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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: vuthan
cipher variations:
wvuibo xwvjcp yxwkdq zyxler azymfs
bazngt cbaohu dcbpiv edcqjw fedrkx
gfesly hgftmz ihguna jihvob kjiwpc
lkjxqd mlkyre nmlzsf onmatg ponbuh
qpocvi rqpdwj srqexk tsrfyl utsgzm

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: vuthan
Cipher: efgszm

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: vuthan

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: vuthan
cipher variations:

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x

An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: vuthan
Cipher: ihguna

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: vuthan
Cipher: 155444321133

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: vuthan
method variations:

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
v u t h a n 
1 5 4 3 1 3 
5 4 4 2 1 3 
They are then read out in rows:
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: vuthan
Cipher: voluil

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Method #3

Plaintext: vuthan
method variations:
ztoblc toblcz oblczt
blczto lcztob cztobl

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: vuthan

all 720 cipher variations:
vuthan vuthna vutahn vutanh vutnah vutnha vuhtan vuhtna vuhatn vuhant vuhnat
vuhnta vuahtn vuahnt vuathn vuatnh vuanth vuanht vunhat vunhta vunaht vunath
vuntah vuntha vtuhan vtuhna vtuahn vtuanh vtunah vtunha vthuan vthuna vthaun
vthanu vthnau vthnua vtahun vtahnu vtauhn vtaunh vtanuh vtanhu vtnhau vtnhua
vtnahu vtnauh vtnuah vtnuha vhtuan vhtuna vhtaun vhtanu vhtnau vhtnua vhutan
vhutna vhuatn vhuant vhunat vhunta vhautn vhaunt vhatun vhatnu vhantu vhanut
vhnuat vhnuta vhnaut vhnatu vhntau vhntua vathun vathnu vatuhn vatunh vatnuh
vatnhu vahtun vahtnu vahutn vahunt vahnut vahntu vauhtn vauhnt vauthn vautnh
vaunth vaunht vanhut vanhtu vanuht vanuth vantuh vanthu vnthau vnthua vntahu
vntauh vntuah vntuha vnhtau vnhtua vnhatu vnhaut vnhuat vnhuta vnahtu vnahut
vnathu vnatuh vnauth vnauht vnuhat vnuhta vnuaht vnuath vnutah vnutha uvthan
uvthna uvtahn uvtanh uvtnah uvtnha uvhtan uvhtna uvhatn uvhant uvhnat uvhnta
uvahtn uvahnt uvathn uvatnh uvanth uvanht uvnhat uvnhta uvnaht uvnath uvntah
uvntha utvhan utvhna utvahn utvanh utvnah utvnha uthvan uthvna uthavn uthanv
uthnav uthnva utahvn utahnv utavhn utavnh utanvh utanhv utnhav utnhva utnahv
utnavh utnvah utnvha uhtvan uhtvna uhtavn uhtanv uhtnav uhtnva uhvtan uhvtna
uhvatn uhvant uhvnat uhvnta uhavtn uhavnt uhatvn uhatnv uhantv uhanvt uhnvat
uhnvta uhnavt uhnatv uhntav uhntva uathvn uathnv uatvhn uatvnh uatnvh uatnhv
uahtvn uahtnv uahvtn uahvnt uahnvt uahntv uavhtn uavhnt uavthn uavtnh uavnth
uavnht uanhvt uanhtv uanvht uanvth uantvh uanthv unthav unthva untahv untavh
untvah untvha unhtav unhtva unhatv unhavt unhvat unhvta unahtv unahvt unathv
unatvh unavth unavht unvhat unvhta unvaht unvath unvtah unvtha tuvhan tuvhna
tuvahn tuvanh tuvnah tuvnha tuhvan tuhvna tuhavn tuhanv tuhnav tuhnva tuahvn
tuahnv tuavhn tuavnh tuanvh tuanhv tunhav tunhva tunahv tunavh tunvah tunvha
tvuhan tvuhna tvuahn tvuanh tvunah tvunha tvhuan tvhuna tvhaun tvhanu tvhnau
tvhnua tvahun tvahnu tvauhn tvaunh tvanuh tvanhu tvnhau tvnhua tvnahu tvnauh
tvnuah tvnuha thvuan thvuna thvaun thvanu thvnau thvnua thuvan thuvna thuavn
thuanv thunav thunva thauvn thaunv thavun thavnu thanvu thanuv thnuav thnuva
thnauv thnavu thnvau thnvua tavhun tavhnu tavuhn tavunh tavnuh tavnhu tahvun
tahvnu tahuvn tahunv tahnuv tahnvu tauhvn tauhnv tauvhn tauvnh taunvh taunhv
tanhuv tanhvu tanuhv tanuvh tanvuh tanvhu tnvhau tnvhua tnvahu tnvauh tnvuah
tnvuha tnhvau tnhvua tnhavu tnhauv tnhuav tnhuva tnahvu tnahuv tnavhu tnavuh
tnauvh tnauhv tnuhav tnuhva tnuahv tnuavh tnuvah tnuvha hutvan hutvna hutavn
hutanv hutnav hutnva huvtan huvtna huvatn huvant huvnat huvnta huavtn huavnt
huatvn huatnv huantv huanvt hunvat hunvta hunavt hunatv huntav huntva htuvan
htuvna htuavn htuanv htunav htunva htvuan htvuna htvaun htvanu htvnau htvnua
htavun htavnu htauvn htaunv htanuv htanvu htnvau htnvua htnavu htnauv htnuav
htnuva hvtuan hvtuna hvtaun hvtanu hvtnau hvtnua hvutan hvutna hvuatn hvuant
hvunat hvunta hvautn hvaunt hvatun hvatnu hvantu hvanut hvnuat hvnuta hvnaut
hvnatu hvntau hvntua hatvun hatvnu hatuvn hatunv hatnuv hatnvu havtun havtnu
havutn havunt havnut havntu hauvtn hauvnt hautvn hautnv hauntv haunvt hanvut
hanvtu hanuvt hanutv hantuv hantvu hntvau hntvua hntavu hntauv hntuav hntuva
hnvtau hnvtua hnvatu hnvaut hnvuat hnvuta hnavtu hnavut hnatvu hnatuv hnautv
hnauvt hnuvat hnuvta hnuavt hnuatv hnutav hnutva authvn authnv autvhn autvnh
autnvh autnhv auhtvn auhtnv auhvtn auhvnt auhnvt auhntv auvhtn auvhnt auvthn
auvtnh auvnth auvnht aunhvt aunhtv aunvht aunvth auntvh aunthv atuhvn atuhnv
atuvhn atuvnh atunvh atunhv athuvn athunv athvun athvnu athnvu athnuv atvhun
atvhnu atvuhn atvunh atvnuh atvnhu atnhvu atnhuv atnvhu atnvuh atnuvh atnuhv
ahtuvn ahtunv ahtvun ahtvnu ahtnvu ahtnuv ahutvn ahutnv ahuvtn ahuvnt ahunvt
ahuntv ahvutn ahvunt ahvtun ahvtnu ahvntu ahvnut ahnuvt ahnutv ahnvut ahnvtu
ahntvu ahntuv avthun avthnu avtuhn avtunh avtnuh avtnhu avhtun avhtnu avhutn
avhunt avhnut avhntu avuhtn avuhnt avuthn avutnh avunth avunht avnhut avnhtu
avnuht avnuth avntuh avnthu anthvu anthuv antvhu antvuh antuvh antuhv anhtvu
anhtuv anhvtu anhvut anhuvt anhutv anvhtu anvhut anvthu anvtuh anvuth anvuht
anuhvt anuhtv anuvht anuvth anutvh anuthv nuthav nuthva nutahv nutavh nutvah
nutvha nuhtav nuhtva nuhatv nuhavt nuhvat nuhvta nuahtv nuahvt nuathv nuatvh
nuavth nuavht nuvhat nuvhta nuvaht nuvath nuvtah nuvtha ntuhav ntuhva ntuahv
ntuavh ntuvah ntuvha nthuav nthuva nthauv nthavu nthvau nthvua ntahuv ntahvu
ntauhv ntauvh ntavuh ntavhu ntvhau ntvhua ntvahu ntvauh ntvuah ntvuha nhtuav
nhtuva nhtauv nhtavu nhtvau nhtvua nhutav nhutva nhuatv nhuavt nhuvat nhuvta
nhautv nhauvt nhatuv nhatvu nhavtu nhavut nhvuat nhvuta nhvaut nhvatu nhvtau
nhvtua nathuv nathvu natuhv natuvh natvuh natvhu nahtuv nahtvu nahutv nahuvt
nahvut nahvtu nauhtv nauhvt nauthv nautvh nauvth nauvht navhut navhtu navuht
navuth navtuh navthu nvthau nvthua nvtahu nvtauh nvtuah nvtuha nvhtau nvhtua
nvhatu nvhaut nvhuat nvhuta nvahtu nvahut nvathu nvatuh nvauth nvauht nvuhat
nvuhta nvuaht nvuath nvutah nvutha

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History of cryptography
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