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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: tumbly
cipher variations:
uvncmz vwodna wxpeob xyqfpc yzrgqd
zashre abtisf bcujtg cdvkuh dewlvi
efxmwj fgynxk ghzoyl hiapzm ijbqan
jkcrbo kldscp lmetdq mnfuer nogvfs
ophwgt pqixhu qrjyiv rskzjw stlakx

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: tumbly
Cipher: gfnyob

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: tumbly

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: tumbly
cipher variations:

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x

An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: tumbly
Cipher: ghzoyl

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: tumbly
Cipher: 445423211345

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: tumbly
method variations:

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
t u m b l y 
4 5 2 2 1 4 
4 4 3 1 3 5 
They are then read out in rows:
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: tumbly
Cipher: ygqtcx

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Method #3

Plaintext: tumbly
method variations:
yihasu ihasuy hasuyi
asuyih suyiha uyihas

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: tumbly

all 720 cipher variations:
tumbly tumbyl tumlby tumlyb tumylb tumybl tubmly tubmyl tublmy tublym tubylm
tubyml tulbmy tulbym tulmby tulmyb tulymb tulybm tuyblm tuybml tuylbm tuylmb
tuymlb tuymbl tmubly tmubyl tmulby tmulyb tmuylb tmuybl tmbuly tmbuyl tmbluy
tmblyu tmbylu tmbyul tmlbuy tmlbyu tmluby tmluyb tmlyub tmlybu tmyblu tmybul
tmylbu tmylub tmyulb tmyubl tbmuly tbmuyl tbmluy tbmlyu tbmylu tbmyul tbumly
tbumyl tbulmy tbulym tbuylm tbuyml tblumy tbluym tblmuy tblmyu tblymu tblyum
tbyulm tbyuml tbylum tbylmu tbymlu tbymul tlmbuy tlmbyu tlmuby tlmuyb tlmyub
tlmybu tlbmuy tlbmyu tlbumy tlbuym tlbyum tlbymu tlubmy tlubym tlumby tlumyb
tluymb tluybm tlybum tlybmu tlyubm tlyumb tlymub tlymbu tymblu tymbul tymlbu
tymlub tymulb tymubl tybmlu tybmul tyblmu tyblum tybulm tybuml tylbmu tylbum
tylmbu tylmub tylumb tylubm tyublm tyubml tyulbm tyulmb tyumlb tyumbl utmbly
utmbyl utmlby utmlyb utmylb utmybl utbmly utbmyl utblmy utblym utbylm utbyml
utlbmy utlbym utlmby utlmyb utlymb utlybm utyblm utybml utylbm utylmb utymlb
utymbl umtbly umtbyl umtlby umtlyb umtylb umtybl umbtly umbtyl umblty umblyt
umbylt umbytl umlbty umlbyt umltby umltyb umlytb umlybt umyblt umybtl umylbt
umyltb umytlb umytbl ubmtly ubmtyl ubmlty ubmlyt ubmylt ubmytl ubtmly ubtmyl
ubtlmy ubtlym ubtylm ubtyml ubltmy ubltym ublmty ublmyt ublymt ublytm ubytlm
ubytml ubyltm ubylmt ubymlt ubymtl ulmbty ulmbyt ulmtby ulmtyb ulmytb ulmybt
ulbmty ulbmyt ulbtmy ulbtym ulbytm ulbymt ultbmy ultbym ultmby ultmyb ultymb
ultybm ulybtm ulybmt ulytbm ulytmb ulymtb ulymbt uymblt uymbtl uymlbt uymltb
uymtlb uymtbl uybmlt uybmtl uyblmt uybltm uybtlm uybtml uylbmt uylbtm uylmbt
uylmtb uyltmb uyltbm uytblm uytbml uytlbm uytlmb uytmlb uytmbl mutbly mutbyl
mutlby mutlyb mutylb mutybl mubtly mubtyl mublty mublyt mubylt mubytl mulbty
mulbyt multby multyb mulytb mulybt muyblt muybtl muylbt muyltb muytlb muytbl
mtubly mtubyl mtulby mtulyb mtuylb mtuybl mtbuly mtbuyl mtbluy mtblyu mtbylu
mtbyul mtlbuy mtlbyu mtluby mtluyb mtlyub mtlybu mtyblu mtybul mtylbu mtylub
mtyulb mtyubl mbtuly mbtuyl mbtluy mbtlyu mbtylu mbtyul mbutly mbutyl mbulty
mbulyt mbuylt mbuytl mbluty mbluyt mbltuy mbltyu mblytu mblyut mbyult mbyutl
mbylut mbyltu mbytlu mbytul mltbuy mltbyu mltuby mltuyb mltyub mltybu mlbtuy
mlbtyu mlbuty mlbuyt mlbyut mlbytu mlubty mlubyt mlutby mlutyb mluytb mluybt
mlybut mlybtu mlyubt mlyutb mlytub mlytbu mytblu mytbul mytlbu mytlub mytulb
mytubl mybtlu mybtul mybltu myblut mybult mybutl mylbtu mylbut myltbu myltub
mylutb mylubt myublt myubtl myulbt myultb myutlb myutbl bumtly bumtyl bumlty
bumlyt bumylt bumytl butmly butmyl butlmy butlym butylm butyml bultmy bultym
bulmty bulmyt bulymt bulytm buytlm buytml buyltm buylmt buymlt buymtl bmutly
bmutyl bmulty bmulyt bmuylt bmuytl bmtuly bmtuyl bmtluy bmtlyu bmtylu bmtyul
bmltuy bmltyu bmluty bmluyt bmlyut bmlytu bmytlu bmytul bmyltu bmylut bmyult
bmyutl btmuly btmuyl btmluy btmlyu btmylu btmyul btumly btumyl btulmy btulym
btuylm btuyml btlumy btluym btlmuy btlmyu btlymu btlyum btyulm btyuml btylum
btylmu btymlu btymul blmtuy blmtyu blmuty blmuyt blmyut blmytu bltmuy bltmyu
bltumy bltuym bltyum bltymu blutmy blutym blumty blumyt bluymt bluytm blytum
blytmu blyutm blyumt blymut blymtu bymtlu bymtul bymltu bymlut bymult bymutl
bytmlu bytmul bytlmu bytlum bytulm bytuml byltmu byltum bylmtu bylmut bylumt
bylutm byutlm byutml byultm byulmt byumlt byumtl lumbty lumbyt lumtby lumtyb
lumytb lumybt lubmty lubmyt lubtmy lubtym lubytm lubymt lutbmy lutbym lutmby
lutmyb lutymb lutybm luybtm luybmt luytbm luytmb luymtb luymbt lmubty lmubyt
lmutby lmutyb lmuytb lmuybt lmbuty lmbuyt lmbtuy lmbtyu lmbytu lmbyut lmtbuy
lmtbyu lmtuby lmtuyb lmtyub lmtybu lmybtu lmybut lmytbu lmytub lmyutb lmyubt
lbmuty lbmuyt lbmtuy lbmtyu lbmytu lbmyut lbumty lbumyt lbutmy lbutym lbuytm
lbuymt lbtumy lbtuym lbtmuy lbtmyu lbtymu lbtyum lbyutm lbyumt lbytum lbytmu
lbymtu lbymut ltmbuy ltmbyu ltmuby ltmuyb ltmyub ltmybu ltbmuy ltbmyu ltbumy
ltbuym ltbyum ltbymu ltubmy ltubym ltumby ltumyb ltuymb ltuybm ltybum ltybmu
ltyubm ltyumb ltymub ltymbu lymbtu lymbut lymtbu lymtub lymutb lymubt lybmtu
lybmut lybtmu lybtum lybutm lybumt lytbmu lytbum lytmbu lytmub lytumb lytubm
lyubtm lyubmt lyutbm lyutmb lyumtb lyumbt yumblt yumbtl yumlbt yumltb yumtlb
yumtbl yubmlt yubmtl yublmt yubltm yubtlm yubtml yulbmt yulbtm yulmbt yulmtb
yultmb yultbm yutblm yutbml yutlbm yutlmb yutmlb yutmbl ymublt ymubtl ymulbt
ymultb ymutlb ymutbl ymbult ymbutl ymblut ymbltu ymbtlu ymbtul ymlbut ymlbtu
ymlubt ymlutb ymltub ymltbu ymtblu ymtbul ymtlbu ymtlub ymtulb ymtubl ybmult
ybmutl ybmlut ybmltu ybmtlu ybmtul ybumlt ybumtl ybulmt ybultm ybutlm ybutml
yblumt yblutm yblmut yblmtu ybltmu ybltum ybtulm ybtuml ybtlum ybtlmu ybtmlu
ybtmul ylmbut ylmbtu ylmubt ylmutb ylmtub ylmtbu ylbmut ylbmtu ylbumt ylbutm
ylbtum ylbtmu ylubmt ylubtm ylumbt ylumtb ylutmb ylutbm yltbum yltbmu yltubm
yltumb yltmub yltmbu ytmblu ytmbul ytmlbu ytmlub ytmulb ytmubl ytbmlu ytbmul
ytblmu ytblum ytbulm ytbuml ytlbmu ytlbum ytlmbu ytlmub ytlumb ytlubm ytublm
ytubml ytulbm ytulmb ytumlb ytumbl

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History of cryptography
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