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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: vineet
cipher variations:
wjoffu xkpggv ylqhhw zmriix ansjjy
botkkz cpulla dqvmmb erwnnc fsxood
gtyppe huzqqf ivarrg jwbssh kxctti
lyduuj mzevvk nafwwl obgxxm pchyyn
qdizzo rejaap sfkbbq tglccr uhmdds

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: vineet
Cipher: ermvvg

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: vineet

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: vineet
cipher variations:

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x

An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: vineet
Cipher: ivarrg

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: vineet
Cipher: 154233515144

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: vineet
method variations:

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
v i n e e t 
1 4 3 5 5 4 
5 2 3 1 1 4 
They are then read out in rows:
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: vineet
Cipher: qxukcq

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Method #3

Plaintext: vineet
method variations:
umxvqd mxvqdu xvqdum
vqdumx qdumxv dumxvq

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: vineet

all 720 cipher variations:
vineet vinete vineet vinete vintee vintee vienet viente vieent vieetn vieten
vietne vieent vieetn vienet viente vietne vieten viteen vitene viteen vitene
vitnee vitnee vnieet vniete vnieet vniete vnitee vnitee vneiet vneite vneeit
vneeti vnetei vnetie vneeit vneeti vneiet vneite vnetie vnetei vnteei vnteie
vnteei vnteie vntiee vntiee veniet venite veneit veneti ventei ventie veinet
veinte veient veietn veiten veitne veeint veeitn veenit veenti veetni veetin
vetien vetine vetein veteni vetnei vetnie veneit veneti veniet venite ventie
ventei veenit veenti veeint veeitn veetin veetni veient veietn veinet veinte
veitne veiten vetein veteni vetien vetine vetnie vetnei vtneei vtneie vtneei
vtneie vtniee vtniee vtenei vtenie vteeni vteein vteien vteine vteeni vteein
vtenei vtenie vteine vteien vtieen vtiene vtieen vtiene vtinee vtinee ivneet
ivnete ivneet ivnete ivntee ivntee ivenet ivente iveent iveetn iveten ivetne
iveent iveetn ivenet ivente ivetne iveten ivteen ivtene ivteen ivtene ivtnee
ivtnee inveet invete inveet invete invtee invtee inevet inevte ineevt ineetv
inetev inetve ineevt ineetv inevet inevte inetve inetev inteev inteve inteev
inteve intvee intvee ienvet ienvte ienevt ienetv ientev ientve ievnet ievnte
ievent ievetn ievten ievtne ieevnt ieevtn ieenvt ieentv ieetnv ieetvn ietven
ietvne ietevn ietenv ietnev ietnve ienevt ienetv ienvet ienvte ientve ientev
ieenvt ieentv ieevnt ieevtn ieetvn ieetnv ievent ievetn ievnet ievnte ievtne
ievten ietevn ietenv ietven ietvne ietnve ietnev itneev itneve itneev itneve
itnvee itnvee itenev itenve iteenv iteevn iteven itevne iteenv iteevn itenev
itenve itevne iteven itveen itvene itveen itvene itvnee itvnee niveet nivete
niveet nivete nivtee nivtee nievet nievte nieevt nieetv nietev nietve nieevt
nieetv nievet nievte nietve nietev niteev niteve niteev niteve nitvee nitvee
nvieet nviete nvieet nviete nvitee nvitee nveiet nveite nveeit nveeti nvetei
nvetie nveeit nveeti nveiet nveite nvetie nvetei nvteei nvteie nvteei nvteie
nvtiee nvtiee neviet nevite neveit neveti nevtei nevtie neivet neivte neievt
neietv neitev neitve neeivt neeitv neevit neevti neetvi neetiv netiev netive
neteiv netevi netvei netvie neveit neveti neviet nevite nevtie nevtei neevit
neevti neeivt neeitv neetiv neetvi neievt neietv neivet neivte neitve neitev
neteiv netevi netiev netive netvie netvei ntveei ntveie ntveei ntveie ntviee
ntviee ntevei ntevie nteevi nteeiv nteiev nteive nteevi nteeiv ntevei ntevie
nteive nteiev ntieev ntieve ntieev ntieve ntivee ntivee einvet einvte einevt
einetv eintev eintve eivnet eivnte eivent eivetn eivten eivtne eievnt eievtn
eienvt eientv eietnv eietvn eitven eitvne eitevn eitenv eitnev eitnve enivet
enivte enievt enietv enitev enitve enviet envite enveit enveti envtei envtie
enevit enevti eneivt eneitv enetiv enetvi entvei entvie entevi enteiv entiev
entive evniet evnite evneit evneti evntei evntie evinet evinte evient evietn
eviten evitne eveint eveitn evenit eventi evetni evetin evtien evtine evtein
evteni evtnei evtnie eenvit eenvti eenivt eenitv eentiv eentvi eevnit eevnti
eevint eevitn eevtin eevtni eeivnt eeivtn eeinvt eeintv eeitnv eeitvn eetvin
eetvni eetivn eetinv eetniv eetnvi etnvei etnvie etnevi etneiv etniev etnive
etvnei etvnie etveni etvein etvien etvine etevni etevin etenvi eteniv eteinv
eteivn etiven etivne etievn etienv etinev etinve einevt einetv einvet einvte
eintve eintev eienvt eientv eievnt eievtn eietvn eietnv eivent eivetn eivnet
eivnte eivtne eivten eitevn eitenv eitven eitvne eitnve eitnev enievt enietv
enivet enivte enitve enitev eneivt eneitv enevit enevti enetvi enetiv enveit
enveti enviet envite envtie envtei entevi enteiv entvei entvie entive entiev
eenivt eenitv eenvit eenvti eentvi eentiv eeinvt eeintv eeivnt eeivtn eeitvn
eeitnv eevint eevitn eevnit eevnti eevtni eevtin eetivn eetinv eetvin eetvni
eetnvi eetniv evneit evneti evniet evnite evntie evntei evenit eventi eveint
eveitn evetin evetni evient evietn evinet evinte evitne eviten evtein evteni
evtien evtine evtnie evtnei etnevi etneiv etnvei etnvie etnive etniev etenvi
eteniv etevni etevin eteivn eteinv etveni etvein etvnei etvnie etvine etvien
etievn etienv etiven etivne etinve etinev tineev tineve tineev tineve tinvee
tinvee tienev tienve tieenv tieevn tieven tievne tieenv tieevn tienev tienve
tievne tieven tiveen tivene tiveen tivene tivnee tivnee tnieev tnieve tnieev
tnieve tnivee tnivee tneiev tneive tneeiv tneevi tnevei tnevie tneeiv tneevi
tneiev tneive tnevie tnevei tnveei tnveie tnveei tnveie tnviee tnviee teniev
tenive teneiv tenevi tenvei tenvie teinev teinve teienv teievn teiven teivne
teeinv teeivn teeniv teenvi teevni teevin tevien tevine tevein teveni tevnei
tevnie teneiv tenevi teniev tenive tenvie tenvei teeniv teenvi teeinv teeivn
teevin teevni teienv teievn teinev teinve teivne teiven tevein teveni tevien
tevine tevnie tevnei tvneei tvneie tvneei tvneie tvniee tvniee tvenei tvenie
tveeni tveein tveien tveine tveeni tveein tvenei tvenie tveine tveien tvieen
tviene tvieen tviene tvinee tvinee

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History of cryptography
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