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jwalters

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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: unhigh
cipher variations:
voijhi wpjkij xqkljk yrlmkl zsmnlm
atnomn buopno cvpqop dwqrpq exrsqr
fystrs gztust hauvtu ibvwuv jcwxvw
kdxywx leyzxy mfzayz ngabza ohbcab
picdbc qjdecd rkefde slfgef tmghfg

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: unhigh
Cipher: fmsrts

Read more ...

 

Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: unhigh
Cipher: BAABB ABBAA AABBB ABAAA AABBA AABBB

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: unhigh
cipher variations:
voijhijowztwxokpfkloyfryzomvdmnoalpapocrncdoqhzq
roexlefosnxstogdjghoutvuwpjkijkpxauxyplqglmpzgsz
apnwenopbmqbqpdsodepriarspfymfgptoytuphekhipvuwv
xqkljklqybvyzqmrhmnqahtabqoxfopqcnrcrqetpefqsjbs
tqgznghqupzuvqiflijqwvxwyrlmklmrzcwzarnsinorbiub
crpygpqrdosdsrfuqfgrtkcturhaohirvqavwrjgmjkrxwyx
zsmnlmnsadxabsotjopscjvcdsqzhqrseptetsgvrghsuldu
vsibpijswrbwxskhnklsyxzyatnomnotbeybctpukpqtdkwd
etrairstfqufuthwshitvmevwtjcqjktxscxytliolmtzyaz
buopnopucfzcduqvlqruelxefusbjstugrvgvuixtijuwnfw
xukdrkluytdyzumjpmnuazbacvpqopqvdgadevrwmrsvfmyf
gvtcktuvhswhwvjyujkvxogxyvleslmvzuezavnkqnovbacb
dwqrpqrwehbefwsxnstwgnzghwudluvwitxixwkzvklwyphy
zwmftmnwavfabwolropwcbdcexrsqrsxficfgxtyotuxhoah
ixvemvwxjuyjyxlawlmxzqizaxngunoxbwgbcxpmspqxdced
fystrstygjdghyuzpuvyipbijywfnwxykvzkzymbxmnyarja
byohvopycxhcdyqntqryedfegztustuzhkehizvaqvwzjqcj
kzxgoxyzlwalazncynozbskbczpiwpqzdyidezrourszfegf
hauvtuvailfijawbrwxakrdklayhpyzamxbmbaodzopactlc
daqjxqraezjefaspvstagfhgibvwuvwbjmgjkbxcsxyblsel
mbziqzabnycncbpeapqbdumdebrkyrsbfakfgbtqwtubhgih
jcwxvwxcknhklcydtyzcmtfmncajrabcozdodcqfbqrcevne
fcslzstcgblghcurxuvcihjikdxywxydloilmdzeuzadnugn
odbksbcdpaepedrgcrsdfwofgdtmatudhcmhidvsyvwdjikj
leyzxyzempjmneafvabeovhopecltcdeqbfqfeshdstegxpg
heunbuveidnijewtzwxekjlkmfzayzafnqknofbgwbcfpwip
qfdmudefrcgrgftietufhyqhifvocvwfjeojkfxuaxyflkml
ngabzabgorlopgchxcdgqxjqrgenvefgsdhshgujfuvgizri
jgwpdwxgkfpklgyvbyzgmlnmohbcabchpsmpqhdiydehrykr
shfowfghteitihvkgvwhjasjkhxqexyhlgqlmhzwczahnmon
picdbcdiqtnqriejzefiszlstigpxghiufjujiwlhwxikbtk
liyrfyzimhrmniaxdabionpoqjdecdejruorsjfkafgjtamt
ujhqyhijvgkvkjxmixyjlculmjzsgzajnisnojbyebcjpoqp
rkefdefksvpstkglbghkubnuvkirzijkwhlwlkynjyzkmdvm
nkathabkojtopkczfcdkqprqslfgefgltwqtulhmchilvcov
wljsajklximxmlzokzalnewnolbuibclpkupqldagdelrqsr
tmghfghmuxruvmindijmwdpwxmktbklmyjnynmaplabmofxo
pmcvjcdmqlvqrmebhefmsrtsunhighinvysvwnjoejknxeqx
ynluclmnzkozonbqmbcnpgypqndwkdenrmwrsnfcifgntsut

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: unhigh
Cipher: hauvtu

Read more ...

 

Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: unhigh
Cipher: 543332422232

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: unhigh
method variations:
zsnomnexstrskcxywxphcdbc

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
u n h i g h 
5 3 3 4 2 3 
4 3 2 2 2 2 
They are then read out in rows:
533423432222
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: unhigh
Cipher: psmogg

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: unhigh
method variations:
onrgmw nrgmwo rgmwon
gmwonr mwonrg wonrgm

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: unhigh

all 720 cipher variations:
unhigh unhihg unhgih unhghi unhhgi unhhig unihgh unihhg unighh unighh unihgh
unihhg ungihh ungihh unghih unghhi unghhi unghih unhigh unhihg unhgih unhghi
unhhgi unhhig uhnigh uhnihg uhngih uhnghi uhnhgi uhnhig uhingh uhinhg uhignh
uhighn uhihgn uhihng uhginh uhgihn uhgnih uhgnhi uhghni uhghin uhhign uhhing
uhhgin uhhgni uhhngi uhhnig uihngh uihnhg uihgnh uihghn uihhgn uihhng uinhgh
uinhhg uinghh uinghh uinhgh uinhhg uignhh uignhh uighnh uighhn uighhn uighnh
uihngh uihnhg uihgnh uihghn uihhgn uihhng ughinh ughihn ughnih ughnhi ughhni
ughhin ugihnh ugihhn uginhh uginhh ugihnh ugihhn ugnihh ugnihh ugnhih ugnhhi
ugnhhi ugnhih ughinh ughihn ughnih ughnhi ughhni ughhin uhhign uhhing uhhgin
uhhgni uhhngi uhhnig uhihgn uhihng uhighn uhignh uhingh uhinhg uhgihn uhginh
uhghin uhghni uhgnhi uhgnih uhnigh uhnihg uhngih uhnghi uhnhgi uhnhig nuhigh
nuhihg nuhgih nuhghi nuhhgi nuhhig nuihgh nuihhg nuighh nuighh nuihgh nuihhg
nugihh nugihh nughih nughhi nughhi nughih nuhigh nuhihg nuhgih nuhghi nuhhgi
nuhhig nhuigh nhuihg nhugih nhughi nhuhgi nhuhig nhiugh nhiuhg nhiguh nhighu
nhihgu nhihug nhgiuh nhgihu nhguih nhguhi nhghui nhghiu nhhigu nhhiug nhhgiu
nhhgui nhhugi nhhuig nihugh nihuhg nihguh nihghu nihhgu nihhug niuhgh niuhhg
niughh niughh niuhgh niuhhg niguhh niguhh nighuh nighhu nighhu nighuh nihugh
nihuhg nihguh nihghu nihhgu nihhug nghiuh nghihu nghuih nghuhi nghhui nghhiu
ngihuh ngihhu ngiuhh ngiuhh ngihuh ngihhu nguihh nguihh nguhih nguhhi nguhhi
nguhih nghiuh nghihu nghuih nghuhi nghhui nghhiu nhhigu nhhiug nhhgiu nhhgui
nhhugi nhhuig nhihgu nhihug nhighu nhiguh nhiugh nhiuhg nhgihu nhgiuh nhghiu
nhghui nhguhi nhguih nhuigh nhuihg nhugih nhughi nhuhgi nhuhig hnuigh hnuihg
hnugih hnughi hnuhgi hnuhig hniugh hniuhg hniguh hnighu hnihgu hnihug hngiuh
hngihu hnguih hnguhi hnghui hnghiu hnhigu hnhiug hnhgiu hnhgui hnhugi hnhuig
hunigh hunihg hungih hunghi hunhgi hunhig huingh huinhg huignh huighn huihgn
huihng huginh hugihn hugnih hugnhi hughni hughin huhign huhing huhgin huhgni
huhngi huhnig hiungh hiunhg hiugnh hiughn hiuhgn hiuhng hinugh hinuhg hinguh
hinghu hinhgu hinhug hignuh hignhu higunh higuhn highun highnu hihngu hihnug
hihgnu hihgun hihugn hihung hguinh hguihn hgunih hgunhi hguhni hguhin hgiunh
hgiuhn hginuh hginhu hgihnu hgihun hgniuh hgnihu hgnuih hgnuhi hgnhui hgnhiu
hghinu hghiun hghniu hghnui hghuni hghuin hhuign hhuing hhugin hhugni hhungi
hhunig hhiugn hhiung hhigun hhignu hhingu hhinug hhgiun hhginu hhguin hhguni
hhgnui hhgniu hhnigu hhniug hhngiu hhngui hhnugi hhnuig inhugh inhuhg inhguh
inhghu inhhgu inhhug inuhgh inuhhg inughh inughh inuhgh inuhhg inguhh inguhh
inghuh inghhu inghhu inghuh inhugh inhuhg inhguh inhghu inhhgu inhhug ihnugh
ihnuhg ihnguh ihnghu ihnhgu ihnhug ihungh ihunhg ihugnh ihughn ihuhgn ihuhng
ihgunh ihguhn ihgnuh ihgnhu ihghnu ihghun ihhugn ihhung ihhgun ihhgnu ihhngu
ihhnug iuhngh iuhnhg iuhgnh iuhghn iuhhgn iuhhng iunhgh iunhhg iunghh iunghh
iunhgh iunhhg iugnhh iugnhh iughnh iughhn iughhn iughnh iuhngh iuhnhg iuhgnh
iuhghn iuhhgn iuhhng ighunh ighuhn ighnuh ighnhu ighhnu ighhun iguhnh iguhhn
igunhh igunhh iguhnh iguhhn ignuhh ignuhh ignhuh ignhhu ignhhu ignhuh ighunh
ighuhn ighnuh ighnhu ighhnu ighhun ihhugn ihhung ihhgun ihhgnu ihhngu ihhnug
ihuhgn ihuhng ihughn ihugnh ihungh ihunhg ihguhn ihgunh ihghun ihghnu ihgnhu
ihgnuh ihnugh ihnuhg ihnguh ihnghu ihnhgu ihnhug gnhiuh gnhihu gnhuih gnhuhi
gnhhui gnhhiu gnihuh gnihhu gniuhh gniuhh gnihuh gnihhu gnuihh gnuihh gnuhih
gnuhhi gnuhhi gnuhih gnhiuh gnhihu gnhuih gnhuhi gnhhui gnhhiu ghniuh ghnihu
ghnuih ghnuhi ghnhui ghnhiu ghinuh ghinhu ghiunh ghiuhn ghihun ghihnu ghuinh
ghuihn ghunih ghunhi ghuhni ghuhin ghhiun ghhinu ghhuin ghhuni ghhnui ghhniu
gihnuh gihnhu gihunh gihuhn gihhun gihhnu ginhuh ginhhu ginuhh ginuhh ginhuh
ginhhu giunhh giunhh giuhnh giuhhn giuhhn giuhnh gihnuh gihnhu gihunh gihuhn
gihhun gihhnu guhinh guhihn guhnih guhnhi guhhni guhhin guihnh guihhn guinhh
guinhh guihnh guihhn gunihh gunihh gunhih gunhhi gunhhi gunhih guhinh guhihn
guhnih guhnhi guhhni guhhin ghhiun ghhinu ghhuin ghhuni ghhnui ghhniu ghihun
ghihnu ghiuhn ghiunh ghinuh ghinhu ghuihn ghuinh ghuhin ghuhni ghunhi ghunih
ghniuh ghnihu ghnuih ghnuhi ghnhui ghnhiu hnhigu hnhiug hnhgiu hnhgui hnhugi
hnhuig hnihgu hnihug hnighu hniguh hniugh hniuhg hngihu hngiuh hnghiu hnghui
hnguhi hnguih hnuigh hnuihg hnugih hnughi hnuhgi hnuhig hhnigu hhniug hhngiu
hhngui hhnugi hhnuig hhingu hhinug hhignu hhigun hhiugn hhiung hhginu hhgiun
hhgniu hhgnui hhguni hhguin hhuign hhuing hhugin hhugni hhungi hhunig hihngu
hihnug hihgnu hihgun hihugn hihung hinhgu hinhug hinghu hinguh hinugh hinuhg
hignhu hignuh highnu highun higuhn higunh hiungh hiunhg hiugnh hiughn hiuhgn
hiuhng hghinu hghiun hghniu hghnui hghuni hghuin hgihnu hgihun hginhu hginuh
hgiunh hgiuhn hgnihu hgniuh hgnhiu hgnhui hgnuhi hgnuih hguinh hguihn hgunih
hgunhi hguhni hguhin huhign huhing huhgin huhgni huhngi huhnig huihgn huihng
huighn huignh huingh huinhg hugihn huginh hughin hughni hugnhi hugnih hunigh
hunihg hungih hunghi hunhgi hunhig

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

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