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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: tutsan
cipher variations:
uvutbo vwvucp wxwvdq xyxwer yzyxfs
zazygt abazhu bcbaiv cdcbjw dedckx
efedly fgfemz ghgfna hihgob ijihpc
jkjiqd klkjre lmlksf mnmltg nonmuh
oponvi pqpowj qrqpxk rsrqyl stsrzm

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: tutsan
Cipher: gfghzm

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: tutsan
Cipher: BAABA BAABB BAABA BAAAB AAAAA ABBAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: tutsan
cipher variations:
uvutbogjgdbosxsnboelexboqzqhbocncrboapalbomdmvbo
yryfbokfkpbowtwzboihijbovwvucphkhecptytocpfmfycp
raricpdodscpbqbmcpnenwcpzszgcplglqcpxuxacpjijkcp
wxwvdqilifdquzupdqgngzdqsbsjdqepetdqcrcndqofoxdq
atahdqmhmrdqyvybdqkjkldqxyxwerjmjgervavqerhohaer
tctkerfqfuerdsdoerpgpyerbubierninserzwzcerlklmer
yzyxfsknkhfswbwrfsipibfsudulfsgrgvfsetepfsqhqzfs
cvcjfsojotfsaxadfsmlmnfszazygtloligtxcxsgtjqjcgt
vevmgthshwgtfufqgtriragtdwdkgtpkpugtbybegtnmnogt
abazhumpmjhuydythukrkdhuwfwnhuitixhugvgrhusjsbhu
exelhuqlqvhuczcfhuonophubcbaivnqnkivzezuivlsleiv
xgxoivjujyivhwhsivtktcivfyfmivrmrwivdadgivpopqiv
cdcbjworoljwafavjwmtmfjwyhypjwkvkzjwixitjwuludjw
gzgnjwsnsxjwebehjwqpqrjwdedckxpspmkxbgbwkxnungkx
zizqkxlwlakxjyjukxvmvekxhahokxtotykxfcfikxrqrskx
efedlyqtqnlychcxlyovohlyajarlymxmblykzkvlywnwfly
ibiplyupuzlygdgjlysrstlyfgfemzruromzdidymzpwpimz
bkbsmznyncmzlalwmzxoxgmzjcjqmzvqvamzhehkmztstumz
ghgfnasvspnaejeznaqxqjnaclctnaozodnambmxnaypyhna
kdkrnawrwbnaifilnautuvnahihgobtwtqobfkfaobryrkob
dmduobpapeobncnyobzqzioblelsobxsxcobjgjmobvuvwob
ijihpcuxurpcglgbpcszslpcenevpcqbqfpcodozpcarajpc
mfmtpcytydpckhknpcwvwxpcjkjiqdvyvsqdhmhcqdtatmqd
fofwqdrcrgqdpepaqdbsbkqdngnuqdzuzeqdliloqdxwxyqd
klkjrewzwtreinidreubunregpgxresdshreqfqbrectclre
ohovreavafremjmpreyxyzrelmlksfxaxusfjojesfvcvosf
hqhysftetisfrgrcsfdudmsfpipwsfbwbgsfnknqsfzyzasf
mnmltgybyvtgkpkftgwdwptgiriztgufujtgshsdtgeventg
qjqxtgcxchtgolortgazabtgnonmuhzczwuhlqlguhxexquh
jsjauhvgvkuhtiteuhfwfouhrkryuhdydiuhpmpsuhbabcuh
oponviadaxvimrmhviyfyrviktkbviwhwlviujufvigxgpvi
slszviezejviqnqtvicbcdvipqpowjbebywjnsniwjzgzswj
lulcwjxixmwjvkvgwjhyhqwjtmtawjfafkwjroruwjdcdewj
qrqpxkcfczxkotojxkahatxkmvmdxkyjynxkwlwhxkizirxk
unubxkgbglxkspsvxkedefxkrsrqyldgdaylpupkylbibuyl
nwneylzkzoylxmxiyljajsylvovcylhchmyltqtwylfefgyl
stsrzmehebzmqvqlzmcjcvzmoxofzmalapzmynyjzmkbktzm
wpwdzmidinzmuruxzmgfghzmtutsanfifcanrwrmandkdwan
pypganbmbqanzozkanlcluanxqxeanjejoanvsvyanhghian

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: tutsan
Cipher: ghgfna

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: tutsan
Cipher: 445444341133

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: tutsan
method variations:
yzyxfsdedclxikihqcoponvh

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
t u t s a n 
4 5 4 3 1 3 
4 4 4 4 1 3 
They are then read out in rows:
454313444413
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: tutsan
Cipher: yolttl

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: tutsan
method variations:
ytodls todlsy odlsyt
dlsyto lsytod sytodl

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: tutsan

all 720 cipher variations:
tutsan tutsna tutasn tutans tutnas tutnsa tustan tustna tusatn tusant tusnat
tusnta tuastn tuasnt tuatsn tuatns tuants tuanst tunsat tunsta tunast tunats
tuntas tuntsa ttusan ttusna ttuasn ttuans ttunas ttunsa ttsuan ttsuna ttsaun
ttsanu ttsnau ttsnua ttasun ttasnu ttausn ttauns ttanus ttansu ttnsau ttnsua
ttnasu ttnaus ttnuas ttnusa tstuan tstuna tstaun tstanu tstnau tstnua tsutan
tsutna tsuatn tsuant tsunat tsunta tsautn tsaunt tsatun tsatnu tsantu tsanut
tsnuat tsnuta tsnaut tsnatu tsntau tsntua tatsun tatsnu tatusn tatuns tatnus
tatnsu tastun tastnu tasutn tasunt tasnut tasntu taustn tausnt tautsn tautns
taunts taunst tansut tanstu tanust tanuts tantus tantsu tntsau tntsua tntasu
tntaus tntuas tntusa tnstau tnstua tnsatu tnsaut tnsuat tnsuta tnastu tnasut
tnatsu tnatus tnauts tnaust tnusat tnusta tnuast tnuats tnutas tnutsa uttsan
uttsna uttasn uttans uttnas uttnsa utstan utstna utsatn utsant utsnat utsnta
utastn utasnt utatsn utatns utants utanst utnsat utnsta utnast utnats utntas
utntsa uttsan uttsna uttasn uttans uttnas uttnsa utstan utstna utsatn utsant
utsnat utsnta utastn utasnt utatsn utatns utants utanst utnsat utnsta utnast
utnats utntas utntsa usttan usttna ustatn ustant ustnat ustnta usttan usttna
ustatn ustant ustnat ustnta usattn usatnt usattn usatnt usantt usantt usntat
usntta usnatt usnatt usntat usntta uatstn uatsnt uattsn uattns uatnts uatnst
uasttn uastnt uasttn uastnt uasntt uasntt uatstn uatsnt uattsn uattns uatnts
uatnst uanstt uanstt uantst uantts uantts uantst untsat untsta untast untats
unttas unttsa unstat unstta unsatt unsatt unstat unstta unastt unastt unatst
unatts unatts unatst untsat untsta untast untats unttas unttsa tutsan tutsna
tutasn tutans tutnas tutnsa tustan tustna tusatn tusant tusnat tusnta tuastn
tuasnt tuatsn tuatns tuants tuanst tunsat tunsta tunast tunats tuntas tuntsa
ttusan ttusna ttuasn ttuans ttunas ttunsa ttsuan ttsuna ttsaun ttsanu ttsnau
ttsnua ttasun ttasnu ttausn ttauns ttanus ttansu ttnsau ttnsua ttnasu ttnaus
ttnuas ttnusa tstuan tstuna tstaun tstanu tstnau tstnua tsutan tsutna tsuatn
tsuant tsunat tsunta tsautn tsaunt tsatun tsatnu tsantu tsanut tsnuat tsnuta
tsnaut tsnatu tsntau tsntua tatsun tatsnu tatusn tatuns tatnus tatnsu tastun
tastnu tasutn tasunt tasnut tasntu taustn tausnt tautsn tautns taunts taunst
tansut tanstu tanust tanuts tantus tantsu tntsau tntsua tntasu tntaus tntuas
tntusa tnstau tnstua tnsatu tnsaut tnsuat tnsuta tnastu tnasut tnatsu tnatus
tnauts tnaust tnusat tnusta tnuast tnuats tnutas tnutsa suttan suttna sutatn
sutant sutnat sutnta suttan suttna sutatn sutant sutnat sutnta suattn suatnt
suattn suatnt suantt suantt suntat suntta sunatt sunatt suntat suntta stutan
stutna stuatn stuant stunat stunta sttuan sttuna sttaun sttanu sttnau sttnua
statun statnu stautn staunt stanut stantu stntau stntua stnatu stnaut stnuat
stnuta sttuan sttuna sttaun sttanu sttnau sttnua stutan stutna stuatn stuant
stunat stunta stautn staunt statun statnu stantu stanut stnuat stnuta stnaut
stnatu stntau stntua sattun sattnu satutn satunt satnut satntu sattun sattnu
satutn satunt satnut satntu sauttn sautnt sauttn sautnt sauntt sauntt santut
santtu sanutt sanutt santut santtu snttau snttua sntatu sntaut sntuat sntuta
snttau snttua sntatu sntaut sntuat sntuta snattu snatut snattu snatut snautt
snautt snutat snutta snuatt snuatt snutat snutta autstn autsnt auttsn auttns
autnts autnst austtn austnt austtn austnt ausntt ausntt autstn autsnt auttsn
auttns autnts autnst aunstt aunstt auntst auntts auntts auntst atustn atusnt
atutsn atutns atunts atunst atsutn atsunt atstun atstnu atsntu atsnut attsun
attsnu attusn attuns attnus attnsu atnstu atnsut atntsu atntus atnuts atnust
astutn astunt asttun asttnu astntu astnut asuttn asutnt asuttn asutnt asuntt
asuntt astutn astunt asttun asttnu astntu astnut asnutt asnutt asntut asnttu
asnttu asntut attsun attsnu attusn attuns attnus attnsu atstun atstnu atsutn
atsunt atsnut atsntu atustn atusnt atutsn atutns atunts atunst atnsut atnstu
atnust atnuts atntus atntsu antstu antsut anttsu anttus antuts antust ansttu
anstut ansttu anstut ansutt ansutt antstu antsut anttsu anttus antuts antust
anustt anustt anutst anutts anutts anutst nutsat nutsta nutast nutats nuttas
nuttsa nustat nustta nusatt nusatt nustat nustta nuastt nuastt nuatst nuatts
nuatts nuatst nutsat nutsta nutast nutats nuttas nuttsa ntusat ntusta ntuast
ntuats ntutas ntutsa ntsuat ntsuta ntsaut ntsatu ntstau ntstua ntasut ntastu
ntaust ntauts ntatus ntatsu nttsau nttsua nttasu nttaus nttuas nttusa nstuat
nstuta nstaut nstatu nsttau nsttua nsutat nsutta nsuatt nsuatt nsutat nsutta
nsautt nsautt nsatut nsattu nsattu nsatut nstuat nstuta nstaut nstatu nsttau
nsttua natsut natstu natust natuts nattus nattsu nastut nasttu nasutt nasutt
nastut nasttu naustt naustt nautst nautts nautts nautst natsut natstu natust
natuts nattus nattsu nttsau nttsua nttasu nttaus nttuas nttusa ntstau ntstua
ntsatu ntsaut ntsuat ntsuta ntastu ntasut ntatsu ntatus ntauts ntaust ntusat
ntusta ntuast ntuats ntutas ntutsa

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History of cryptography
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