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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: tinnon
cipher variations:
ujoopo vkppqp wlqqrq xmrrsr ynssts
zottut apuuvu bqvvwv crwwxw dsxxyx
etyyzy fuzzaz gvaaba hwbbcb ixccdc
jydded kzeefe laffgf mbgghg nchhih
odiiji pejjkj qfkklk rgllml shmmnm

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: tinnon
Cipher: grmmlm

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: tinnon
Cipher: BAABA ABAAA ABBAA ABBAA ABBAB ABBAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: tinnon
cipher variations:
ujoopogzoorospootoefoovoqvooxocloozoaroodomhoofo
yxoohoknoojowdooloitoonovkppqphappsptqppupfgppwp
rwppypdmppapbsppepnippgpzyppiploppkpxeppmpjuppop
wlqqrqibqqtqurqqvqghqqxqsxqqzqenqqbqctqqfqojqqhq
azqqjqmpqqlqyfqqnqkvqqpqxmrrsrjcrrurvsrrwrhirryr
tyrrarforrcrdurrgrpkrrirbarrkrnqrrmrzgrrorlwrrqr
ynsstskdssvswtssxsijsszsuzssbsgpssdsevsshsqlssjs
cbsslsorssnsahsspsmxssrszottutlettwtxuttytjkttat
vattcthqttetfwttitrmttktdcttmtpsttotbittqtnyttst
apuuvumfuuxuyvuuzukluubuwbuuduiruufugxuujusnuulu
eduunuqtuupucjuuruozuutubqvvwvngvvyvzwvvavlmvvcv
xcvvevjsvvgvhyvvkvtovvmvfevvovruvvqvdkvvsvpavvuv
crwwxwohwwzwaxwwbwmnwwdwydwwfwktwwhwizwwlwupwwnw
gfwwpwsvwwrwelwwtwqbwwvwdsxxyxpixxaxbyxxcxnoxxex
zexxgxluxxixjaxxmxvqxxoxhgxxqxtwxxsxfmxxuxrcxxwx
etyyzyqjyybyczyydyopyyfyafyyhymvyyjykbyynywryypy
ihyyryuxyytygnyyvysdyyxyfuzzazrkzzczdazzezpqzzgz
bgzziznwzzkzlczzozxszzqzjizzszvyzzuzhozzwztezzyz
gvaabaslaadaebaafaqraahachaajaoxaalamdaapaytaara
kjaatawzaavaipaaxaufaazahwbbcbtmbbebfcbbgbrsbbib
dibbkbpybbmbnebbqbzubbsblkbbubxabbwbjqbbybvgbbab
ixccdcunccfcgdcchcstccjcejcclcqzccncofccrcavcctc
mlccvcybccxckrcczcwhccbcjyddedvoddgdheddidtuddkd
fkddmdraddodpgddsdbwddudnmddwdzcddydlsddadxiddcd
kzeefewpeeheifeejeuveelegleenesbeepeqheetecxeeve
oneexeadeezemteebeyjeedelaffgfxqffifjgffkfvwffmf
hmffoftcffqfriffufdyffwfpoffyfbeffafnuffcfzkffef
mbgghgyrggjgkhgglgwxggnginggpgudggrgsjggvgezggxg
qpggzgcfggbgovggdgalggfgnchhihzshhkhlihhmhxyhhoh
johhqhvehhshtkhhwhfahhyhrqhhahdghhchpwhhehbmhhgh
odiijiatiilimjiiniyziipikpiiriwfiitiuliixigbiizi
sriibiehiidiqxiificniihipejjkjbujjmjnkjjojzajjqj
lqjjsjxgjjujvmjjyjhcjjajtsjjcjfijjejryjjgjdojjij
qfkklkcvkknkolkkpkabkkrkmrkktkyhkkvkwnkkzkidkkbk
utkkdkgjkkfkszkkhkepkkjkrgllmldwllolpmllqlbcllsl
nsllulzillwlxollaljellclvullelhkllgltallilfqllkl
shmmnmexmmpmqnmmrmcdmmtmotmmvmajmmxmypmmbmkfmmdm
wvmmfmilmmhmubmmjmgrmmlmtinnonfynnqnronnsndennun
punnwnbknnynzqnncnlgnnenxwnngnjmnninvcnnknhsnnmn

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: tinnon
Cipher: gvaaba

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: tinnon
Cipher: 444233334333

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: tinnon
method variations:
yosstsdtxxyxiyccdcodhhih

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
t i n n o n 
4 4 3 3 4 3 
4 2 3 3 3 3 
They are then read out in rows:
443343423333
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: tinnon
Cipher: tnoinn

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: tinnon
method variations:
tmnsns mnsnst nsnstm
snstmn nstmns stmnsn

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: tinnon

all 720 cipher variations:
tinnon tinnno tinonn tinonn tinnon tinnno tinnon tinnno tinonn tinonn tinnon
tinnno tionnn tionnn tionnn tionnn tionnn tionnn tinnon tinnno tinonn tinonn
tinnon tinnno tninon tninno tnionn tnionn tninon tninno tnnion tnnino tnnoin
tnnoni tnnnoi tnnnio tnonin tnonni tnoinn tnoinn tnonin tnonni tnnnoi tnnnio
tnnoni tnnoin tnnion tnnino tnnion tnnino tnnoin tnnoni tnnnoi tnnnio tninon
tninno tnionn tnionn tninon tninno tnoinn tnoinn tnonin tnonni tnonni tnonin
tnnion tnnino tnnoin tnnoni tnnnoi tnnnio tonnin tonnni toninn toninn tonnin
tonnni tonnin tonnni toninn toninn tonnin tonnni toinnn toinnn toinnn toinnn
toinnn toinnn tonnin tonnni toninn toninn tonnin tonnni tnnnoi tnnnio tnnoni
tnnoin tnnion tnnino tnnnoi tnnnio tnnoni tnnoin tnnion tnnino tnonni tnonin
tnonni tnonin tnoinn tnoinn tninon tninno tnionn tnionn tninon tninno itnnon
itnnno itnonn itnonn itnnon itnnno itnnon itnnno itnonn itnonn itnnon itnnno
itonnn itonnn itonnn itonnn itonnn itonnn itnnon itnnno itnonn itnonn itnnon
itnnno intnon intnno intonn intonn intnon intnno innton inntno innotn innont
innnot innnto inontn inonnt inotnn inotnn inontn inonnt innnot innnto innont
innotn innton inntno innton inntno innotn innont innnot innnto intnon intnno
intonn intonn intnon intnno inotnn inotnn inontn inonnt inonnt inontn innton
inntno innotn innont innnot innnto ionntn ionnnt iontnn iontnn ionntn ionnnt
ionntn ionnnt iontnn iontnn ionntn ionnnt iotnnn iotnnn iotnnn iotnnn iotnnn
iotnnn ionntn ionnnt iontnn iontnn ionntn ionnnt innnot innnto innont innotn
innton inntno innnot innnto innont innotn innton inntno inonnt inontn inonnt
inontn inotnn inotnn intnon intnno intonn intonn intnon intnno nitnon nitnno
nitonn nitonn nitnon nitnno ninton nintno ninotn ninont ninnot ninnto niontn
nionnt niotnn niotnn niontn nionnt ninnot ninnto ninont ninotn ninton nintno
ntinon ntinno ntionn ntionn ntinon ntinno ntnion ntnino ntnoin ntnoni ntnnoi
ntnnio ntonin ntonni ntoinn ntoinn ntonin ntonni ntnnoi ntnnio ntnoni ntnoin
ntnion ntnino nntion nntino nntoin nntoni nntnoi nntnio nniton nnitno nniotn
nniont nninot nninto nnoitn nnoint nnotin nnotni nnonti nnonit nnniot nnnito
nnnoit nnnoti nnntoi nnntio notnin notnni notinn notinn notnin notnni nontin
nontni nonitn nonint nonnit nonnti nointn noinnt noitnn noitnn nointn noinnt
nonnit nonnti nonint nonitn nontin nontni nntnoi nntnio nntoni nntoin nntion
nntino nnntoi nnntio nnnoti nnnoit nnniot nnnito nnonti nnonit nnotni nnotin
nnoitn nnoint nninot nninto nniont nniotn nniton nnitno ninton nintno ninotn
ninont ninnot ninnto nitnon nitnno nitonn nitonn nitnon nitnno niotnn niotnn
niontn nionnt nionnt niontn ninton nintno ninotn ninont ninnot ninnto nniton
nnitno nniotn nniont nninot nninto nntion nntino nntoin nntoni nntnoi nntnio
nnotin nnotni nnoitn nnoint nnonit nnonti nnntoi nnntio nnnoti nnnoit nnniot
nnnito ntnion ntnino ntnoin ntnoni ntnnoi ntnnio ntinon ntinno ntionn ntionn
ntinon ntinno ntoinn ntoinn ntonin ntonni ntonni ntonin ntnion ntnino ntnoin
ntnoni ntnnoi ntnnio nontin nontni nonitn nonint nonnit nonnti notnin notnni
notinn notinn notnin notnni noitnn noitnn nointn noinnt noinnt nointn nontin
nontni nonitn nonint nonnit nonnti nnntoi nnntio nnnoti nnnoit nnniot nnnito
nntnoi nntnio nntoni nntoin nntion nntino nnotni nnotin nnonti nnonit nnoint
nnoitn nniton nnitno nniotn nniont nninot nninto oinntn oinnnt ointnn ointnn
oinntn oinnnt oinntn oinnnt ointnn ointnn oinntn oinnnt oitnnn oitnnn oitnnn
oitnnn oitnnn oitnnn oinntn oinnnt ointnn ointnn oinntn oinnnt onintn oninnt
onitnn onitnn onintn oninnt onnitn onnint onntin onntni onnnti onnnit ontnin
ontnni ontinn ontinn ontnin ontnni onnnti onnnit onntni onntin onnitn onnint
onnitn onnint onntin onntni onnnti onnnit onintn oninnt onitnn onitnn onintn
oninnt ontinn ontinn ontnin ontnni ontnni ontnin onnitn onnint onntin onntni
onnnti onnnit otnnin otnnni otninn otninn otnnin otnnni otnnin otnnni otninn
otninn otnnin otnnni otinnn otinnn otinnn otinnn otinnn otinnn otnnin otnnni
otninn otninn otnnin otnnni onnnti onnnit onntni onntin onnitn onnint onnnti
onnnit onntni onntin onnitn onnint ontnni ontnin ontnni ontnin ontinn ontinn
onintn oninnt onitnn onitnn onintn oninnt ninnot ninnto ninont ninotn ninton
nintno ninnot ninnto ninont ninotn ninton nintno nionnt niontn nionnt niontn
niotnn niotnn nitnon nitnno nitonn nitonn nitnon nitnno nninot nninto nniont
nniotn nniton nnitno nnniot nnnito nnnoit nnnoti nnntoi nnntio nnonit nnonti
nnoint nnoitn nnotin nnotni nntnoi nntnio nntoni nntoin nntion nntino nnniot
nnnito nnnoit nnnoti nnntoi nnntio nninot nninto nniont nniotn nniton nnitno
nnoint nnoitn nnonit nnonti nnotni nnotin nntion nntino nntoin nntoni nntnoi
nntnio nonnit nonnti nonint nonitn nontin nontni nonnit nonnti nonint nonitn
nontin nontni noinnt nointn noinnt nointn noitnn noitnn notnin notnni notinn
notinn notnin notnni ntnnoi ntnnio ntnoni ntnoin ntnion ntnino ntnnoi ntnnio
ntnoni ntnoin ntnion ntnino ntonni ntonin ntonni ntonin ntoinn ntoinn ntinon
ntinno ntionn ntionn ntinon ntinno

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History of cryptography
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