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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: vallus
cipher variations:
wbmmvt xcnnwu ydooxv zeppyw afqqzx
bgrray chssbz dittca ejuudb fkvvec
glwwfd hmxxge inyyhf jozzig kpaajh
lqbbki mrcclj nsddmk oteenl puffom
qvggpn rwhhqo sxiirp tyjjsq uzkktr

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: vallus
Cipher: ezoofh

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: vallus
Cipher: BBBAB AAAAA ABABA ABABA BAABB BAAAB

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: vallus
cipher variations:
wbmmvtmbiijdcbeexnsbaalxibwwzhybssnrebkkplubggdv
kbccrfabyyfpqbuutzgbqqhjxcnnwuncjjkedcffyotcbbmy
jcxxaizcttosfcllqmvchhewlcddsgbczzgqrcvvuahcrrik
ydooxvodkklfedggzpudccnzkdyybjaduuptgdmmrnwdiifx
mdeethcdaahrsdwwvbidssjlzeppywpellmgfehhaqveddoa
lezzckbevvquhennsoxejjgyneffuidebbistexxwcjettkm
afqqzxqfmmnhgfiibrwfeepbmfaadlcfwwrvifootpyfkkhz
ofggvjefccjtufyyxdkfuulnbgrrayrgnnoihgjjcsxgffqc
ngbbemdgxxswjgppuqzglliapghhwkfgddkuvgzzyelgvvmo
chssbzshoopjihkkdtyhggrdohccfnehyytxkhqqvrahmmjb
qhiixlgheelvwhaazfmhwwnpdittcatippqkjilleuzihhse
piddgofizzuylirrwsbinnkcrijjymhiffmwxibbagnixxoq
ejuudbujqqrlkjmmfvajiitfqjeehpgjaavzmjssxtcjoold
sjkkznijggnxyjccbhojyyprfkvvecvkrrsmlknngwbkjjug
rkffiqhkbbwankttyudkppmetkllaojkhhoyzkddcipkzzqs
glwwfdwlsstnmloohxclkkvhslggjrilccxboluuzvelqqnf
ulmmbpkliipzaleedjqlaarthmxxgexmttuonmppiydmllwi
tmhhksjmddycpmvvawfmrrogvmnncqlmjjqabmffekrmbbsu
inyyhfynuuvponqqjzenmmxjuniiltkneezdqnwwbxgnssph
wnoodrmnkkrbcnggflsncctvjozzigzovvwqporrkafonnyk
vojjmuloffaeroxxcyhottqixoppesnollscdohhgmtodduw
kpaajhapwwxrqpsslbgpoozlwpkknvmpggbfspyydzipuurj
ypqqftopmmtdepiihnupeevxlqbbkibqxxysrqttmchqppam
xqllownqhhcgtqzzeajqvvskzqrrgupqnnuefqjjiovqffwy
mrccljcryyztsruundirqqbnyrmmpxoriidhuraafbkrwwtl
arsshvqroovfgrkkjpwrggxznsddmkdszzautsvvoejsrrco
zsnnqypsjjeivsbbgclsxxumbsttiwrsppwghsllkqxshhya
oteenletaabvutwwpfktssdpatoorzqtkkfjwtcchdmtyyvn
ctuujxstqqxhitmmlrytiizbpuffomfubbcwvuxxqglutteq
buppsarullgkxuddienuzzwoduvvkyturryijunnmszujjac
qvggpngvccdxwvyyrhmvuufrcvqqtbsvmmhlyveejfovaaxp
evwwlzuvsszjkvoontavkkbdrwhhqohwddeyxwzzsinwvvgs
dwrructwnnimzwffkgpwbbyqfwxxmavwttaklwppoubwllce
sxiirpixeefzyxaatjoxwwhtexssvduxoojnaxgglhqxcczr
gxyynbwxuublmxqqpvcxmmdftyjjsqjyffgazybbukpyxxiu
fyttwevyppkobyhhmiryddashyzzocxyvvcmnyrrqwdynneg
uzkktrkzgghbazccvlqzyyjvgzuuxfwzqqlpcziinjszeebt
izaapdyzwwdnozssrxezoofhvalluslahhicbaddwmrazzkw
havvygxarrmqdajjoktaffcujabbqezaxxeopattsyfappgi

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: vallus
Cipher: inyyhf

Read more ...

 

Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: vallus
Cipher: 151113135434

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: vallus
method variations:
afqqzxflvveclqaakhqvffpn

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
v a l l u s 
1 1 1 1 5 3 
5 1 3 3 4 4 
They are then read out in rows:
111153513344
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: vallus
Cipher: aapent

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: vallus
method variations:
eacxod acxode cxodea
xodeac odeacx deacxo

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: vallus

all 720 cipher variations:
vallus vallsu valuls valusl valsul valslu vallus vallsu valuls valusl valsul
valslu vaulls vaulsl vaulls vaulsl vausll vausll vaslul vasllu vasull vasull
vaslul vasllu vlalus vlalsu vlauls vlausl vlasul vlaslu vllaus vllasu vlluas
vllusa vllsua vllsau vlulas vlulsa vluals vluasl vlusal vlusla vlslua vlslau
vlsula vlsual vlsaul vlsalu vllaus vllasu vlluas vllusa vllsua vllsau vlalus
vlalsu vlauls vlausl vlasul vlaslu vluals vluasl vlulas vlulsa vlusla vlusal
vlsaul vlsalu vlsual vlsula vlslua vlslau vullas vullsa vulals vulasl vulsal
vulsla vullas vullsa vulals vulasl vulsal vulsla vualls vualsl vualls vualsl
vuasll vuasll vuslal vuslla vusall vusall vuslal vuslla vsllua vsllau vslula
vslual vslaul vslalu vsllua vsllau vslula vslual vslaul vslalu vsulla vsulal
vsulla vsulal vsuall vsuall vsalul vsallu vsaull vsaull vsalul vsallu avllus
avllsu avluls avlusl avlsul avlslu avllus avllsu avluls avlusl avlsul avlslu
avulls avulsl avulls avulsl avusll avusll avslul avsllu avsull avsull avslul
avsllu alvlus alvlsu alvuls alvusl alvsul alvslu allvus allvsu alluvs allusv
allsuv allsvu alulvs alulsv aluvls aluvsl alusvl aluslv alsluv alslvu alsulv
alsuvl alsvul alsvlu allvus allvsu alluvs allusv allsuv allsvu alvlus alvlsu
alvuls alvusl alvsul alvslu aluvls aluvsl alulvs alulsv aluslv alusvl alsvul
alsvlu alsuvl alsulv alsluv alslvu aullvs aullsv aulvls aulvsl aulsvl aulslv
aullvs aullsv aulvls aulvsl aulsvl aulslv auvlls auvlsl auvlls auvlsl auvsll
auvsll auslvl ausllv ausvll ausvll auslvl ausllv aslluv asllvu aslulv asluvl
aslvul aslvlu aslluv asllvu aslulv asluvl aslvul aslvlu asullv asulvl asullv
asulvl asuvll asuvll asvlul asvllu asvull asvull asvlul asvllu lavlus lavlsu
lavuls lavusl lavsul lavslu lalvus lalvsu laluvs lalusv lalsuv lalsvu laulvs
laulsv lauvls lauvsl lausvl lauslv lasluv laslvu lasulv lasuvl lasvul lasvlu
lvalus lvalsu lvauls lvausl lvasul lvaslu lvlaus lvlasu lvluas lvlusa lvlsua
lvlsau lvulas lvulsa lvuals lvuasl lvusal lvusla lvslua lvslau lvsula lvsual
lvsaul lvsalu llvaus llvasu llvuas llvusa llvsua llvsau llavus llavsu llauvs
llausv llasuv llasvu lluavs lluasv lluvas lluvsa llusva llusav llsauv llsavu
llsuav llsuva llsvua llsvau luvlas luvlsa luvals luvasl luvsal luvsla lulvas
lulvsa lulavs lulasv lulsav lulsva lualvs lualsv luavls luavsl luasvl luaslv
luslav luslva lusalv lusavl lusval lusvla lsvlua lsvlau lsvula lsvual lsvaul
lsvalu lslvua lslvau lsluva lsluav lslauv lslavu lsulva lsulav lsuvla lsuval
lsuavl lsualv lsaluv lsalvu lsaulv lsauvl lsavul lsavlu lalvus lalvsu laluvs
lalusv lalsuv lalsvu lavlus lavlsu lavuls lavusl lavsul lavslu lauvls lauvsl
laulvs laulsv lauslv lausvl lasvul lasvlu lasuvl lasulv lasluv laslvu llavus
llavsu llauvs llausv llasuv llasvu llvaus llvasu llvuas llvusa llvsua llvsau
lluvas lluvsa lluavs lluasv llusav llusva llsvua llsvau llsuva llsuav llsauv
llsavu lvlaus lvlasu lvluas lvlusa lvlsua lvlsau lvalus lvalsu lvauls lvausl
lvasul lvaslu lvuals lvuasl lvulas lvulsa lvusla lvusal lvsaul lvsalu lvsual
lvsula lvslua lvslau lulvas lulvsa lulavs lulasv lulsav lulsva luvlas luvlsa
luvals luvasl luvsal luvsla luavls luavsl lualvs lualsv luaslv luasvl lusval
lusvla lusavl lusalv luslav luslva lslvua lslvau lsluva lsluav lslauv lslavu
lsvlua lsvlau lsvula lsvual lsvaul lsvalu lsuvla lsuval lsulva lsulav lsualv
lsuavl lsavul lsavlu lsauvl lsaulv lsaluv lsalvu uallvs uallsv ualvls ualvsl
ualsvl ualslv uallvs uallsv ualvls ualvsl ualsvl ualslv uavlls uavlsl uavlls
uavlsl uavsll uavsll uaslvl uasllv uasvll uasvll uaslvl uasllv ulalvs ulalsv
ulavls ulavsl ulasvl ulaslv ullavs ullasv ullvas ullvsa ullsva ullsav ulvlas
ulvlsa ulvals ulvasl ulvsal ulvsla ulslva ulslav ulsvla ulsval ulsavl ulsalv
ullavs ullasv ullvas ullvsa ullsva ullsav ulalvs ulalsv ulavls ulavsl ulasvl
ulaslv ulvals ulvasl ulvlas ulvlsa ulvsla ulvsal ulsavl ulsalv ulsval ulsvla
ulslva ulslav uvllas uvllsa uvlals uvlasl uvlsal uvlsla uvllas uvllsa uvlals
uvlasl uvlsal uvlsla uvalls uvalsl uvalls uvalsl uvasll uvasll uvslal uvslla
uvsall uvsall uvslal uvslla usllva usllav uslvla uslval uslavl uslalv usllva
usllav uslvla uslval uslavl uslalv usvlla usvlal usvlla usvlal usvall usvall
usalvl usallv usavll usavll usalvl usallv salluv sallvu salulv saluvl salvul
salvlu salluv sallvu salulv saluvl salvul salvlu saullv saulvl saullv saulvl
sauvll sauvll savlul savllu savull savull savlul savllu slaluv slalvu slaulv
slauvl slavul slavlu sllauv sllavu slluav slluva sllvua sllvau slulav slulva
slualv sluavl sluval sluvla slvlua slvlau slvula slvual slvaul slvalu sllauv
sllavu slluav slluva sllvua sllvau slaluv slalvu slaulv slauvl slavul slavlu
slualv sluavl slulav slulva sluvla sluval slvaul slvalu slvual slvula slvlua
slvlau sullav sullva sulalv sulavl sulval sulvla sullav sullva sulalv sulavl
sulval sulvla suallv sualvl suallv sualvl suavll suavll suvlal suvlla suvall
suvall suvlal suvlla svllua svllau svlula svlual svlaul svlalu svllua svllau
svlula svlual svlaul svlalu svulla svulal svulla svulal svuall svuall svalul
svallu svaull svaull svalul svallu

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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