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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: uritur
cipher variations:
vsjuvs wtkvwt xulwxu yvmxyv zwnyzw
axozax bypaby czqbcz darcda ebsdeb
fctefc gdufgd hevghe ifwhif jgxijg
khyjkh lizkli mjalmj nkbmnk olcnol
pmdopm qnepqn rofqro spgrsp tqhstq

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: uritur
Cipher: firgfi

Read more ...

 

Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: uritur
Cipher: BAABB BAAAA ABAAA BAABA BAABB BAAAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: uritur
cipher variations:
vsjuvsjazgjaxipsxilqfelqzyvqzynglcngpwrapwdehmde
rmxyrmfunkfutcdwtchktihkwtkvwtkbahkbyjqtyjmrgfmr
azwrazohmdohqxsbqxefinefsnyzsngvolgvudexudilujil
xulwxulcbilczkruzknshgnsbaxsbapinepirytcryfgjofg
tozatohwpmhwvefyvejmvkjmyvmxyvmdcjmdalsvalotihot
cbytcbqjofqjszudszghkpghupabupixqnixwfgzwfknwlkn
zwnyzwnedknebmtwbmpujipudczudcrkpgrktavetahilqhi
vqbcvqjyrojyxghaxgloxmloaxozaxofelofcnuxcnqvkjqv
edavedslqhslubwfubijmrijwrcdwrkzspkzyhibyhmpynmp
bypabypgfmpgdovydorwlkrwfebwfetmritmvcxgvcjknsjk
xsdexslatqlazijczinqzonqczqbczqhgnqhepwzepsxmlsx
gfcxgfunsjunwdyhwdklotklytefytmburmbajkdajorapor
darcdarihorifqxafqtynmtyhgdyhgvotkvoxezixelmpulm
zufgzuncvsncbklebkpsbqpsebsdebsjipsjgrybgruzonuz
ihezihwpulwpyfajyfmnqvmnavghavodwtodclmfclqtcrqt
fctefctkjqtkhszchsvapovajifajixqvmxqzgbkzgnorwno
bwhibwpexupedmngdmrudsrugdufgdulkrulitaditwbqpwb
kjgbkjyrwnyrahclahopsxopcxijcxqfyvqfenohensvetsv
hevghevmlsvmjubejuxcrqxclkhclkzsxozsbidmbipqtypq
dyjkdyrgzwrgfopifotwfutwifwhifwnmtwnkvcfkvydsryd
mlidmlatypatcjencjqruzqrezklezshaxshgpqjgpuxgvux
jgxijgxonuxolwdglwzetszenmjenmbuzqbudkfodkrsvars
falmfatibytihqrkhqvyhwvykhyjkhypovypmxehmxafutaf
onkfoncvarcvelgpelstwbstgbmngbujczujirslirwzixwz
lizklizqpwzqnyfinybgvubgpolgpodwbsdwfmhqfmtuxctu
hcnohcvkdavkjstmjsxajyxamjalmjarqxarozgjozchwvch
qpmhqpexctexgnirgnuvyduvidopidwlebwlktunktybkzyb
nkbmnkbsrybspahkpadixwdirqnirqfydufyhojshovwzevw
jepqjexmfcxmluvoluzclazcolcnolctszctqbilqbejyxej
srojsrgzevgzipktipwxafwxkfqrkfyngdynmvwpmvadmbad
pmdopmdutadurcjmrcfkzyfktspktshafwhajqlujqxybgxy
lgrslgzohezonwxqnwbencbeqnepqnevubevsdknsdglazgl
utqlutibgxibkrmvkryzchyzmhstmhapifapoxyroxcfodcf
rofqrofwvcfwtelotehmbahmvurmvujchyjclsnwlszadiza
nitunibqjgbqpyzspydgpedgspgrspgxwdgxufmpufincbin
wvsnwvkdizkdmtoxmtabejabojuvojcrkhcrqzatqzehqfeh
tqhstqhyxehyvgnqvgjodcjoxwtoxwlejalenupynubcfkbc
pkvwpkdslidsraburafirgfiuriturizyfizwhorwhkpedkp
yxupyxmfkbmfovqzovcdglcdqlwxqletmjetsbcvsbgjshgj

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: uritur
Cipher: hevghe

Read more ...

 

Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: uritur
Cipher: 542442445424

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: uritur
method variations:
zwoyzwebtdebkgyikgpmdopm

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
u r i t u r 
5 2 4 4 5 2 
4 4 2 4 4 4 
They are then read out in rows:
524452442444
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: uritur
Cipher: ktktrt

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: uritur
method variations:
itryiy tryiyi ryiyit
yiyitr iyitry yitryi

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: uritur

all 720 cipher variations:
uritur uritru uriutr uriurt urirut urirtu urtiur urtiru urtuir urturi urtrui
urtriu urutir urutri uruitr uruirt ururit ururti urrtui urrtiu urruti urruit
urriut urritu uirtur uirtru uirutr uirurt uirrut uirrtu uitrur uitrru uiturr
uiturr uitrur uitrru uiutrr uiutrr uiurtr uiurrt uiurrt uiurtr uirtur uirtru
uirutr uirurt uirrut uirrtu utirur utirru utiurr utiurr utirur utirru utriur
utriru utruir utruri utrrui utrriu uturir uturri utuirr utuirr uturir uturri
utrrui utrriu utruri utruir utriur utriru uuitrr uuitrr uuirtr uuirrt uuirrt
uuirtr uutirr uutirr uutrir uutrri uutrri uutrir uurtir uurtri uuritr uurirt
uurrit uurrti uurtri uurtir uurrti uurrit uurirt uuritr uritur uritru uriutr
uriurt urirut urirtu urtiur urtiru urtuir urturi urtrui urtriu urutir urutri
uruitr uruirt ururit ururti urrtui urrtiu urruti urruit urriut urritu ruitur
ruitru ruiutr ruiurt ruirut ruirtu rutiur rutiru rutuir ruturi rutrui rutriu
ruutir ruutri ruuitr ruuirt ruurit ruurti rurtui rurtiu ruruti ruruit ruriut
ruritu riutur riutru riuutr riuurt riurut riurtu rituur rituru rituur rituru
ritruu ritruu riutur riutru riuutr riuurt riurut riurtu rirtuu rirtuu rirutu
riruut riruut rirutu rtiuur rtiuru rtiuur rtiuru rtiruu rtiruu rtuiur rtuiru
rtuuir rtuuri rturui rturiu rtuuir rtuuri rtuiur rtuiru rturiu rturui rtruui
rtruiu rtruui rtruiu rtriuu rtriuu ruitur ruitru ruiutr ruiurt ruirut ruirtu
rutiur rutiru rutuir ruturi rutrui rutriu ruutir ruutri ruuitr ruuirt ruurit
ruurti rurtui rurtiu ruruti ruruit ruriut ruritu rrituu rrituu rriutu rriuut
rriuut rriutu rrtiuu rrtiuu rrtuiu rrtuui rrtuui rrtuiu rrutiu rrutui rruitu
rruiut rruuit rruuti rrutui rrutiu rruuti rruuit rruiut rruitu irutur irutru
iruutr iruurt irurut irurtu irtuur irturu irtuur irturu irtruu irtruu irutur
irutru iruutr iruurt irurut irurtu irrtuu irrtuu irrutu irruut irruut irrutu
iurtur iurtru iurutr iururt iurrut iurrtu iutrur iutrru iuturr iuturr iutrur
iutrru iuutrr iuutrr iuurtr iuurrt iuurrt iuurtr iurtur iurtru iurutr iururt
iurrut iurrtu iturur iturru ituurr ituurr iturur iturru itruur itruru itruur
itruru itrruu itrruu iturur iturru ituurr ituurr iturur iturru itrruu itrruu
itruru itruur itruur itruru iuutrr iuutrr iuurtr iuurrt iuurrt iuurtr iuturr
iuturr iutrur iutrru iutrru iutrur iurtur iurtru iurutr iururt iurrut iurrtu
iurtru iurtur iurrtu iurrut iururt iurutr irutur irutru iruutr iruurt irurut
irurtu irtuur irturu irtuur irturu irtruu irtruu irutur irutru iruutr iruurt
irurut irurtu irrtuu irrtuu irrutu irruut irruut irrutu triuur triuru triuur
triuru triruu triruu truiur truiru truuir truuri trurui truriu truuir truuri
truiur truiru truriu trurui trruui trruiu trruui trruiu trriuu trriuu tiruur
tiruru tiruur tiruru tirruu tirruu tiurur tiurru tiuurr tiuurr tiurur tiurru
tiuurr tiuurr tiurur tiurru tiurru tiurur tiruur tiruru tiruur tiruru tirruu
tirruu tuirur tuirru tuiurr tuiurr tuirur tuirru turiur turiru turuir tururi
turrui turriu tuurir tuurri tuuirr tuuirr tuurir tuurri turrui turriu tururi
turuir turiur turiru tuiurr tuiurr tuirur tuirru tuirru tuirur tuuirr tuuirr
tuurir tuurri tuurri tuurir turuir tururi turiur turiru turriu turrui tururi
turuir turrui turriu turiru turiur triuur triuru triuur triuru triruu triruu
truiur truiru truuir truuri trurui truriu truuir truuri truiur truiru truriu
trurui trruui trruiu trruui trruiu trriuu trriuu uritur uritru uriutr uriurt
urirut urirtu urtiur urtiru urtuir urturi urtrui urtriu urutir urutri uruitr
uruirt ururit ururti urrtui urrtiu urruti urruit urriut urritu uirtur uirtru
uirutr uirurt uirrut uirrtu uitrur uitrru uiturr uiturr uitrur uitrru uiutrr
uiutrr uiurtr uiurrt uiurrt uiurtr uirtur uirtru uirutr uirurt uirrut uirrtu
utirur utirru utiurr utiurr utirur utirru utriur utriru utruir utruri utrrui
utrriu uturir uturri utuirr utuirr uturir uturri utrrui utrriu utruri utruir
utriur utriru uuitrr uuitrr uuirtr uuirrt uuirrt uuirtr uutirr uutirr uutrir
uutrri uutrri uutrir uurtir uurtri uuritr uurirt uurrit uurrti uurtri uurtir
uurrti uurrit uurirt uuritr uritur uritru uriutr uriurt urirut urirtu urtiur
urtiru urtuir urturi urtrui urtriu urutir urutri uruitr uruirt ururit ururti
urrtui urrtiu urruti urruit urriut urritu rrituu rrituu rriutu rriuut rriuut
rriutu rrtiuu rrtiuu rrtuiu rrtuui rrtuui rrtuiu rrutiu rrutui rruitu rruiut
rruuit rruuti rrutui rrutiu rruuti rruuit rruiut rruitu rirtuu rirtuu rirutu
riruut riruut rirutu ritruu ritruu rituru rituur rituur rituru riutru riutur
riurtu riurut riuurt riuutr riutur riutru riuutr riuurt riurut riurtu rtiruu
rtiruu rtiuru rtiuur rtiuur rtiuru rtriuu rtriuu rtruiu rtruui rtruui rtruiu
rturiu rturui rtuiru rtuiur rtuuir rtuuri rturui rturiu rtuuri rtuuir rtuiur
rtuiru ruitru ruitur ruirtu ruirut ruiurt ruiutr rutiru rutiur rutriu rutrui
ruturi rutuir rurtiu rurtui ruritu ruriut ruruit ruruti ruutri ruutir ruurti
ruurit ruuirt ruuitr ruitur ruitru ruiutr ruiurt ruirut ruirtu rutiur rutiru
rutuir ruturi rutrui rutriu ruutir ruutri ruuitr ruuirt ruurit ruurti rurtui
rurtiu ruruti ruruit ruriut ruritu

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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