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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: toppin
cipher variations:
upqqjo vqrrkp wrsslq xsttmr ytuuns
zuvvot avwwpu bwxxqv cxyyrw dyzzsx
ezaaty fabbuz gbccva hcddwb ideexc
jeffyd kfggze lghhaf mhiibg nijjch
ojkkdi pkllej qlmmfk rmnngl snoohm

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: toppin
Cipher: glkkrm

Read more ...

 

Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: toppin
Cipher: BAABA ABBAB ABBBA ABBBA ABAAA ABBAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: toppin
cipher variations:
upqqjogruuzostyypoevccfoqxggvoczkkloadssromfwwho
yhaaxokjeenowliidoinmmtovqrrkphsvvaptuzzqpfwddgp
ryhhwpdallmpbettspngxxipzibbyplkffopxmjjepjonnup
wrsslqitwwbquvaarqgxeehqsziixqebmmnqcfuutqohyyjq
ajcczqmlggpqynkkfqkpoovqxsttmrjuxxcrvwbbsrhyffir
tajjyrfcnnordgvvurpizzkrbkddarnmhhqrzollgrlqppwr
ytuunskvyydswxcctsizggjsubkkzsgdoopsehwwvsqjaals
cleebsoniirsapmmhsmrqqxszuvvotlwzzetxyddutjahhkt
vcllatheppqtfixxwtrkbbmtdmffctpojjstbqnnitnsrryt
avwwpumxaafuyzeevukbiiluwdmmbuifqqrugjyyxuslccnu
enggduqpkktucroojuotsszubwxxqvnybbgvzaffwvlcjjmv
xenncvjgrrsvhkzzyvtmddovfohhevrqlluvdsppkvputtav
cxyyrwozcchwabggxwmdkknwyfoodwkhsstwilaazwuneepw
gpiifwsrmmvwetqqlwqvuubwdyzzsxpaddixbchhyxnellox
zgppexlittuxjmbbaxvoffqxhqjjgxtsnnwxfurrmxrwvvcx
ezaatyqbeejycdiizyofmmpyahqqfymjuuvyknccbywpggry
irkkhyutooxygvssnysxwwdyfabbuzrcffkzdejjazpgnnqz
birrgznkvvwzloddczxqhhszjsllizvuppyzhwttoztyxxez
gbccvasdgglaefkkbaqhooracjsshaolwwxampeedayriita
ktmmjawvqqzaixuupauzyyfahcddwbtehhmbfgllcbrippsb
dkttibpmxxybnqffebzsjjublunnkbxwrrabjyvvqbvazzgb
ideexcufiincghmmdcsjqqtceluujcqnyyzcorggfcatkkvc
mvoolcyxssbckzwwrcwbaahcjeffydvgjjodhinnedtkrrud
fmvvkdrozzadpshhgdbullwdnwppmdzyttcdlaxxsdxcbbid
kfggzewhkkpeijoofeulssvegnwwlespaabeqtiihecvmmxe
oxqqneazuudembyyteydccjelghhafxillqfjkppgfvmttwf
hoxxmftqbbcfrujjifdwnnyfpyrrofbavvefnczzufzeddkf
mhiibgyjmmrgklqqhgwnuuxgipyyngurccdgsvkkjgexoozg
qzsspgcbwwfgodaavgafeelgnijjchzknnshlmrrihxovvyh
jqzzohvsddehtwllkhfyppahrattqhdcxxghpebbwhbgffmh
ojkkdialootimnssjiypwwzikraapiwteefiuxmmligzqqbi
sbuuriedyyhiqfccxichggnipkllejbmppujnottkjzqxxaj
lsbbqjxuffgjvynnmjharrcjtcvvsjfezzijrgddyjdihhoj
qlmmfkcnqqvkopuulkaryybkmtccrkyvgghkwzoonkibssdk
udwwtkgfaajksheezkejiipkrmnngldorrwlpqvvmlbszzcl
nuddslzwhhilxappoljcttelvexxulhgbbkltiffalfkjjql
snoohmepssxmqrwwnmctaadmoveetmaxiijmybqqpmkduufm
wfyyvmihcclmujggbmglkkrmtoppinfqttynrsxxondubben
pwffunbyjjknzcrrqnlevvgnxgzzwnjiddmnvkhhcnhmllsn

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: toppin
Cipher: gbccva

Read more ...

 

Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: toppin
Cipher: 444353534233

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: toppin
method variations:
ytuuosdyzztxideeycoikkdh

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
t o p p i n 
4 4 5 5 4 3 
4 3 3 3 2 3 
They are then read out in rows:
445543433323
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: toppin
Cipher: tzoonm

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: toppin
method variations:
txxsms xxsmst xsmstx
smstxx mstxxs stxxsm

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: toppin

all 720 cipher variations:
toppin toppni topipn topinp topnip topnpi toppin toppni topipn topinp topnip
topnpi toippn toipnp toippn toipnp toinpp toinpp tonpip tonppi tonipp tonipp
tonpip tonppi tpopin tpopni tpoipn tpoinp tponip tponpi tppoin tpponi tppion
tppino tppnio tppnoi tpipon tpipno tpiopn tpionp tpinop tpinpo tpnpio tpnpoi
tpnipo tpniop tpnoip tpnopi tppoin tpponi tppion tppino tppnio tppnoi tpopin
tpopni tpoipn tpoinp tponip tponpi tpiopn tpionp tpipon tpipno tpinpo tpinop
tpnoip tpnopi tpniop tpnipo tpnpio tpnpoi tippon tippno tipopn tiponp tipnop
tipnpo tippon tippno tipopn tiponp tipnop tipnpo tioppn tiopnp tioppn tiopnp
tionpp tionpp tinpop tinppo tinopp tinopp tinpop tinppo tnppio tnppoi tnpipo
tnpiop tnpoip tnpopi tnppio tnppoi tnpipo tnpiop tnpoip tnpopi tnippo tnipop
tnippo tnipop tniopp tniopp tnopip tnoppi tnoipp tnoipp tnopip tnoppi otppin
otppni otpipn otpinp otpnip otpnpi otppin otppni otpipn otpinp otpnip otpnpi
otippn otipnp otippn otipnp otinpp otinpp otnpip otnppi otnipp otnipp otnpip
otnppi optpin optpni optipn optinp optnip optnpi opptin opptni oppitn oppint
oppnit oppnti opiptn opipnt opitpn opitnp opintp opinpt opnpit opnpti opnipt
opnitp opntip opntpi opptin opptni oppitn oppint oppnit oppnti optpin optpni
optipn optinp optnip optnpi opitpn opitnp opiptn opipnt opinpt opintp opntip
opntpi opnitp opnipt opnpit opnpti oipptn oippnt oiptpn oiptnp oipntp oipnpt
oipptn oippnt oiptpn oiptnp oipntp oipnpt oitppn oitpnp oitppn oitpnp oitnpp
oitnpp oinptp oinppt ointpp ointpp oinptp oinppt onppit onppti onpipt onpitp
onptip onptpi onppit onppti onpipt onpitp onptip onptpi onippt oniptp onippt
oniptp onitpp onitpp ontpip ontppi ontipp ontipp ontpip ontppi potpin potpni
potipn potinp potnip potnpi poptin poptni popitn popint popnit popnti poiptn
poipnt poitpn poitnp pointp poinpt ponpit ponpti ponipt ponitp pontip pontpi
ptopin ptopni ptoipn ptoinp ptonip ptonpi ptpoin ptponi ptpion ptpino ptpnio
ptpnoi ptipon ptipno ptiopn ptionp ptinop ptinpo ptnpio ptnpoi ptnipo ptniop
ptnoip ptnopi pptoin pptoni pption pptino pptnio pptnoi ppotin ppotni ppoitn
ppoint pponit pponti ppiotn ppiont ppiton ppitno ppinto ppinot ppnoit ppnoti
ppniot ppnito ppntio ppntoi pitpon pitpno pitopn pitonp pitnop pitnpo pipton
piptno pipotn pipont pipnot pipnto pioptn piopnt piotpn piotnp piontp pionpt
pinpot pinpto pinopt pinotp pintop pintpo pntpio pntpoi pntipo pntiop pntoip
pntopi pnptio pnptoi pnpito pnpiot pnpoit pnpoti pnipto pnipot pnitpo pnitop
pniotp pniopt pnopit pnopti pnoipt pnoitp pnotip pnotpi poptin poptni popitn
popint popnit popnti potpin potpni potipn potinp potnip potnpi poitpn poitnp
poiptn poipnt poinpt pointp pontip pontpi ponitp ponipt ponpit ponpti ppotin
ppotni ppoitn ppoint pponit pponti pptoin pptoni pption pptino pptnio pptnoi
ppiton ppitno ppiotn ppiont ppinot ppinto ppntio ppntoi ppnito ppniot ppnoit
ppnoti ptpoin ptponi ptpion ptpino ptpnio ptpnoi ptopin ptopni ptoipn ptoinp
ptonip ptonpi ptiopn ptionp ptipon ptipno ptinpo ptinop ptnoip ptnopi ptniop
ptnipo ptnpio ptnpoi pipton piptno pipotn pipont pipnot pipnto pitpon pitpno
pitopn pitonp pitnop pitnpo piotpn piotnp pioptn piopnt pionpt piontp pintop
pintpo pinotp pinopt pinpot pinpto pnptio pnptoi pnpito pnpiot pnpoit pnpoti
pntpio pntpoi pntipo pntiop pntoip pntopi pnitpo pnitop pnipto pnipot pniopt
pniotp pnotip pnotpi pnoitp pnoipt pnopit pnopti iopptn ioppnt ioptpn ioptnp
iopntp iopnpt iopptn ioppnt ioptpn ioptnp iopntp iopnpt iotppn iotpnp iotppn
iotpnp iotnpp iotnpp ionptp ionppt iontpp iontpp ionptp ionppt ipoptn ipopnt
ipotpn ipotnp ipontp iponpt ippotn ippont ippton ipptno ippnto ippnot iptpon
iptpno iptopn iptonp iptnop iptnpo ipnpto ipnpot ipntpo ipntop ipnotp ipnopt
ippotn ippont ippton ipptno ippnto ippnot ipoptn ipopnt ipotpn ipotnp ipontp
iponpt iptopn iptonp iptpon iptpno iptnpo iptnop ipnotp ipnopt ipntop ipntpo
ipnpto ipnpot itppon itppno itpopn itponp itpnop itpnpo itppon itppno itpopn
itponp itpnop itpnpo itoppn itopnp itoppn itopnp itonpp itonpp itnpop itnppo
itnopp itnopp itnpop itnppo inppto inppot inptpo inptop inpotp inpopt inppto
inppot inptpo inptop inpotp inpopt intppo intpop intppo intpop intopp intopp
inoptp inoppt inotpp inotpp inoptp inoppt noppit noppti nopipt nopitp noptip
noptpi noppit noppti nopipt nopitp noptip noptpi noippt noiptp noippt noiptp
noitpp noitpp notpip notppi notipp notipp notpip notppi npopit npopti npoipt
npoitp npotip npotpi nppoit nppoti nppiot nppito npptio npptoi npipot npipto
npiopt npiotp npitop npitpo nptpio nptpoi nptipo nptiop nptoip nptopi nppoit
nppoti nppiot nppito npptio npptoi npopit npopti npoipt npoitp npotip npotpi
npiopt npiotp npipot npipto npitpo npitop nptoip nptopi nptiop nptipo nptpio
nptpoi nippot nippto nipopt nipotp niptop niptpo nippot nippto nipopt nipotp
niptop niptpo nioppt nioptp nioppt nioptp niotpp niotpp nitpop nitppo nitopp
nitopp nitpop nitppo ntppio ntppoi ntpipo ntpiop ntpoip ntpopi ntppio ntppoi
ntpipo ntpiop ntpoip ntpopi ntippo ntipop ntippo ntipop ntiopp ntiopp ntopip
ntoppi ntoipp ntoipp ntopip ntoppi

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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