketyrecezgre
ueforemelwrewexmreoeduregejcreyepkreqevsreiebare
bfijsftforsflfuzsfdfahsfvfgpsfnfmxsfxfynsfpfevsf
hfkdsfzfqlsfrfwtsfjfcbsfcgjktgugpstgmgvatgegbitg
wghqtgognytgygzotgqgfwtgigletgagrmtgsgxutgkgdctg
dhkluhvhqtuhnhwbuhfhcjuhxhiruhphozuhzhapuhrhgxuh
jhmfuhbhsnuhthyvuhlheduheilmviwiruvioixcvigidkvi
yijsviqipaviaibqvisihyvikingvicitoviuizwvimifevi
fjmnwjxjsvwjpjydwjhjelwjzjktwjrjqbwjbjcrwjtjizwj
ljohwjdjupwjvjaxwjnjgfwjgknoxkyktwxkqkzexkikfmxk
akluxkskrcxkckdsxkukjaxkmkpixkekvqxkwkbyxkokhgxk
hlopylzluxylrlafyljlgnylblmvyltlsdyldletylvlkbyl
nlqjylflwrylxlczylplihylimpqzmamvyzmsmbgzmkmhozm
cmnwzmumtezmemfuzmwmlczmomrkzmgmxszmymdazmqmjizm
jnqranbnwzantnchanlnipandnoxanvnufanfngvanxnmdan
pnslanhnytanznebanrnkjankorsbocoxabouodibomojqbo
eopybowovgbogohwboyoneboqotmboiozuboaofcbosolkbo
lpstcpdpybcpvpejcpnpkrcpfpqzcpxpwhcphpixcpzpofcp
rpuncpjpavcpbpgdcptpmlcpmqtudqeqzcdqwqfkdqoqlsdq
gqradqyqxidqiqjydqaqpgdqsqvodqkqbwdqcqhedquqnmdq
nruverfraderxrglerprmterhrsberzryjerjrkzerbrqher
trwperlrcxerdrifervronerosvwfsgsbefsyshmfsqsnufs
istcfsaszkfskslafscsrifsusxqfsmsdyfsesjgfswspofs
ptwxgthtcfgtztingtrtovgtjtudgtbtalgtltmbgtdtsjgt
vtyrgtntezgtftkhgtxtqpgtquxyhuiudghuaujohusupwhu
kuvehucubmhumunchueutkhuwuzshuoufahugulihuyurqhu
rvyzivjvehivbvkpivtvqxivlvwfivdvcnivnvodivfvuliv
xvativpvgbivhvmjivzvsrivswzajwkwfijwcwlqjwuwryjw
mwxgjwewdojwowpejwgwvmjwywbujwqwhcjwiwnkjwawtsjw
txabkxlxgjkxdxmrkxvxszkxnxyhkxfxepkxpxqfkxhxwnkx
zxcvkxrxidkxjxolkxbxutkxuybclymyhklyeynslywytaly
oyzilygyfqlyqyrglyiyxolyaydwlysyjelykypmlycyvuly
vzcdmznzilmzfzotmzxzubmzpzajmzhzgrmzrzshmzjzypmz
bzexmztzkfmzlzqnmzdzwvmzwadenaoajmnagapunayavcna
qabknaiahsnasatinakazqnacafynaualgnamaronaeaxwna

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: wadena
Cipher: jnqran

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: wadena
Cipher: 251141513311

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: wadena
method variations:
bfiksfglopxlmqtucqrvyzhv

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
w a d e n a 
2 1 4 5 3 1 
5 1 1 1 3 1 
They are then read out in rows:
214531511131
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: wadena
Cipher: byceac

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: wadena
method variations:
eqvlcf qvlcfe vlcfeq
lcfeqv cfeqvl feqvlc

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: wadena

all 720 cipher variations:
wadena wadean wadnea wadnae wadane wadaen waedna waedan waenda waenad waeand
waeadn waneda wanead wandea wandae wanade wanaed waaend waaedn waaned waande
waadne waaden wdaena wdaean wdanea wdanae wdaane wdaaen wdeana wdeaan wdenaa
wdenaa wdeana wdeaan wdneaa wdneaa wdnaea wdnaae wdnaae wdnaea wdaena wdaean
wdanea wdanae wdaane wdaaen wedana wedaan wednaa wednaa wedana wedaan weadna
weadan weanda weanad weaand weaadn wenada wenaad wendaa wendaa wenada wenaad
weaand weaadn weanad weanda weadna weadan wndeaa wndeaa wndaea wndaae wndaae
wndaea wnedaa wnedaa wneada wneaad wneaad wneada wnaeda wnaead wnadea wnadae
wnaade wnaaed wnaead wnaeda wnaaed wnaade wnadae wnadea wadena wadean wadnea
wadnae wadane wadaen waedna waedan waenda waenad waeand waeadn waneda wanead
wandea wandae wanade wanaed waaend waaedn waaned waande waadne waaden awdena
awdean awdnea awdnae awdane awdaen awedna awedan awenda awenad aweand aweadn
awneda awnead awndea awndae awnade awnaed awaend awaedn awaned awande awadne
awaden adwena adwean adwnea adwnae adwane adwaen adewna adewan adenwa adenaw
adeanw adeawn adnewa adneaw adnwea adnwae adnawe adnaew adaenw adaewn adanew
adanwe adawne adawen aedwna aedwan aednwa aednaw aedanw aedawn aewdna aewdan
aewnda aewnad aewand aewadn aenwda aenwad aendwa aendaw aenadw aenawd aeawnd
aeawdn aeanwd aeandw aeadnw aeadwn andewa andeaw andwea andwae andawe andaew
anedwa anedaw anewda anewad aneawd aneadw anweda anwead anwdea anwdae anwade
anwaed anaewd anaedw anawed anawde anadwe anadew aadenw aadewn aadnew aadnwe
aadwne aadwen aaednw aaedwn aaendw aaenwd aaewnd aaewdn aanedw aanewd aandew
aandwe aanwde aanwed aawend aawedn aawned aawnde aawdne aawden dawena dawean
dawnea dawnae dawane dawaen daewna daewan daenwa daenaw daeanw daeawn danewa
daneaw danwea danwae danawe danaew daaenw daaewn daanew daanwe daawne daawen
dwaena dwaean dwanea dwanae dwaane dwaaen dweana dweaan dwenaa dwenaa dweana
dweaan dwneaa dwneaa dwnaea dwnaae dwnaae dwnaea dwaena dwaean dwanea dwanae
dwaane dwaaen dewana dewaan dewnaa dewnaa dewana dewaan deawna deawan deanwa
deanaw deaanw deaawn denawa denaaw denwaa denwaa denawa denaaw deaanw deaawn
deanaw deanwa deawna deawan dnweaa dnweaa dnwaea dnwaae dnwaae dnwaea dnewaa
dnewaa dneawa dneaaw dneaaw dneawa dnaewa dnaeaw dnawea dnawae dnaawe dnaaew
dnaeaw dnaewa dnaaew dnaawe dnawae dnawea dawena dawean dawnea dawnae dawane
dawaen daewna daewan daenwa daenaw daeanw daeawn danewa daneaw danwea danwae
danawe danaew daaenw daaewn daanew daanwe daawne daawen eadwna eadwan eadnwa
eadnaw eadanw eadawn eawdna eawdan eawnda eawnad eawand eawadn eanwda eanwad
eandwa eandaw eanadw eanawd eaawnd eaawdn eaanwd eaandw eaadnw eaadwn edawna
edawan edanwa edanaw edaanw edaawn edwana edwaan edwnaa edwnaa edwana edwaan
ednwaa ednwaa ednawa ednaaw ednaaw ednawa edawna edawan edanwa edanaw edaanw
edaawn ewdana ewdaan ewdnaa ewdnaa ewdana ewdaan ewadna ewadan ewanda ewanad
ewaand ewaadn ewnada ewnaad ewndaa ewndaa ewnada ewnaad ewaand ewaadn ewanad
ewanda ewadna ewadan endwaa endwaa endawa endaaw endaaw endawa enwdaa enwdaa
enwada enwaad enwaad enwada enawda enawad enadwa enadaw enaadw enaawd enawad
enawda enaawd enaadw enadaw enadwa eadwna eadwan eadnwa eadnaw eadanw eadawn
eawdna eawdan eawnda eawnad eawand eawadn eanwda eanwad eandwa eandaw eanadw
eanawd eaawnd eaawdn eaanwd eaandw eaadnw eaadwn nadewa nadeaw nadwea nadwae
nadawe nadaew naedwa naedaw naewda naewad naeawd naeadw naweda nawead nawdea
nawdae nawade nawaed naaewd naaedw naawed naawde naadwe naadew ndaewa ndaeaw
ndawea ndawae ndaawe ndaaew ndeawa ndeaaw ndewaa ndewaa ndeawa ndeaaw ndweaa
ndweaa ndwaea ndwaae ndwaae ndwaea ndaewa ndaeaw ndawea ndawae ndaawe ndaaew
nedawa nedaaw nedwaa nedwaa nedawa nedaaw neadwa neadaw neawda neawad neaawd
neaadw newada newaad newdaa newdaa newada newaad neaawd neaadw neawad neawda
neadwa neadaw nwdeaa nwdeaa nwdaea nwdaae nwdaae nwdaea nwedaa nwedaa nweada
nweaad nweaad nweada nwaeda nwaead nwadea nwadae nwaade nwaaed nwaead nwaeda
nwaaed nwaade nwadae nwadea nadewa nadeaw nadwea nadwae nadawe nadaew naedwa
naedaw naewda naewad naeawd naeadw naweda nawead nawdea nawdae nawade nawaed
naaewd naaedw naawed naawde naadwe naadew aadenw aadewn aadnew aadnwe aadwne
aadwen aaednw aaedwn aaendw aaenwd aaewnd aaewdn aanedw aanewd aandew aandwe
aanwde aanwed aawend aawedn aawned aawnde aawdne aawden adaenw adaewn adanew
adanwe adawne adawen adeanw adeawn adenaw adenwa adewna adewan adneaw adnewa
adnaew adnawe adnwae adnwea adwena adwean adwnea adwnae adwane adwaen aedanw
aedawn aednaw aednwa aedwna aedwan aeadnw aeadwn aeandw aeanwd aeawnd aeawdn
aenadw aenawd aendaw aendwa aenwda aenwad aewand aewadn aewnad aewnda aewdna
aewdan andeaw andewa andaew andawe andwae andwea anedaw anedwa aneadw aneawd
anewad anewda anaedw anaewd anadew anadwe anawde anawed anwead anweda anwaed
anwade anwdae anwdea awdena awdean awdnea awdnae awdane awdaen awedna awedan
awenda awenad aweand aweadn awneda awnead awndea awndae awnade awnaed awaend
awaedn awaned awande awadne awaden

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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