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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: tjjsee
cipher variations:
ukktff vllugg wmmvhh xnnwii yooxjj
zppykk aqqzll brramm cssbnn dttcoo
euudpp fvveqq gwwfrr hxxgss iyyhtt
jzziuu kaajvv lbbkww mcclxx nddmyy
oeenzz pffoaa qggpbb rhhqcc siirdd

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: tjjsee
Cipher: gqqhvv

Read more ...

 

Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: tjjsee
Cipher: BAABA BBBAA BBBAA BAAAB AABAA AABAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: tjjsee
cipher variations:
ukktffgccdnnsuunvvemmxddqeehllcwwrttaggljjmyyvrr
yqqfzzkiiphhwaazppissjxxvllugghddeootvvowwfnnyee
rffimmdxxsuubhhmkknzzwsszrrgaaljjqiixbbaqqjttkyy
wmmvhhieefppuwwpxxgoozffsggjnneyytvvciinlloaaxtt
asshbbmkkrjjyccbrrkuulzzxnnwiijffgqqvxxqyyhppagg
thhkoofzzuwwdjjommpbbyuubtticcnllskkzddcsslvvmaa
yooxjjkgghrrwyyrzziqqbhhuiilppgaavxxekkpnnqcczvv
cuujddommtllaeedttmwwnbbzppykklhhissxzzsaajrrcii
vjjmqqhbbwyyfllqoorddawwdvvkeepnnummbffeuunxxocc
aqqzllmiijttyaatbbkssdjjwkknrriccxzzgmmrppseebxx
ewwlffqoovnncggfvvoyypddbrrammnjjkuuzbbucclttekk
xllossjddyaahnnsqqtffcyyfxxmggrppwoodhhgwwpzzqee
cssbnnokklvvaccvddmuufllymmpttkeezbbiootrruggdzz
gyynhhsqqxppeiihxxqaarffdttcoopllmwwbddweenvvgmm
znnquulffaccjppussvhheaahzzoiitrryqqfjjiyyrbbsgg
euudppqmmnxxceexffowwhnnaoorvvmggbddkqqvttwiifbb
iaapjjusszrrgkkjzzsccthhfvveqqrnnoyydffyggpxxioo
bppswwnhhceelrrwuuxjjgccjbbqkkvttasshllkaatdduii
gwwfrrsoopzzeggzhhqyyjppcqqtxxoiidffmssxvvykkhdd
kccrllwuubttimmlbbueevjjhxxgsstppqaafhhaiirzzkqq
drruyypjjeggnttywwzllieelddsmmxvvcuujnnmccvffwkk
iyyhttuqqrbbgiibjjsaalrressvzzqkkfhhouuzxxammjff
meetnnywwdvvkoonddwggxlljzziuuvrrscchjjckktbbmss
fttwaarllgiipvvayybnnkggnffuoozxxewwlppoeexhhymm
kaajvvwsstddikkdlluccnttguuxbbsmmhjjqwwbzzcoolhh
oggvppayyfxxmqqpffyiiznnlbbkwwxttueejllemmvddouu
hvvycctnnikkrxxcaadppmiiphhwqqbzzgyynrrqggzjjaoo
mcclxxyuuvffkmmfnnweepvviwwzdduoojllsyydbbeqqnjj
qiixrrcaahzzossrhhakkbppnddmyyzvvwgglnngooxffqww
jxxaeevppkmmtzzeccfrrokkrjjyssdbbiaapttsiibllcqq
oeenzzawwxhhmoohppyggrxxkyybffwqqlnnuaafddgsspll
skkztteccjbbquutjjcmmdrrpffoaabxxyiinppiqqzhhsyy
lzzcggxrrmoovbbgeehttqmmtllauufddkccrvvukkdnness
qggpbbcyyzjjoqqjrraiitzzmaadhhyssnppwcchffiuurnn
ummbvvgeelddswwvlleoofttrhhqccdzzakkprrkssbjjuaa
nbbeiizttoqqxddiggjvvsoovnncwwhffmeetxxwmmfppguu
siirddeaabllqsslttckkvbboccfjjauuprryeejhhkwwtpp
woodxxiggnffuyyxnngqqhvvtjjseefbbcmmrttmuudllwcc
pddgkkbvvqsszffkiilxxuqqxppeyyjhhoggvzzyoohrriww

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: tjjsee
Cipher: gwwfrr

Read more ...

 

Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: tjjsee
Cipher: 444242345151

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: tjjsee
method variations:
yooxkkdttcppiyyhuuoddnzz

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
t j j s e e 
4 4 4 3 5 5 
4 2 2 4 1 1 
They are then read out in rows:
444355422411
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: tjjsee
Cipher: tozira

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: tjjsee
method variations:
trmyvq rmyvqt myvqtr
yvqtrm vqtrmy qtrmyv

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: tjjsee

all 720 cipher variations:
tjjsee tjjsee tjjese tjjees tjjees tjjese tjsjee tjsjee tjseje tjseej tjseej
tjseje tjesje tjesej tjejse tjejes tjeejs tjeesj tjesej tjesje tjeesj tjeejs
tjejes tjejse tjjsee tjjsee tjjese tjjees tjjees tjjese tjsjee tjsjee tjseje
tjseej tjseej tjseje tjesje tjesej tjejse tjejes tjeejs tjeesj tjesej tjesje
tjeesj tjeejs tjejes tjejse tsjjee tsjjee tsjeje tsjeej tsjeej tsjeje tsjjee
tsjjee tsjeje tsjeej tsjeej tsjeje tsejje tsejej tsejje tsejej tseejj tseejj
tsejej tsejje tseejj tseejj tsejej tsejje tejsje tejsej tejjse tejjes tejejs
tejesj tesjje tesjej tesjje tesjej tesejj tesejj tejsje tejsej tejjse tejjes
tejejs tejesj teesjj teesjj teejsj teejjs teejjs teejsj tejsej tejsje tejesj
tejejs tejjes tejjse tesjej tesjje tesejj tesejj tesjej tesjje teesjj teesjj
teejsj teejjs teejjs teejsj tejsej tejsje tejesj tejejs tejjes tejjse jtjsee
jtjsee jtjese jtjees jtjees jtjese jtsjee jtsjee jtseje jtseej jtseej jtseje
jtesje jtesej jtejse jtejes jteejs jteesj jtesej jtesje jteesj jteejs jtejes
jtejse jjtsee jjtsee jjtese jjtees jjtees jjtese jjstee jjstee jjsete jjseet
jjseet jjsete jjeste jjeset jjetse jjetes jjeets jjeest jjeset jjeste jjeest
jjeets jjetes jjetse jsjtee jsjtee jsjete jsjeet jsjeet jsjete jstjee jstjee
jsteje jsteej jsteej jsteje jsetje jsetej jsejte jsejet jseejt jseetj jsetej
jsetje jseetj jseejt jsejet jsejte jejste jejset jejtse jejtes jejets jejest
jesjte jesjet jestje jestej jesetj jesejt jetsje jetsej jetjse jetjes jetejs
jetesj jeestj jeesjt jeetsj jeetjs jeejts jeejst jejset jejste jejest jejets
jejtes jejtse jesjet jesjte jesejt jesetj jestej jestje jeesjt jeestj jeejst
jeejts jeetjs jeetsj jetsej jetsje jetesj jetejs jetjes jetjse jjtsee jjtsee
jjtese jjtees jjtees jjtese jjstee jjstee jjsete jjseet jjseet jjsete jjeste
jjeset jjetse jjetes jjeets jjeest jjeset jjeste jjeest jjeets jjetes jjetse
jtjsee jtjsee jtjese jtjees jtjees jtjese jtsjee jtsjee jtseje jtseej jtseej
jtseje jtesje jtesej jtejse jtejes jteejs jteesj jtesej jtesje jteesj jteejs
jtejes jtejse jstjee jstjee jsteje jsteej jsteej jsteje jsjtee jsjtee jsjete
jsjeet jsjeet jsjete jsejte jsejet jsetje jsetej jseetj jseejt jsejet jsejte
jseejt jseetj jsetej jsetje jetsje jetsej jetjse jetjes jetejs jetesj jestje
jestej jesjte jesjet jesejt jesetj jejste jejset jejtse jejtes jejets jejest
jeesjt jeestj jeejst jeejts jeetjs jeetsj jetsej jetsje jetesj jetejs jetjes
jetjse jestej jestje jesetj jesejt jesjet jesjte jeestj jeesjt jeetsj jeetjs
jeejts jeejst jejset jejste jejest jejets jejtes jejtse sjjtee sjjtee sjjete
sjjeet sjjeet sjjete sjtjee sjtjee sjteje sjteej sjteej sjteje sjetje sjetej
sjejte sjejet sjeejt sjeetj sjetej sjetje sjeetj sjeejt sjejet sjejte sjjtee
sjjtee sjjete sjjeet sjjeet sjjete sjtjee sjtjee sjteje sjteej sjteej sjteje
sjetje sjetej sjejte sjejet sjeejt sjeetj sjetej sjetje sjeetj sjeejt sjejet
sjejte stjjee stjjee stjeje stjeej stjeej stjeje stjjee stjjee stjeje stjeej
stjeej stjeje stejje stejej stejje stejej steejj steejj stejej stejje steejj
steejj stejej stejje sejtje sejtej sejjte sejjet sejejt sejetj setjje setjej
setjje setjej setejj setejj sejtje sejtej sejjte sejjet sejejt sejetj seetjj
seetjj seejtj seejjt seejjt seejtj sejtej sejtje sejetj sejejt sejjet sejjte
setjej setjje setejj setejj setjej setjje seetjj seetjj seejtj seejjt seejjt
seejtj sejtej sejtje sejetj sejejt sejjet sejjte ejjste ejjset ejjtse ejjtes
ejjets ejjest ejsjte ejsjet ejstje ejstej ejsetj ejsejt ejtsje ejtsej ejtjse
ejtjes ejtejs ejtesj ejestj ejesjt ejetsj ejetjs ejejts ejejst ejjste ejjset
ejjtse ejjtes ejjets ejjest ejsjte ejsjet ejstje ejstej ejsetj ejsejt ejtsje
ejtsej ejtjse ejtjes ejtejs ejtesj ejestj ejesjt ejetsj ejetjs ejejts ejejst
esjjte esjjet esjtje esjtej esjetj esjejt esjjte esjjet esjtje esjtej esjetj
esjejt estjje estjej estjje estjej estejj estejj esejtj esejjt esetjj esetjj
esejtj esejjt etjsje etjsej etjjse etjjes etjejs etjesj etsjje etsjej etsjje
etsjej etsejj etsejj etjsje etjsej etjjse etjjes etjejs etjesj etesjj etesjj
etejsj etejjs etejjs etejsj eejstj eejsjt eejtsj eejtjs eejjts eejjst eesjtj
eesjjt eestjj eestjj eesjtj eesjjt eetsjj eetsjj eetjsj eetjjs eetjjs eetjsj
eejstj eejsjt eejtsj eejtjs eejjts eejjst ejjset ejjste ejjest ejjets ejjtes
ejjtse ejsjet ejsjte ejsejt ejsetj ejstej ejstje ejesjt ejestj ejejst ejejts
ejetjs ejetsj ejtsej ejtsje ejtesj ejtejs ejtjes ejtjse ejjset ejjste ejjest
ejjets ejjtes ejjtse ejsjet ejsjte ejsejt ejsetj ejstej ejstje ejesjt ejestj
ejejst ejejts ejetjs ejetsj ejtsej ejtsje ejtesj ejtejs ejtjes ejtjse esjjet
esjjte esjejt esjetj esjtej esjtje esjjet esjjte esjejt esjetj esjtej esjtje
esejjt esejtj esejjt esejtj esetjj esetjj estjej estjje estejj estejj estjej
estjje eejsjt eejstj eejjst eejjts eejtjs eejtsj eesjjt eesjtj eesjjt eesjtj
eestjj eestjj eejsjt eejstj eejjst eejjts eejtjs eejtsj eetsjj eetsjj eetjsj
eetjjs eetjjs eetjsj etjsej etjsje etjesj etjejs etjjes etjjse etsjej etsjje
etsejj etsejj etsjej etsjje etesjj etesjj etejsj etejjs etejjs etejsj etjsej
etjsje etjesj etjejs etjjes etjjse

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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