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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: triune
cipher variations:
usjvof vtkwpg wulxqh xvmyri ywnzsj
zxoatk aypbul bzqcvm cardwn dbsexo
ectfyp fdugzq gevhar hfwibs igxjct
jhykdu kizlev ljamfw mkbngx nlcohy
omdpiz pneqja qofrkb rpgslc sqhtmd

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: triune
Cipher: girfmv

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: triune

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: triune
cipher variations:

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x

An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: triune
Cipher: gevhar

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: triune
Cipher: 442442543351

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: triune
method variations:

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
t r i u n e 
4 2 4 5 3 5 
4 4 2 4 3 1 
They are then read out in rows:
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: triune
Cipher: iyxtrc

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Method #3

Plaintext: triune
method variations:
itwoxq twoxqi woxqit
oxqitw xqitwo qitwox

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: triune

all 720 cipher variations:
triune triuen trinue trineu trienu trieun truine truien trunie trunei trueni
truein trnuie trnuei trniue trnieu trneiu trneui treuni treuin trenui treniu
treinu treiun tirune tiruen tirnue tirneu tirenu tireun tiurne tiuren tiunre
tiuner tiuenr tiuern tinure tinuer tinrue tinreu tineru tineur tieunr tieurn
tienur tienru tiernu tierun tuirne tuiren tuinre tuiner tuienr tuiern turine
turien turnie turnei tureni turein tunrie tunrei tunire tunier tuneir tuneri
tuerni tuerin tuenri tuenir tueinr tueirn tniure tniuer tnirue tnireu tnieru
tnieur tnuire tnuier tnurie tnurei tnueri tnueir tnruie tnruei tnriue tnrieu
tnreiu tnreui tneuri tneuir tnerui tneriu tneiru tneiur teiunr teiurn teinur
teinru teirnu teirun teuinr teuirn teunir teunri teurni teurin tenuir tenuri
teniur teniru tenriu tenrui teruni teruin ternui terniu terinu teriun rtiune
rtiuen rtinue rtineu rtienu rtieun rtuine rtuien rtunie rtunei rtueni rtuein
rtnuie rtnuei rtniue rtnieu rtneiu rtneui rteuni rteuin rtenui rteniu rteinu
rteiun ritune rituen ritnue ritneu ritenu riteun riutne riuten riunte riunet
riuent riuetn rinute rinuet rintue rinteu rinetu rineut rieunt rieutn rienut
rientu rietnu rietun ruitne ruiten ruinte ruinet ruient ruietn rutine rutien
rutnie rutnei ruteni rutein runtie runtei runite runiet runeit runeti ruetni
ruetin ruenti ruenit rueint rueitn rniute rniuet rnitue rniteu rnietu rnieut
rnuite rnuiet rnutie rnutei rnueti rnueit rntuie rntuei rntiue rntieu rnteiu
rnteui rneuti rneuit rnetui rnetiu rneitu rneiut reiunt reiutn reinut reintu
reitnu reitun reuint reuitn reunit reunti reutni reutin renuit renuti reniut
renitu rentiu rentui retuni retuin retnui retniu retinu retiun irtune irtuen
irtnue irtneu irtenu irteun irutne iruten irunte irunet iruent iruetn irnute
irnuet irntue irnteu irnetu irneut ireunt ireutn irenut irentu iretnu iretun
itrune itruen itrnue itrneu itrenu itreun iturne ituren itunre ituner ituenr
ituern itnure itnuer itnrue itnreu itneru itneur iteunr iteurn itenur itenru
iternu iterun iutrne iutren iutnre iutner iutenr iutern iurtne iurten iurnte
iurnet iurent iuretn iunrte iunret iuntre iunter iunetr iunert iuernt iuertn
iuenrt iuentr iuetnr iuetrn inture intuer intrue intreu interu inteur inutre
inuter inurte inuret inuert inuetr inrute inruet inrtue inrteu inretu inreut
ineurt ineutr inerut inertu inetru inetur ietunr ieturn ietnur ietnru ietrnu
ietrun ieutnr ieutrn ieuntr ieunrt ieurnt ieurtn ienutr ienurt ientur ientru
ienrtu ienrut ierunt ierutn iernut ierntu iertnu iertun uritne uriten urinte
urinet urient urietn urtine urtien urtnie urtnei urteni urtein urntie urntei
urnite urniet urneit urneti uretni uretin urenti urenit ureint ureitn uirtne
uirten uirnte uirnet uirent uiretn uitrne uitren uitnre uitner uitenr uitern
uintre uinter uinrte uinret uinert uinetr uietnr uietrn uientr uienrt uiernt
uiertn utirne utiren utinre utiner utienr utiern utrine utrien utrnie utrnei
utreni utrein utnrie utnrei utnire utnier utneir utneri uterni uterin utenri
utenir uteinr uteirn unitre uniter unirte uniret uniert unietr untire untier
untrie untrei unteri unteir unrtie unrtei unrite unriet unreit unreti unetri
unetir unerti unerit uneirt uneitr ueitnr ueitrn ueintr ueinrt ueirnt ueirtn
uetinr uetirn uetnir uetnri uetrni uetrin uentir uentri uenitr uenirt uenrit
uenrti uertni uertin uernti uernit uerint ueritn nriute nriuet nritue nriteu
nrietu nrieut nruite nruiet nrutie nrutei nrueti nrueit nrtuie nrtuei nrtiue
nrtieu nrteiu nrteui nreuti nreuit nretui nretiu nreitu nreiut nirute niruet
nirtue nirteu niretu nireut niurte niuret niutre niuter niuetr niuert niture
nituer nitrue nitreu niteru niteur nieutr nieurt nietur nietru niertu nierut
nuirte nuiret nuitre nuiter nuietr nuiert nurite nuriet nurtie nurtei nureti
nureit nutrie nutrei nutire nutier nuteir nuteri nuerti nuerit nuetri nuetir
nueitr nueirt ntiure ntiuer ntirue ntireu ntieru ntieur ntuire ntuier nturie
nturei ntueri ntueir ntruie ntruei ntriue ntrieu ntreiu ntreui nteuri nteuir
nterui nteriu nteiru nteiur neiutr neiurt neitur neitru neirtu neirut neuitr
neuirt neutir neutri neurti neurit netuir neturi netiur netiru netriu netrui
neruti neruit nertui nertiu neritu neriut eriunt eriutn erinut erintu eritnu
eritun eruint eruitn erunit erunti erutni erutin ernuit ernuti erniut ernitu
erntiu erntui ertuni ertuin ertnui ertniu ertinu ertiun eirunt eirutn eirnut
eirntu eirtnu eirtun eiurnt eiurtn eiunrt eiuntr eiutnr eiutrn einurt einutr
einrut einrtu eintru eintur eitunr eiturn eitnur eitnru eitrnu eitrun euirnt
euirtn euinrt euintr euitnr euitrn eurint euritn eurnit eurnti eurtni eurtin
eunrit eunrti eunirt eunitr euntir euntri eutrni eutrin eutnri eutnir eutinr
eutirn eniurt eniutr enirut enirtu enitru enitur enuirt enuitr enurit enurti
enutri enutir enruit enruti enriut enritu enrtiu enrtui enturi entuir entrui
entriu entiru entiur etiunr etiurn etinur etinru etirnu etirun etuinr etuirn
etunir etunri eturni eturin etnuir etnuri etniur etniru etnriu etnrui etruni
etruin etrnui etrniu etrinu etriun

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History of cryptography
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