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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: toyoda
cipher variations:
upzpeb vqaqfc wrbrgd xscshe ytdtif
zueujg avfvkh bwgwli cxhxmj dyiynk
ezjzol fakapm gblbqn hcmcro idndsp
jeoetq kfpfur lgqgvs mhrhwt nisixu
ojtjyv pkukzw qlvlax rmwmby snxncz

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: toyoda
Cipher: glblwz

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: toyoda
Cipher: BAABA ABBAB BABBA ABBAB AAABB AAAAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: toyoda
cipher variations:
upzpebgrvrkbstrtqbevnvwbqxjxcbczfzibadxdubmftfab
yhphgbkjljmbwlhlsbindnybvqaqfchswslctusurcfwowxc
rykydcdagajcbeyevcngugbcziqihclkmkncxmimtcjoeozc
wrbrgditxtmduvtvsdgxpxydszlzedebhbkdcfzfwdohvhcd
ajrjidmlnlodynjnudkpfpadxscshejuyunevwuwtehyqyze
tamafefcicledgagxepiwidebkskjenmompezokovelqgqbe
ytdtifkvzvofwxvxufizrzafubnbgfgdjdmfehbhyfqjxjef
cltlkfonpnqfaplpwfmrhrcfzueujglwawpgxywyvgjasabg
vcochghekengficizgrkykfgdmumlgpoqorgbqmqxgnsisdg
avfvkhmxbxqhyzxzwhkbtbchwdpdihiflfohgjdjahslzlgh
envnmhqprpshcrnryhotjtehbwgwlinycyrizayaxilcucdi
xeqejijgmgpihkekbitmamhifowonirqsqtidsoszipukufi
cxhxmjozdzsjabzbyjmdvdejyfrfkjkhnhqjilflcjunbnij
gpxpojsrtrujetptajqvlvgjdyiynkpaeatkbcaczknewefk
zgsglklioirkjmgmdkvocojkhqyqpktsusvkfuqubkrwmwhk
ezjzolqbfbulcdbdalofxfglahthmlmjpjslknhnelwpdpkl
irzrqlutvtwlgvrvclsxnxilfakapmrcgcvmdecebmpgyghm
biuinmnkqktmloiofmxqeqlmjsasrmvuwuxmhwswdmtyoyjm
gblbqnsdhdwnefdfcnqhzhincjvjonolrlunmpjpgnyrfrmn
ktbtsnwvxvynixtxenuzpzknhcmcroteiexofgegdoriaijo
dkwkpopmsmvonqkqhozsgsnolucutoxwywzojyuyfovaqalo
idndspufjfypghfhepsjbjkpelxlqpqntnwporlripathtop
mvdvupyxzxapkzvzgpwbrbmpjeoetqvgkgzqhigifqtkcklq
fmymrqrouoxqpsmsjqbuiupqnwewvqzyaybqlawahqxcscnq
kfpfurwhlharijhjgruldlmrgnznsrspvpyrqtntkrcvjvqr
oxfxwrazbzcrmbxbirydtdorlgqgvsximibsjkikhsvmemns
hoaotstqwqzsruoulsdwkwrspygyxsbacadsncycjszeueps
mhrhwtyjnjctkljlitwnfnotipbputurxratsvpvmtexlxst
qzhzytcbdbetodzdktafvfqtnisixuzkokdulmkmjuxogopu
jqcqvuvsysbutwqwnufymyturaiazudcecfupeaelubgwgru
ojtjyvalplevmnlnkvyphpqvkrdrwvwtztcvuxrxovgznzuv
sbjbavedfdgvqfbfmvchxhsvpkukzwbmqmfwnomolwzqiqrw
lsesxwxuaudwvysypwhaoavwtckcbwfegehwrgcgnwdiyitw
qlvlaxcnrngxopnpmxarjrsxmtftyxyvbvexwztzqxibpbwx
udldcxgfhfixshdhoxejzjuxrmwmbydosohypqoqnybsksty
nuguzyzwcwfyxauaryjcqcxyvemedyhgigjytieipyfkakvy
snxnczeptpizqrprozctltuzovhvazaxdxgzybvbszkdrdyz
wfnfezihjhkzujfjqzglblwztoyodafquqjarsqspadumuva
pwiwbabyeyhazcwctalesezaxgogfajikilavkgkrahmcmxa

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: toyoda
Cipher: gblbqn

Read more ...

 

Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: toyoda
Cipher: 444345434111

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: toyoda
method variations:
ytdtifdyiyolidodtqoitiyv

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
t o y o d a 
4 4 4 4 4 1 
4 3 5 3 1 1 
They are then read out in rows:
444441435311
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: toyoda
Cipher: ttdopa

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: toyoda
method variations:
tsusaq susaqt usaqts
saqtsu aqtsus qtsusa

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: toyoda

all 720 cipher variations:
toyoda toyoad toydoa toydao toyado toyaod tooyda tooyad toodya tooday tooady
tooayd todoya todoay todyoa todyao todayo todaoy toaody toaoyd toadoy toadyo
toaydo toayod tyooda tyooad tyodoa tyodao tyoado tyoaod tyooda tyooad tyodoa
tyodao tyoado tyoaod tydooa tydoao tydooa tydoao tydaoo tydaoo tyaodo tyaood
tyadoo tyadoo tyaodo tyaood toyoda toyoad toydoa toydao toyado toyaod tooyda
tooyad toodya tooday tooady tooayd todoya todoay todyoa todyao todayo todaoy
toaody toaoyd toadoy toadyo toaydo toayod tdyooa tdyoao tdyooa tdyoao tdyaoo
tdyaoo tdoyoa tdoyao tdooya tdooay tdoaoy tdoayo tdooya tdooay tdoyoa tdoyao
tdoayo tdoaoy tdaooy tdaoyo tdaooy tdaoyo tdayoo tdayoo tayodo tayood taydoo
taydoo tayodo tayood taoydo taoyod taodyo taodoy taoody taooyd tadoyo tadooy
tadyoo tadyoo tadoyo tadooy taoody taooyd taodoy taodyo taoydo taoyod otyoda
otyoad otydoa otydao otyado otyaod otoyda otoyad otodya otoday otoady otoayd
otdoya otdoay otdyoa otdyao otdayo otdaoy otaody otaoyd otadoy otadyo otaydo
otayod oytoda oytoad oytdoa oytdao oytado oytaod oyotda oyotad oyodta oyodat
oyoadt oyoatd oydota oydoat oydtoa oydtao oydato oydaot oyaodt oyaotd oyadot
oyadto oyatdo oyatod ooytda ooytad ooydta ooydat ooyadt ooyatd ootyda ootyad
ootdya ootday ootady ootayd oodtya oodtay oodyta oodyat oodayt oodaty ooatdy
ooatyd ooadty ooadyt ooaydt ooaytd odyota odyoat odytoa odytao odyato odyaot
odoyta odoyat odotya odotay odoaty odoayt odtoya odtoay odtyoa odtyao odtayo
odtaoy odaoty odaoyt odatoy odatyo odayto odayot oayodt oayotd oaydot oaydto
oaytdo oaytod oaoydt oaoytd oaodyt oaodty oaotdy oaotyd oadoyt oadoty oadyot
oadyto oadtyo oadtoy oatody oatoyd oatdoy oatdyo oatydo oatyod yotoda yotoad
yotdoa yotdao yotado yotaod yootda yootad yoodta yoodat yooadt yooatd yodota
yodoat yodtoa yodtao yodato yodaot yoaodt yoaotd yoadot yoadto yoatdo yoatod
ytooda ytooad ytodoa ytodao ytoado ytoaod ytooda ytooad ytodoa ytodao ytoado
ytoaod ytdooa ytdoao ytdooa ytdoao ytdaoo ytdaoo ytaodo ytaood ytadoo ytadoo
ytaodo ytaood yotoda yotoad yotdoa yotdao yotado yotaod yootda yootad yoodta
yoodat yooadt yooatd yodota yodoat yodtoa yodtao yodato yodaot yoaodt yoaotd
yoadot yoadto yoatdo yoatod ydtooa ydtoao ydtooa ydtoao ydtaoo ydtaoo ydotoa
ydotao ydoota ydooat ydoaot ydoato ydoota ydooat ydotoa ydotao ydoato ydoaot
ydaoot ydaoto ydaoot ydaoto ydatoo ydatoo yatodo yatood yatdoo yatdoo yatodo
yatood yaotdo yaotod yaodto yaodot yaoodt yaootd yadoto yadoot yadtoo yadtoo
yadoto yadoot yaoodt yaootd yaodot yaodto yaotdo yaotod ooytda ooytad ooydta
ooydat ooyadt ooyatd ootyda ootyad ootdya ootday ootady ootayd oodtya oodtay
oodyta oodyat oodayt oodaty ooatdy ooatyd ooadty ooadyt ooaydt ooaytd oyotda
oyotad oyodta oyodat oyoadt oyoatd oytoda oytoad oytdoa oytdao oytado oytaod
oydtoa oydtao oydota oydoat oydaot oydato oyatdo oyatod oyadto oyadot oyaodt
oyaotd otyoda otyoad otydoa otydao otyado otyaod otoyda otoyad otodya otoday
otoady otoayd otdoya otdoay otdyoa otdyao otdayo otdaoy otaody otaoyd otadoy
otadyo otaydo otayod odytoa odytao odyota odyoat odyaot odyato odtyoa odtyao
odtoya odtoay odtaoy odtayo odotya odotay odoyta odoyat odoayt odoaty odatoy
odatyo odaoty odaoyt odayot odayto oaytdo oaytod oaydto oaydot oayodt oayotd
oatydo oatyod oatdyo oatdoy oatody oatoyd oadtyo oadtoy oadyto oadyot oadoyt
oadoty oaotdy oaotyd oaodty oaodyt oaoydt oaoytd doyota doyoat doytoa doytao
doyato doyaot dooyta dooyat dootya dootay dooaty dooayt dotoya dotoay dotyoa
dotyao dotayo dotaoy doaoty doaoyt doatoy doatyo doayto doayot dyoota dyooat
dyotoa dyotao dyoato dyoaot dyoota dyooat dyotoa dyotao dyoato dyoaot dytooa
dytoao dytooa dytoao dytaoo dytaoo dyaoto dyaoot dyatoo dyatoo dyaoto dyaoot
doyota doyoat doytoa doytao doyato doyaot dooyta dooyat dootya dootay dooaty
dooayt dotoya dotoay dotyoa dotyao dotayo dotaoy doaoty doaoyt doatoy doatyo
doayto doayot dtyooa dtyoao dtyooa dtyoao dtyaoo dtyaoo dtoyoa dtoyao dtooya
dtooay dtoaoy dtoayo dtooya dtooay dtoyoa dtoyao dtoayo dtoaoy dtaooy dtaoyo
dtaooy dtaoyo dtayoo dtayoo dayoto dayoot daytoo daytoo dayoto dayoot daoyto
daoyot daotyo daotoy daooty daooyt datoyo datooy datyoo datyoo datoyo datooy
daooty daooyt daotoy daotyo daoyto daoyot aoyodt aoyotd aoydot aoydto aoytdo
aoytod aooydt aooytd aoodyt aoodty aootdy aootyd aodoyt aodoty aodyot aodyto
aodtyo aodtoy aotody aotoyd aotdoy aotdyo aotydo aotyod ayoodt ayootd ayodot
ayodto ayotdo ayotod ayoodt ayootd ayodot ayodto ayotdo ayotod aydoot aydoto
aydoot aydoto aydtoo aydtoo aytodo aytood aytdoo aytdoo aytodo aytood aoyodt
aoyotd aoydot aoydto aoytdo aoytod aooydt aooytd aoodyt aoodty aootdy aootyd
aodoyt aodoty aodyot aodyto aodtyo aodtoy aotody aotoyd aotdoy aotdyo aotydo
aotyod adyoot adyoto adyoot adyoto adytoo adytoo adoyot adoyto adooyt adooty
adotoy adotyo adooyt adooty adoyot adoyto adotyo adotoy adtooy adtoyo adtooy
adtoyo adtyoo adtyoo atyodo atyood atydoo atydoo atyodo atyood atoydo atoyod
atodyo atodoy atoody atooyd atdoyo atdooy atdyoo atdyoo atdoyo atdooy atoody
atooyd atodoy atodyo atoydo atoyod

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History of cryptography
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