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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: vittas
cipher variations:
wjuubt xkvvcu ylwwdv zmxxew anyyfx
bozzgy cpaahz dqbbia erccjb fsddkc
gteeld huffme ivggnf jwhhog kxiiph
lyjjqi mzkkrj nallsk obmmtl pcnnum
qdoovn reppwo sfqqxp tgrryq uhsszr

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: vittas
Cipher: erggzh

Read more ...

 

Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: vittas
Cipher: BBBAB ABAAA BAABA BAABA AAAAA BAAAB

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: vittas
cipher variations:
wjuubtmzggbdcpssbnsfeebxivqqbhylccbreraabluhmmbv
kxyybfankkbpqdwwbzgtiibjxkvvcunahhcedqttcotgffcy
jwrrcizmddcsfsbbcmvinncwlyzzcgbollcqrexxcahujjck
ylwwdvobiidferuudpuhggdzkxssdjaneedtgtccdnwjoodx
mzaadhcpmmdrsfyydbivkkdlzmxxewpcjjegfsvveqvihhea
lyttekboffeuhuddeoxkppeynabbeidqnnestgzzecjwllem
anyyfxqdkkfhgtwwfrwjiifbmzuuflcpggfviveefpylqqfz
obccfjerooftuhaafdkxmmfnbozzgyrellgihuxxgsxkjjgc
navvgmdqhhgwjwffgqzmrrgapcddgkfsppguvibbgelynngo
cpaahzsfmmhjivyyhtylkkhdobwwhneriihxkxgghransshb
qdeehlgtqqhvwjcchfmzoohpdqbbiatgnnikjwzziuzmllie
pcxxiofsjjiylyhhisbotticreffimhurriwxkddignappiq
erccjbuhoojlkxaajvanmmjfqdyyjpgtkkjzmziijtcpuujd
sfggjnivssjxyleejhobqqjrfsddkcvippkmlybbkwbonnkg
rezzkqhullkanajjkudqvvketghhkojwttkyzmffkipcrrks
gteeldwjqqlnmzcclxcpoolhsfaalrivmmlbobkklverwwlf
uhiilpkxuulzanggljqdsslthuffmexkrrmonaddmydqppmi
tgbbmsjwnnmcpcllmwfsxxmgvijjmqlyvvmabohhmkrettmu
ivggnfylssnpobeenzerqqnjuhccntkxoondqdmmnxgtyynh
wjkknrmzwwnbcpiinlsfuunvjwhhogzmttoqpcffoafsrrok
viddoulyppoerennoyhuzzoixkllosnaxxocdqjjomtgvvow
kxiiphanuuprqdggpbgtssplwjeepvmzqqpfsfoopzivaapj
ylmmptobyypderkkpnuhwwpxlyjjqibovvqsrehhqchuttqm
xkffqwnarrqgtgppqajwbbqkzmnnqupczzqefsllqovixxqy
mzkkrjcpwwrtsfiirdivuurnylggrxobssrhuhqqrbkxccrl
anoorvqdaarfgtmmrpwjyyrznallskdqxxsutgjjsejwvvso
zmhhsypcttsivirrsclyddsmboppswrebbsghunnsqxkzzsa
obmmtleryytvuhkktfkxwwtpaniitzqduutjwjsstdmzeetn
cpqqtxsfccthivootrylaatbpcnnumfszzuwvilluglyxxuq
bojjuarevvukxkttuenaffuodqrruytgdduijwppuszmbbuc
qdoovngtaavxwjmmvhmzyyvrcpkkvbsfwwvlyluuvfobggvp
erssvzuheevjkxqqvtanccvdreppwohubbwyxknnwinazzws
dqllwctgxxwmzmvvwgpchhwqfsttwaviffwklyrrwuboddwe
sfqqxpivccxzylooxjobaaxtermmxduhyyxnanwwxhqdiixr
gtuuxbwjggxlmzssxvcpeexftgrryqjwddyazmppykpcbbyu
fsnnyevizzyoboxxyirejjyshuvvycxkhhymnattywdqffyg
uhsszrkxeezbanqqzlqdcczvgtoozfwjaazpcpyyzjsfkkzt
ivwwzdyliiznobuuzxerggzhvittaslyffacborramreddaw
huppagxkbbaqdqzzaktgllaujwxxaezmjjaopcvvayfshhai

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: vittas
Cipher: ivggnf

Read more ...

 

Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: vittas
Cipher: 154244441134

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: vittas
method variations:
aoyyfxftddlclyiiqhqdoovn

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
v i t t a s 
1 4 4 4 1 3 
5 2 4 4 1 4 
They are then read out in rows:
144413524414
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: vittas
Cipher: qtlktq

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: vittas
method variations:
urtdld rtdldu tdldur
dldurt ldurtd durtdl

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: vittas

all 720 cipher variations:
vittas vittsa vitats vitast vitsat vitsta vittas vittsa vitats vitast vitsat
vitsta viatts viatst viatts viatst viastt viastt vistat vistta visatt visatt
vistat vistta vtitas vtitsa vtiats vtiast vtisat vtista vttias vttisa vttais
vttasi vttsai vttsia vtatis vtatsi vtaits vtaist vtasit vtasti vtstai vtstia
vtsati vtsait vtsiat vtsita vttias vttisa vttais vttasi vttsai vttsia vtitas
vtitsa vtiats vtiast vtisat vtista vtaits vtaist vtatis vtatsi vtasti vtasit
vtsiat vtsita vtsait vtsati vtstai vtstia vattis vattsi vatits vatist vatsit
vatsti vattis vattsi vatits vatist vatsit vatsti vaitts vaitst vaitts vaitst
vaistt vaistt vastit vastti vasitt vasitt vastit vastti vsttai vsttia vstati
vstait vstiat vstita vsttai vsttia vstati vstait vstiat vstita vsatti vsatit
vsatti vsatit vsaitt vsaitt vsitat vsitta vsiatt vsiatt vsitat vsitta ivttas
ivttsa ivtats ivtast ivtsat ivtsta ivttas ivttsa ivtats ivtast ivtsat ivtsta
ivatts ivatst ivatts ivatst ivastt ivastt ivstat ivstta ivsatt ivsatt ivstat
ivstta itvtas itvtsa itvats itvast itvsat itvsta ittvas ittvsa ittavs ittasv
ittsav ittsva itatvs itatsv itavts itavst itasvt itastv itstav itstva itsatv
itsavt itsvat itsvta ittvas ittvsa ittavs ittasv ittsav ittsva itvtas itvtsa
itvats itvast itvsat itvsta itavts itavst itatvs itatsv itastv itasvt itsvat
itsvta itsavt itsatv itstav itstva iattvs iattsv iatvts iatvst iatsvt iatstv
iattvs iattsv iatvts iatvst iatsvt iatstv iavtts iavtst iavtts iavtst iavstt
iavstt iastvt iasttv iasvtt iasvtt iastvt iasttv isttav isttva istatv istavt
istvat istvta isttav isttva istatv istavt istvat istvta isattv isatvt isattv
isatvt isavtt isavtt isvtat isvtta isvatt isvatt isvtat isvtta tivtas tivtsa
tivats tivast tivsat tivsta titvas titvsa titavs titasv titsav titsva tiatvs
tiatsv tiavts tiavst tiasvt tiastv tistav tistva tisatv tisavt tisvat tisvta
tvitas tvitsa tviats tviast tvisat tvista tvtias tvtisa tvtais tvtasi tvtsai
tvtsia tvatis tvatsi tvaits tvaist tvasit tvasti tvstai tvstia tvsati tvsait
tvsiat tvsita ttvias ttvisa ttvais ttvasi ttvsai ttvsia ttivas ttivsa ttiavs
ttiasv ttisav ttisva ttaivs ttaisv ttavis ttavsi ttasvi ttasiv ttsiav ttsiva
ttsaiv ttsavi ttsvai ttsvia tavtis tavtsi tavits tavist tavsit tavsti tatvis
tatvsi tativs tatisv tatsiv tatsvi taitvs taitsv taivts taivst taisvt taistv
tastiv tastvi tasitv tasivt tasvit tasvti tsvtai tsvtia tsvati tsvait tsviat
tsvita tstvai tstvia tstavi tstaiv tstiav tstiva tsatvi tsativ tsavti tsavit
tsaivt tsaitv tsitav tsitva tsiatv tsiavt tsivat tsivta titvas titvsa titavs
titasv titsav titsva tivtas tivtsa tivats tivast tivsat tivsta tiavts tiavst
tiatvs tiatsv tiastv tiasvt tisvat tisvta tisavt tisatv tistav tistva ttivas
ttivsa ttiavs ttiasv ttisav ttisva ttvias ttvisa ttvais ttvasi ttvsai ttvsia
ttavis ttavsi ttaivs ttaisv ttasiv ttasvi ttsvai ttsvia ttsavi ttsaiv ttsiav
ttsiva tvtias tvtisa tvtais tvtasi tvtsai tvtsia tvitas tvitsa tviats tviast
tvisat tvista tvaits tvaist tvatis tvatsi tvasti tvasit tvsiat tvsita tvsait
tvsati tvstai tvstia tatvis tatvsi tativs tatisv tatsiv tatsvi tavtis tavtsi
tavits tavist tavsit tavsti taivts taivst taitvs taitsv taistv taisvt tasvit
tasvti tasivt tasitv tastiv tastvi tstvai tstvia tstavi tstaiv tstiav tstiva
tsvtai tsvtia tsvati tsvait tsviat tsvita tsavti tsavit tsatvi tsativ tsaitv
tsaivt tsivat tsivta tsiavt tsiatv tsitav tsitva aittvs aittsv aitvts aitvst
aitsvt aitstv aittvs aittsv aitvts aitvst aitsvt aitstv aivtts aivtst aivtts
aivtst aivstt aivstt aistvt aisttv aisvtt aisvtt aistvt aisttv atitvs atitsv
ativts ativst atisvt atistv attivs attisv attvis attvsi attsvi attsiv atvtis
atvtsi atvits atvist atvsit atvsti atstvi atstiv atsvti atsvit atsivt atsitv
attivs attisv attvis attvsi attsvi attsiv atitvs atitsv ativts ativst atisvt
atistv atvits atvist atvtis atvtsi atvsti atvsit atsivt atsitv atsvit atsvti
atstvi atstiv avttis avttsi avtits avtist avtsit avtsti avttis avttsi avtits
avtist avtsit avtsti avitts avitst avitts avitst avistt avistt avstit avstti
avsitt avsitt avstit avstti asttvi asttiv astvti astvit astivt astitv asttvi
asttiv astvti astvit astivt astitv asvtti asvtit asvtti asvtit asvitt asvitt
asitvt asittv asivtt asivtt asitvt asittv sittav sittva sitatv sitavt sitvat
sitvta sittav sittva sitatv sitavt sitvat sitvta siattv siatvt siattv siatvt
siavtt siavtt sivtat sivtta sivatt sivatt sivtat sivtta stitav stitva stiatv
stiavt stivat stivta sttiav sttiva sttaiv sttavi sttvai sttvia stativ statvi
staitv staivt stavit stavti stvtai stvtia stvati stvait stviat stvita sttiav
sttiva sttaiv sttavi sttvai sttvia stitav stitva stiatv stiavt stivat stivta
staitv staivt stativ statvi stavti stavit stviat stvita stvait stvati stvtai
stvtia sattiv sattvi satitv sativt satvit satvti sattiv sattvi satitv sativt
satvit satvti saittv saitvt saittv saitvt saivtt saivtt savtit savtti savitt
savitt savtit savtti svttai svttia svtati svtait svtiat svtita svttai svttia
svtati svtait svtiat svtita svatti svatit svatti svatit svaitt svaitt svitat
svitta sviatt sviatt svitat svitta

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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