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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: volvar
cipher variations:
wpmwbs xqnxct yroydu zspzev atqafw
burbgx cvschy dwtdiz exueja fyvfkb
gzwglc haxhmd ibyine jczjof kdakpg
leblqh mfcmri ngdnsj oheotk pifpul
qjgqvm rkhrwn slisxo tmjtyp unkuzq

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: volvar
Cipher: eloezi

Read more ...

 

Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: volvar
Cipher: BBBAB ABBAB ABABA BBBAB AAAAA BAAAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: volvar
cipher variations:
wpmwbsmrimbactecbisvasbqixwibyyzsybgedkebwufgube
khckbmajyabuqluqbcgnqgbkxqnxctnsjncbdufdcjtwbtcr
jyxjczzatzchfelfcxvghvcflidlcnbkzbcvrmvrcdhorhcl
yroyduotkodcevgedkuxcudskzykdaabuadigfmgdywhiwdg
mjemdoclacdwsnwsdeipsidmzspzevpulpedfwhfelvydvet
lazlebbcvbejhgnhezxijxehnkfnepdmbdextoxtefjqtjen
atqafwqvmqfegxigfmwzewfumbamfccdwcfkihoifayjkyfi
olgofqencefyupyufgkrukfoburbgxrwnrgfhyjhgnxafxgv
ncbngddexdgljipjgbzklzgjpmhpgrfodfgzvqzvghlsvlgp
cvschysxoshgizkihoybgyhwodcoheefyehmkjqkhcalmahk
qniqhsgpeghawrawhimtwmhqdwtdiztyptihjaljipzchzix
pedpiffgzfinlkrlidbmnbilrojrithqfhibxsbxijnuxnir
exuejauzqujikbmkjqadiajyqfeqjgghagjomlsmjecnocjm
spksjuirgijcytcyjkovyojsfyvfkbvarvkjlcnlkrbejbkz
rgfrkhhibhkpnmtnkfdopdkntqltkvjshjkdzudzklpwzpkt
gzwglcwbswlkmdomlscfkclashgsliijcilqonuolgepqelo
urmulwktikleavealmqxaqluhaxhmdxctxmlnepnmtdgldmb
tihtmjjkdjmrpovpmhfqrfmpvsnvmxlujlmfbwfbmnrybrmv
ibyineyduynmofqonuehmencujiunkkleknsqpwqnigrsgnq
wtownymvkmngcxgcnoszcsnwjczjofzevzonpgrpovfinfod
vkjvollmflotrqxrojhsthorxupxoznwlnohdyhdoptadtox
kdakpgafwapoqhsqpwgjogpewlkwpmmngmpusryspkituips
yvqypaoxmopieziepqubeupyleblqhbgxbqpritrqxhkphqf
xmlxqnnohnqvtsztqljuvjqtzwrzqbpynpqjfajfqrvcfvqz
mfcmrichycrqsjusryilqirgynmyroopiorwutaurmkvwkru
axsarcqzoqrkgbkgrswdgwrangdnsjdizdsrtkvtszjmrjsh
zonzsppqjpsxvubvsnlwxlsvbytbsdraprslhclhstxehxsb
oheotkejaetsulwutaknsktiapoatqqrkqtywvcwtomxymtw
czuctesbqstmidmituyfiytcpifpulfkbfutvmxvublotluj
bqpburrslruzxwdxupnyznuxdavduftcrtunjenjuvzgjzud
qjgqvmglcgvuwnywvcmpumvkcrqcvsstmsvayxeyvqozaovy
ebwevgudsuvokfokvwahkaverkhrwnhmdhwvxozxwdnqvnwl
dsrdwttuntwbzyfzwrpabpwzfcxfwhvetvwplgplwxbilbwf
slisxoineixwypayxeorwoxmetsexuuvouxcazgaxsqbcqxa
gdygxiwfuwxqmhqmxycjmcxgtmjtypjofjyxzqbzyfpsxpyn
futfyvvwpvydbahbytrcdrybhezhyjxgvxyrnirnyzdkndyh
unkuzqkpgkzyarcazgqtyqzogvugzwwxqwzecbiczusdeszc
ifaizkyhwyzsojsozaeloezivolvarlqhlazbsdbahruzrap
hwvhaxxyrxafdcjdavteftadjgbjalzixzatpktpabfmpfaj

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: volvar
Cipher: ibyine

Read more ...

 

Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: volvar
Cipher: 154313151124

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: volvar
method variations:
atqafwfyvflbldalqgqifqvm

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
v o l v a r 
1 4 1 1 1 2 
5 3 3 5 1 4 
They are then read out in rows:
141112533514
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: volvar
Cipher: qafpxq

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: volvar
method variations:
uccefd ccefdu cefduc
efducc fducce duccef

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: volvar

all 720 cipher variations:
volvar volvra volavr volarv volrav volrva vovlar vovlra vovalr vovarl vovral
vovrla voavlr voavrl voalvr voalrv voarlv voarvl vorval vorvla voravl voralv
vorlav vorlva vlovar vlovra vloavr vloarv vlorav vlorva vlvoar vlvora vlvaor
vlvaro vlvrao vlvroa vlavor vlavro vlaovr vlaorv vlarov vlarvo vlrvao vlrvoa
vlravo vlraov vlroav vlrova vvloar vvlora vvlaor vvlaro vvlrao vvlroa vvolar
vvolra vvoalr vvoarl vvoral vvorla vvaolr vvaorl vvalor vvalro vvarlo vvarol
vvroal vvrola vvraol vvralo vvrlao vvrloa valvor valvro valovr valorv valrov
valrvo vavlor vavlro vavolr vavorl vavrol vavrlo vaovlr vaovrl vaolvr vaolrv
vaorlv vaorvl varvol varvlo varovl varolv varlov varlvo vrlvao vrlvoa vrlavo
vrlaov vrloav vrlova vrvlao vrvloa vrvalo vrvaol vrvoal vrvola vravlo vravol
vralvo vralov vraolv vraovl vroval vrovla vroavl vroalv vrolav vrolva ovlvar
ovlvra ovlavr ovlarv ovlrav ovlrva ovvlar ovvlra ovvalr ovvarl ovvral ovvrla
ovavlr ovavrl ovalvr ovalrv ovarlv ovarvl ovrval ovrvla ovravl ovralv ovrlav
ovrlva olvvar olvvra olvavr olvarv olvrav olvrva olvvar olvvra olvavr olvarv
olvrav olvrva olavvr olavrv olavvr olavrv olarvv olarvv olrvav olrvva olravv
olravv olrvav olrvva ovlvar ovlvra ovlavr ovlarv ovlrav ovlrva ovvlar ovvlra
ovvalr ovvarl ovvral ovvrla ovavlr ovavrl ovalvr ovalrv ovarlv ovarvl ovrval
ovrvla ovravl ovralv ovrlav ovrlva oalvvr oalvrv oalvvr oalvrv oalrvv oalrvv
oavlvr oavlrv oavvlr oavvrl oavrvl oavrlv oavvlr oavvrl oavlvr oavlrv oavrlv
oavrvl oarvvl oarvlv oarvvl oarvlv oarlvv oarlvv orlvav orlvva orlavv orlavv
orlvav orlvva orvlav orvlva orvalv orvavl orvval orvvla oravlv oravvl oralvv
oralvv oravlv oravvl orvval orvvla orvavl orvalv orvlav orvlva lovvar lovvra
lovavr lovarv lovrav lovrva lovvar lovvra lovavr lovarv lovrav lovrva loavvr
loavrv loavvr loavrv loarvv loarvv lorvav lorvva loravv loravv lorvav lorvva
lvovar lvovra lvoavr lvoarv lvorav lvorva lvvoar lvvora lvvaor lvvaro lvvrao
lvvroa lvavor lvavro lvaovr lvaorv lvarov lvarvo lvrvao lvrvoa lvravo lvraov
lvroav lvrova lvvoar lvvora lvvaor lvvaro lvvrao lvvroa lvovar lvovra lvoavr
lvoarv lvorav lvorva lvaovr lvaorv lvavor lvavro lvarvo lvarov lvroav lvrova
lvraov lvravo lvrvao lvrvoa lavvor lavvro lavovr lavorv lavrov lavrvo lavvor
lavvro lavovr lavorv lavrov lavrvo laovvr laovrv laovvr laovrv laorvv laorvv
larvov larvvo larovv larovv larvov larvvo lrvvao lrvvoa lrvavo lrvaov lrvoav
lrvova lrvvao lrvvoa lrvavo lrvaov lrvoav lrvova lravvo lravov lravvo lravov
lraovv lraovv lrovav lrovva lroavv lroavv lrovav lrovva volvar volvra volavr
volarv volrav volrva vovlar vovlra vovalr vovarl vovral vovrla voavlr voavrl
voalvr voalrv voarlv voarvl vorval vorvla voravl voralv vorlav vorlva vlovar
vlovra vloavr vloarv vlorav vlorva vlvoar vlvora vlvaor vlvaro vlvrao vlvroa
vlavor vlavro vlaovr vlaorv vlarov vlarvo vlrvao vlrvoa vlravo vlraov vlroav
vlrova vvloar vvlora vvlaor vvlaro vvlrao vvlroa vvolar vvolra vvoalr vvoarl
vvoral vvorla vvaolr vvaorl vvalor vvalro vvarlo vvarol vvroal vvrola vvraol
vvralo vvrlao vvrloa valvor valvro valovr valorv valrov valrvo vavlor vavlro
vavolr vavorl vavrol vavrlo vaovlr vaovrl vaolvr vaolrv vaorlv vaorvl varvol
varvlo varovl varolv varlov varlvo vrlvao vrlvoa vrlavo vrlaov vrloav vrlova
vrvlao vrvloa vrvalo vrvaol vrvoal vrvola vravlo vravol vralvo vralov vraolv
vraovl vroval vrovla vroavl vroalv vrolav vrolva aolvvr aolvrv aolvvr aolvrv
aolrvv aolrvv aovlvr aovlrv aovvlr aovvrl aovrvl aovrlv aovvlr aovvrl aovlvr
aovlrv aovrlv aovrvl aorvvl aorvlv aorvvl aorvlv aorlvv aorlvv alovvr alovrv
alovvr alovrv alorvv alorvv alvovr alvorv alvvor alvvro alvrvo alvrov alvvor
alvvro alvovr alvorv alvrov alvrvo alrvvo alrvov alrvvo alrvov alrovv alrovv
avlovr avlorv avlvor avlvro avlrvo avlrov avolvr avolrv avovlr avovrl avorvl
avorlv avvolr avvorl avvlor avvlro avvrlo avvrol avrovl avrolv avrvol avrvlo
avrlvo avrlov avlvor avlvro avlovr avlorv avlrov avlrvo avvlor avvlro avvolr
avvorl avvrol avvrlo avovlr avovrl avolvr avolrv avorlv avorvl avrvol avrvlo
avrovl avrolv avrlov avrlvo arlvvo arlvov arlvvo arlvov arlovv arlovv arvlvo
arvlov arvvlo arvvol arvovl arvolv arvvlo arvvol arvlvo arvlov arvolv arvovl
arovvl arovlv arovvl arovlv arolvv arolvv rolvav rolvva rolavv rolavv rolvav
rolvva rovlav rovlva rovalv rovavl rovval rovvla roavlv roavvl roalvv roalvv
roavlv roavvl rovval rovvla rovavl rovalv rovlav rovlva rlovav rlovva rloavv
rloavv rlovav rlovva rlvoav rlvova rlvaov rlvavo rlvvao rlvvoa rlavov rlavvo
rlaovv rlaovv rlavov rlavvo rlvvao rlvvoa rlvavo rlvaov rlvoav rlvova rvloav
rvlova rvlaov rvlavo rvlvao rvlvoa rvolav rvolva rvoalv rvoavl rvoval rvovla
rvaolv rvaovl rvalov rvalvo rvavlo rvavol rvvoal rvvola rvvaol rvvalo rvvlao
rvvloa ralvov ralvvo ralovv ralovv ralvov ralvvo ravlov ravlvo ravolv ravovl
ravvol ravvlo raovlv raovvl raolvv raolvv raovlv raovvl ravvol ravvlo ravovl
ravolv ravlov ravlvo rvlvao rvlvoa rvlavo rvlaov rvloav rvlova rvvlao rvvloa
rvvalo rvvaol rvvoal rvvola rvavlo rvavol rvalvo rvalov rvaolv rvaovl rvoval
rvovla rvoavl rvoalv rvolav rvolva

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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