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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: vomito
cipher variations:
wpnjup xqokvq yrplwr zsqmxs atrnyt
busozu cvtpav dwuqbw exvrcx fywsdy
gzxtez hayufa ibzvgb jcawhc kdbxid
lecyje mfdzkf ngealg ohfbmh pigcni
qjhdoj rkiepk sljfql tmkgrm unlhsn

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: vomito
Cipher: elnrgl

Read more ...

 

Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: vomito
Cipher: BBBAB ABBAB ABABB ABAAA BAABA ABBAB

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: vomito
cipher variations:
wpnjupmrlzgrctjpstsvhfevixfvqxyzdlczedzradufxhmf
khvxyhajtnkjqlrdwlgnptinxqokvqnsmahsdukqtutwigfw
jygwryzaemdafeasbevgyingliwyzibkuolkrmsexmhoqujo
yrplwrotnbitevlruvuxjhgxkzhxszabfnebgfbtcfwhzjoh
mjxzajclvpmlsntfyniprvkpzsqmxspuocjufwmsvwvykihy
laiytabcgofchgcudgxiakpinkyabkdmwqnmtougzojqswlq
atrnytqvpdkvgxntwxwzljizmbjzubcdhpgdihdvehyjblqj
olzbclenxronupvhapkrtxmrbusozurwqelwhyouxyxamkja
nckavcdeiqhejiewfizkcmrkpmacdmfoyspovqwibqlsuyns
cvtpavsxrfmxizpvyzybnlkbodlbwdefjrifkjfxgjaldnsl
qnbdengpztqpwrxjcrmtvzotdwuqbwtysgnyjaqwzazcomlc
pemcxefgksjglkgyhkbmeotmrocefohqaurqxsykdsnuwapu
exvrcxuzthozkbrxabadpnmdqfndyfghltkhmlhzilcnfpun
spdfgpirbvsrytzletovxbqvfywsdyvauipalcsybcbeqone
rgoezghimulinmiajmdogqvotqeghqjscwtszuamfupwycrw
gzxtezwbvjqbmdtzcdcfrpofshpfahijnvmjonjbknephrwp
urfhirktdxutavbngvqxzdsxhayufaxcwkrcneuadedgsqpg
tiqgbijkownkpokclofqisxqvsgijslueyvubwcohwryaety
ibzvgbydxlsdofvbefehtrqhujrhcjklpxolqpldmpgrjtyr
wthjktmvfzwvcxdpixszbfuzjcawhczeymtepgwcfgfiusri
vksidklmqypmrqmenqhskuzsxuiklunwgaxwdyeqjytacgva
kdbxidafznufqhxdghgjvtsjwltjelmnrzqnsrnforitlvat
yvjlmvoxhbyxezfrkzubdhwblecyjebgaovgriyehihkwutk
xmukfmnosarotsogpsjumwbuzwkmnwpyiczyfagslavceixc
mfdzkfchbpwhsjzfijilxvulynvlgnoptbsputphqtkvnxcv
axlnoxqzjdazgbhtmbwdfjydngealgdicqxitkagjkjmywvm
zowmhopquctqvuqirulwoydwbymopyrakebahciuncxegkze
ohfbmhejdryjulbhklknzxwnapxnipqrvdurwvrjsvmxpzex
cznpqzsblfcbidjvodyfhlafpigcnifkeszkvmcilmloayxo
bqyojqrswevsxwsktwnyqafydaoqratcmgdcjekwpezgimbg
qjhdojglftalwndjmnmpbzypcrzpkrstxfwtyxtluxozrbgz
ebprsbudnhedkflxqfahjnchrkiepkhmgubmxoeknonqcazq
dsaqlstuygxuzyumvypaschafcqstcveoifelgmyrgbikodi
sljfqlinhvcnypflopordbaretbrmtuvzhyvazvnwzqbtdib
gdrtudwfpjgfmhnzshcjlpejtmkgrmjoiwdozqgmpqpsecbs
fucsnuvwaizwbawoxarcuejchesuvexgqkhgnioatidkmqfk
unlhsnkpjxeparhnqrqtfdctgvdtovwxbjaxcbxpybsdvfkd
iftvwfyhrlihojpbujelnrglvomitolqkyfqbsiorsrugedu
hweupwxyckbydcyqzctewglejguwxgzismjipkqcvkfmoshm

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: vomito
Cipher: ibzvgb

Read more ...

 

Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: vomito
Cipher: 154323424443

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: vomito
method variations:
atroytfywtdyldbyidqigdoi

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
v o m i t o 
1 4 2 4 4 4 
5 3 3 2 4 3 
They are then read out in rows:
142444533243
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: vomito
Cipher: qrtpho

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: vomito
method variations:
uhsrtc hsrtcu srtcuh
rtcuhs tcuhsr cuhsrt

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: vomito

all 720 cipher variations:
vomito vomiot vomtio vomtoi vomoti vomoit voimto voimot voitmo voitom voiotm
voiomt votimo votiom votmio votmoi votomi votoim vooitm vooimt vootim vootmi
voomti voomit vmoito vmoiot vmotio vmotoi vmooti vmooit vmioto vmioot vmitoo
vmitoo vmioto vmioot vmtioo vmtioo vmtoio vmtooi vmtooi vmtoio vmoito vmoiot
vmotio vmotoi vmooti vmooit vimoto vimoot vimtoo vimtoo vimoto vimoot viomto
viomot viotmo viotom viootm vioomt vitomo vitoom vitmoo vitmoo vitomo vitoom
viootm vioomt viotom viotmo viomto viomot vtmioo vtmioo vtmoio vtmooi vtmooi
vtmoio vtimoo vtimoo vtiomo vtioom vtioom vtiomo vtoimo vtoiom vtomio vtomoi
vtoomi vtooim vtoiom vtoimo vtooim vtoomi vtomoi vtomio vomito vomiot vomtio
vomtoi vomoti vomoit voimto voimot voitmo voitom voiotm voiomt votimo votiom
votmio votmoi votomi votoim vooitm vooimt vootim vootmi voomti voomit ovmito
ovmiot ovmtio ovmtoi ovmoti ovmoit ovimto ovimot ovitmo ovitom oviotm oviomt
ovtimo ovtiom ovtmio ovtmoi ovtomi ovtoim ovoitm ovoimt ovotim ovotmi ovomti
ovomit omvito omviot omvtio omvtoi omvoti omvoit omivto omivot omitvo omitov
omiotv omiovt omtivo omtiov omtvio omtvoi omtovi omtoiv omoitv omoivt omotiv
omotvi omovti omovit oimvto oimvot oimtvo oimtov oimotv oimovt oivmto oivmot
oivtmo oivtom oivotm oivomt oitvmo oitvom oitmvo oitmov oitomv oitovm oiovtm
oiovmt oiotvm oiotmv oiomtv oiomvt otmivo otmiov otmvio otmvoi otmovi otmoiv
otimvo otimov otivmo otivom otiovm otiomv otvimo otviom otvmio otvmoi otvomi
otvoim otoivm otoimv otovim otovmi otomvi otomiv oomitv oomivt oomtiv oomtvi
oomvti oomvit ooimtv ooimvt ooitmv ooitvm ooivtm ooivmt ootimv ootivm ootmiv
ootmvi ootvmi ootvim oovitm oovimt oovtim oovtmi oovmti oovmit movito moviot
movtio movtoi movoti movoit moivto moivot moitvo moitov moiotv moiovt motivo
motiov motvio motvoi motovi motoiv mooitv mooivt mootiv mootvi moovti moovit
mvoito mvoiot mvotio mvotoi mvooti mvooit mvioto mvioot mvitoo mvitoo mvioto
mvioot mvtioo mvtioo mvtoio mvtooi mvtooi mvtoio mvoito mvoiot mvotio mvotoi
mvooti mvooit mivoto mivoot mivtoo mivtoo mivoto mivoot miovto miovot miotvo
miotov miootv mioovt mitovo mitoov mitvoo mitvoo mitovo mitoov miootv mioovt
miotov miotvo miovto miovot mtvioo mtvioo mtvoio mtvooi mtvooi mtvoio mtivoo
mtivoo mtiovo mtioov mtioov mtiovo mtoivo mtoiov mtovio mtovoi mtoovi mtooiv
mtoiov mtoivo mtooiv mtoovi mtovoi mtovio movito moviot movtio movtoi movoti
movoit moivto moivot moitvo moitov moiotv moiovt motivo motiov motvio motvoi
motovi motoiv mooitv mooivt mootiv mootvi moovti moovit iomvto iomvot iomtvo
iomtov iomotv iomovt iovmto iovmot iovtmo iovtom iovotm iovomt iotvmo iotvom
iotmvo iotmov iotomv iotovm ioovtm ioovmt iootvm iootmv ioomtv ioomvt imovto
imovot imotvo imotov imootv imoovt imvoto imvoot imvtoo imvtoo imvoto imvoot
imtvoo imtvoo imtovo imtoov imtoov imtovo imovto imovot imotvo imotov imootv
imoovt ivmoto ivmoot ivmtoo ivmtoo ivmoto ivmoot ivomto ivomot ivotmo ivotom
ivootm ivoomt ivtomo ivtoom ivtmoo ivtmoo ivtomo ivtoom ivootm ivoomt ivotom
ivotmo ivomto ivomot itmvoo itmvoo itmovo itmoov itmoov itmovo itvmoo itvmoo
itvomo itvoom itvoom itvomo itovmo itovom itomvo itomov itoomv itoovm itovom
itovmo itoovm itoomv itomov itomvo iomvto iomvot iomtvo iomtov iomotv iomovt
iovmto iovmot iovtmo iovtom iovotm iovomt iotvmo iotvom iotmvo iotmov iotomv
iotovm ioovtm ioovmt iootvm iootmv ioomtv ioomvt tomivo tomiov tomvio tomvoi
tomovi tomoiv toimvo toimov toivmo toivom toiovm toiomv tovimo toviom tovmio
tovmoi tovomi tovoim tooivm tooimv toovim toovmi toomvi toomiv tmoivo tmoiov
tmovio tmovoi tmoovi tmooiv tmiovo tmioov tmivoo tmivoo tmiovo tmioov tmvioo
tmvioo tmvoio tmvooi tmvooi tmvoio tmoivo tmoiov tmovio tmovoi tmoovi tmooiv
timovo timoov timvoo timvoo timovo timoov tiomvo tiomov tiovmo tiovom tioovm
tioomv tivomo tivoom tivmoo tivmoo tivomo tivoom tioovm tioomv tiovom tiovmo
tiomvo tiomov tvmioo tvmioo tvmoio tvmooi tvmooi tvmoio tvimoo tvimoo tviomo
tvioom tvioom tviomo tvoimo tvoiom tvomio tvomoi tvoomi tvooim tvoiom tvoimo
tvooim tvoomi tvomoi tvomio tomivo tomiov tomvio tomvoi tomovi tomoiv toimvo
toimov toivmo toivom toiovm toiomv tovimo toviom tovmio tovmoi tovomi tovoim
tooivm tooimv toovim toovmi toomvi toomiv oomitv oomivt oomtiv oomtvi oomvti
oomvit ooimtv ooimvt ooitmv ooitvm ooivtm ooivmt ootimv ootivm ootmiv ootmvi
ootvmi ootvim oovitm oovimt oovtim oovtmi oovmti oovmit omoitv omoivt omotiv
omotvi omovti omovit omiotv omiovt omitov omitvo omivto omivot omtiov omtivo
omtoiv omtovi omtvoi omtvio omvito omviot omvtio omvtoi omvoti omvoit oimotv
oimovt oimtov oimtvo oimvto oimvot oiomtv oiomvt oiotmv oiotvm oiovtm oiovmt
oitomv oitovm oitmov oitmvo oitvmo oitvom oivotm oivomt oivtom oivtmo oivmto
oivmot otmiov otmivo otmoiv otmovi otmvoi otmvio otimov otimvo otiomv otiovm
otivom otivmo otoimv otoivm otomiv otomvi otovmi otovim otviom otvimo otvoim
otvomi otvmoi otvmio ovmito ovmiot ovmtio ovmtoi ovmoti ovmoit ovimto ovimot
ovitmo ovitom oviotm oviomt ovtimo ovtiom ovtmio ovtmoi ovtomi ovtoim ovoitm
ovoimt ovotim ovotmi ovomti ovomit

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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