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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: vaycay
cipher variations:
wbzdbz xcaeca ydbfdb zecgec afdhfd
bgeige chfjhf digkig ejhljh fkimki
gljnlj hmkomk inlpnl jomqom kpnrpn
lqosqo mrptrp nsqusq otrvtr puswus
qvtxvt rwuywu sxvzxv tywayw uzxbzx

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: vaycay
Cipher: ezbxzb

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: vaycay
Cipher: BBBAB AAAAA BABBA AAABA AAAAA BABBA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: vaycay
cipher variations:
wbzdbzmbvhbvcbrlbrsbnpbnibjtbjybfxbfebxfbxubtjbt
kbpnbpablrblqbhvbhgbdzbdxcaecancwicwdcsmcstcoqco
jckuckzcgycgfcygcyvcukculcqocqbcmscmrciwcihceace
ydbfdbodxjdxedtndtudprdpkdlvdladhzdhgdzhdzwdvldv
mdrpdrcdntdnsdjxdjidfbdfzecgecpeykeyfeuoeuveqseq
lemwembeiaeiheaieaxewmewnesqesdeoueotekyekjegceg
afdhfdqfzlfzgfvpfvwfrtfrmfnxfncfjbfjifbjfbyfxnfx
oftrftefpvfpuflzflkfhdfhbgeigergamgahgwqgwxgsugs
ngoygodgkcgkjgckgczgyogypgusgufgqwgqvgmagmlgiegi
chfjhfshbnhbihxrhxyhtvhtohpzhpehldhlkhdlhdahzphz
qhvthvghrxhrwhnbhnmhjfhjdigkigticoicjiysiyziuwiu
piqaiqfimeimliemiebiaqiariwuiwhisyisxiocionikgik
ejhljhujdpjdkjztjzajvxjvqjrbjrgjnfjnmjfnjfcjbrjb
sjxvjxijtzjtyjpdjpojlhjlfkimkivkeqkelkaukabkwykw
rksckshkogkonkgokgdkcskctkywkyjkuakuzkqekqpkmikm
gljnljwlfrlfmlbvlbclxzlxsltdltilphlpolhplheldtld
ulzxlzklvblvalrflrqlnjlnhmkomkxmgsmgnmcwmcdmyamy
tmuemujmqimqpmiqmifmeumevmaymalmwcmwbmsgmsrmokmo
inlpnlynhtnhondxndenzbnzunvfnvknrjnrqnjrnjgnfvnf
wnbznbmnxdnxcnthntsnplnpjomqomzoiuoipoeyoefoacoa
vowgowloskosroksokhogwogxocaocnoyeoydouioutoqmoq
kpnrpnapjvpjqpfzpfgpbdpbwpxhpxmptlptspltpliphxph
ypdbpdopzfpzepvjpvuprnprlqosqobqkwqkrqgaqghqceqc
xqyiqynqumqutqmuqmjqiyqizqecqepqagqafqwkqwvqsoqs
mrptrpcrlxrlsrhbrhirdfrdyrzjrzorvnrvurnvrnkrjzrj
arfdrfqrbhrbgrxlrxwrtprtnsqusqdsmysmtsicsijsegse
zsaksapswoswvsowsolskaskbsgesgrscischsymsyxsuqsu
otrvtretnztnutjdtjktfhtfatbltbqtxptxwtpxtpmtlbtl
cthfthstdjtditzntzytvrtvpuswusfuoauovukeuklugiug
bucmucruyquyxuqyuqnumcumduiguituekuejuaouazuwsuw
qvtxvtgvpbvpwvlfvlmvhjvhcvdnvdsvzrvzyvrzvrovndvn
evjhvjuvflvfkvbpvbavxtvxrwuywuhwqcwqxwmgwmnwikwi
dweowetwaswazwsawspwoewofwkiwkvwgmwglwcqwcbwyuwy
sxvzxvixrdxryxnhxnoxjlxjexfpxfuxbtxbaxtbxtqxpfxp
gxljxlwxhnxhmxdrxdcxzvxztywaywjyseyszyoiyopykmyk
fygqygvycuycbyucyuryqgyqhymkymxyioyinyesyedyawya
uzxbzxkztfztazpjzpqzlnzlgzhrzhwzdvzdczvdzvszrhzr
iznlznyzjpzjozftzfezbxzbvaycaylaugaubaqkaqramoam
haisaixaewaedaweawtasiasjaomaozakqakpaguagfacyac

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: vaycay
Cipher: inlpnl

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: vaycay
Cipher: 151145311145

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: vaycay
method variations:
afdhfdflinlilqosqoqvtxvt

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
v a y c a y 
1 1 4 3 1 4 
5 1 5 1 1 5 
They are then read out in rows:
114314515115
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: vaycay
Cipher: aoqeev

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: vaycay
method variations:
eqpaqe qpaqee paqeeq
aqeeqp qeeqpa eeqpaq

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: vaycay

all 720 cipher variations:
vaycay vaycya vayacy vayayc vayyac vayyca vacyay vacyya vacayy vacayy vacyay
vacyya vaacyy vaacyy vaaycy vaayyc vaayyc vaaycy vaycay vaycya vayacy vayayc
vayyac vayyca vyacay vyacya vyaacy vyaayc vyayac vyayca vycaay vycaya vycaay
vycaya vycyaa vycyaa vyacay vyacya vyaacy vyaayc vyayac vyayca vyycaa vyycaa
vyyaca vyyaac vyyaac vyyaca vcyaay vcyaya vcyaay vcyaya vcyyaa vcyyaa vcayay
vcayya vcaayy vcaayy vcayay vcayya vcaayy vcaayy vcayay vcayya vcayya vcayay
vcyaay vcyaya vcyaay vcyaya vcyyaa vcyyaa vaycay vaycya vayacy vayayc vayyac
vayyca vacyay vacyya vacayy vacayy vacyay vacyya vaacyy vaacyy vaaycy vaayyc
vaayyc vaaycy vaycay vaycya vayacy vayayc vayyac vayyca vyycaa vyycaa vyyaca
vyyaac vyyaac vyyaca vycyaa vycyaa vycaya vycaay vycaay vycaya vyacya vyacay
vyayca vyayac vyaayc vyaacy vyacay vyacya vyaacy vyaayc vyayac vyayca avycay
avycya avyacy avyayc avyyac avyyca avcyay avcyya avcayy avcayy avcyay avcyya
avacyy avacyy avaycy avayyc avayyc avaycy avycay avycya avyacy avyayc avyyac
avyyca ayvcay ayvcya ayvacy ayvayc ayvyac ayvyca aycvay aycvya aycavy aycayv
aycyav aycyva ayacvy ayacyv ayavcy ayavyc ayayvc ayaycv ayycav ayycva ayyacv
ayyavc ayyvac ayyvca acyvay acyvya acyavy acyayv acyyav acyyva acvyay acvyya
acvayy acvayy acvyay acvyya acavyy acavyy acayvy acayyv acayyv acayvy acyvay
acyvya acyavy acyayv acyyav acyyva aaycvy aaycyv aayvcy aayvyc aayyvc aayycv
aacyvy aacyyv aacvyy aacvyy aacyvy aacyyv aavcyy aavcyy aavycy aavyyc aavyyc
aavycy aaycvy aaycyv aayvcy aayvyc aayyvc aayycv ayycav ayycva ayyacv ayyavc
ayyvac ayyvca aycyav aycyva aycayv aycavy aycvay aycvya ayacyv ayacvy ayaycv
ayayvc ayavyc ayavcy ayvcay ayvcya ayvacy ayvayc ayvyac ayvyca yavcay yavcya
yavacy yavayc yavyac yavyca yacvay yacvya yacavy yacayv yacyav yacyva yaacvy
yaacyv yaavcy yaavyc yaayvc yaaycv yaycav yaycva yayacv yayavc yayvac yayvca
yvacay yvacya yvaacy yvaayc yvayac yvayca yvcaay yvcaya yvcaay yvcaya yvcyaa
yvcyaa yvacay yvacya yvaacy yvaayc yvayac yvayca yvycaa yvycaa yvyaca yvyaac
yvyaac yvyaca ycvaay ycvaya ycvaay ycvaya ycvyaa ycvyaa ycavay ycavya ycaavy
ycaayv ycayav ycayva ycaavy ycaayv ycavay ycavya ycayva ycayav ycyaav ycyava
ycyaav ycyava ycyvaa ycyvaa yavcay yavcya yavacy yavayc yavyac yavyca yacvay
yacvya yacavy yacayv yacyav yacyva yaacvy yaacyv yaavcy yaavyc yaayvc yaaycv
yaycav yaycva yayacv yayavc yayvac yayvca yyvcaa yyvcaa yyvaca yyvaac yyvaac
yyvaca yycvaa yycvaa yycava yycaav yycaav yycava yyacva yyacav yyavca yyavac
yyaavc yyaacv yyacav yyacva yyaacv yyaavc yyavac yyavca cayvay cayvya cayavy
cayayv cayyav cayyva cavyay cavyya cavayy cavayy cavyay cavyya caavyy caavyy
caayvy caayyv caayyv caayvy cayvay cayvya cayavy cayayv cayyav cayyva cyavay
cyavya cyaavy cyaayv cyayav cyayva cyvaay cyvaya cyvaay cyvaya cyvyaa cyvyaa
cyavay cyavya cyaavy cyaayv cyayav cyayva cyyvaa cyyvaa cyyava cyyaav cyyaav
cyyava cvyaay cvyaya cvyaay cvyaya cvyyaa cvyyaa cvayay cvayya cvaayy cvaayy
cvayay cvayya cvaayy cvaayy cvayay cvayya cvayya cvayay cvyaay cvyaya cvyaay
cvyaya cvyyaa cvyyaa cayvay cayvya cayavy cayayv cayyav cayyva cavyay cavyya
cavayy cavayy cavyay cavyya caavyy caavyy caayvy caayyv caayyv caayvy cayvay
cayvya cayavy cayayv cayyav cayyva cyyvaa cyyvaa cyyava cyyaav cyyaav cyyava
cyvyaa cyvyaa cyvaya cyvaay cyvaay cyvaya cyavya cyavay cyayva cyayav cyaayv
cyaavy cyavay cyavya cyaavy cyaayv cyayav cyayva aaycvy aaycyv aayvcy aayvyc
aayyvc aayycv aacyvy aacyyv aacvyy aacvyy aacyvy aacyyv aavcyy aavcyy aavycy
aavyyc aavyyc aavycy aaycvy aaycyv aayvcy aayvyc aayyvc aayycv ayacvy ayacyv
ayavcy ayavyc ayayvc ayaycv aycavy aycayv aycvay aycvya aycyva aycyav ayvcay
ayvcya ayvacy ayvayc ayvyac ayvyca ayycva ayycav ayyvca ayyvac ayyavc ayyacv
acyavy acyayv acyvay acyvya acyyva acyyav acayvy acayyv acavyy acavyy acayvy
acayyv acvayy acvayy acvyay acvyya acvyya acvyay acyavy acyayv acyvay acyvya
acyyva acyyav avycay avycya avyacy avyayc avyyac avyyca avcyay avcyya avcayy
avcayy avcyay avcyya avacyy avacyy avaycy avayyc avayyc avaycy avycay avycya
avyacy avyayc avyyac avyyca ayycva ayycav ayyvca ayyvac ayyavc ayyacv aycyva
aycyav aycvya aycvay aycavy aycayv ayvcya ayvcay ayvyca ayvyac ayvayc ayvacy
ayacvy ayacyv ayavcy ayavyc ayayvc ayaycv yaycav yaycva yayacv yayavc yayvac
yayvca yacyav yacyva yacayv yacavy yacvay yacvya yaacyv yaacvy yaaycv yaayvc
yaavyc yaavcy yavcay yavcya yavacy yavayc yavyac yavyca yyacav yyacva yyaacv
yyaavc yyavac yyavca yycaav yycava yycaav yycava yycvaa yycvaa yyacav yyacva
yyaacv yyaavc yyavac yyavca yyvcaa yyvcaa yyvaca yyvaac yyvaac yyvaca ycyaav
ycyava ycyaav ycyava ycyvaa ycyvaa ycayav ycayva ycaayv ycaavy ycavay ycavya
ycaayv ycaavy ycayav ycayva ycavya ycavay ycvaay ycvaya ycvaay ycvaya ycvyaa
ycvyaa yaycav yaycva yayacv yayavc yayvac yayvca yacyav yacyva yacayv yacavy
yacvay yacvya yaacyv yaacvy yaaycv yaayvc yaavyc yaavcy yavcay yavcya yavacy
yavayc yavyac yavyca yvycaa yvycaa yvyaca yvyaac yvyaac yvyaca yvcyaa yvcyaa
yvcaya yvcaay yvcaay yvcaya yvacya yvacay yvayca yvayac yvaayc yvaacy yvacay
yvacya yvaacy yvaayc yvayac yvayca

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History of cryptography
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