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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: tincal
cipher variations:
ujodbm vkpecn wlqfdo xmrgep ynshfq
zotigr apujhs bqvkit crwlju dsxmkv
etynlw fuzomx gvapny hwbqoz ixcrpa
jydsqb kzetrc lafusd mbgvte nchwuf
odixvg pejywh qfkzxi rglayj shmbzk

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: tincal
Cipher: grmxzo

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: tincal

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: tincal
cipher variations:

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x

An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: tincal
Cipher: gvapny

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: tincal
Cipher: 444233311113

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: tincal
method variations:

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
t i n c a l 
4 4 3 3 1 1 
4 2 3 1 1 3 
They are then read out in rows:
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: tincal
Cipher: tnaicl

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Method #3

Plaintext: tincal
method variations:
tmnaas mnaast naastm
aastmn astmna stmnaa

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: tincal

all 720 cipher variations:
tincal tincla tinacl tinalc tinlac tinlca ticnal ticnla ticanl ticaln ticlan
ticlna tiacnl tiacln tiancl tianlc tialnc tialcn tilcan tilcna tilacn tilanc
tilnac tilnca tnical tnicla tniacl tnialc tnilac tnilca tncial tncila tncail
tncali tnclai tnclia tnacil tnacli tnaicl tnailc tnalic tnalci tnlcai tnlcia
tnlaci tnlaic tnliac tnlica tcnial tcnila tcnail tcnali tcnlai tcnlia tcinal
tcinla tcianl tcialn tcilan tcilna tcainl tcailn tcanil tcanli tcalni tcalin
tclian tclina tclain tclani tclnai tclnia tancil tancli tanicl tanilc tanlic
tanlci tacnil tacnli tacinl taciln taclin taclni taicnl taicln taincl tainlc
tailnc tailcn talcin talcni talicn talinc talnic talnci tlncai tlncia tlnaci
tlnaic tlniac tlnica tlcnai tlcnia tlcani tlcain tlcian tlcina tlacni tlacin
tlanci tlanic tlainc tlaicn tlican tlicna tliacn tlianc tlinac tlinca itncal
itncla itnacl itnalc itnlac itnlca itcnal itcnla itcanl itcaln itclan itclna
itacnl itacln itancl itanlc italnc italcn itlcan itlcna itlacn itlanc itlnac
itlnca intcal intcla intacl intalc intlac intlca inctal inctla incatl incalt
inclat inclta inactl inaclt inatcl inatlc inaltc inalct inlcat inlcta inlact
inlatc inltac inltca icntal icntla icnatl icnalt icnlat icnlta ictnal ictnla
ictanl ictaln ictlan ictlna icatnl icatln icantl icanlt icalnt icaltn icltan
icltna iclatn iclant iclnat iclnta ianctl ianclt iantcl iantlc ianltc ianlct
iacntl iacnlt iactnl iactln iacltn iaclnt iatcnl iatcln iatncl iatnlc iatlnc
iatlcn ialctn ialcnt ialtcn ialtnc ialntc ialnct ilncat ilncta ilnact ilnatc
ilntac ilntca ilcnat ilcnta ilcant ilcatn ilctan ilctna ilacnt ilactn ilanct
ilantc ilatnc ilatcn iltcan iltcna iltacn iltanc iltnac iltnca nitcal nitcla
nitacl nitalc nitlac nitlca nictal nictla nicatl nicalt niclat niclta niactl
niaclt niatcl niatlc nialtc nialct nilcat nilcta nilact nilatc niltac niltca
ntical nticla ntiacl ntialc ntilac ntilca ntcial ntcila ntcail ntcali ntclai
ntclia ntacil ntacli ntaicl ntailc ntalic ntalci ntlcai ntlcia ntlaci ntlaic
ntliac ntlica nctial nctila nctail nctali nctlai nctlia ncital ncitla nciatl
ncialt ncilat ncilta ncaitl ncailt ncatil ncatli ncalti ncalit ncliat nclita
nclait nclati ncltai ncltia natcil natcli naticl natilc natlic natlci nactil
nactli nacitl nacilt naclit naclti naictl naiclt naitcl naitlc nailtc nailct
nalcit nalcti nalict nalitc naltic naltci nltcai nltcia nltaci nltaic nltiac
nltica nlctai nlctia nlcati nlcait nlciat nlcita nlacti nlacit nlatci nlatic
nlaitc nlaict nlicat nlicta nliact nliatc nlitac nlitca cintal cintla cinatl
cinalt cinlat cinlta citnal citnla citanl citaln citlan citlna ciatnl ciatln
ciantl cianlt cialnt cialtn ciltan ciltna cilatn cilant cilnat cilnta cnital
cnitla cniatl cnialt cnilat cnilta cntial cntila cntail cntali cntlai cntlia
cnatil cnatli cnaitl cnailt cnalit cnalti cnltai cnltia cnlati cnlait cnliat
cnlita ctnial ctnila ctnail ctnali ctnlai ctnlia ctinal ctinla ctianl ctialn
ctilan ctilna ctainl ctailn ctanil ctanli ctalni ctalin ctlian ctlina ctlain
ctlani ctlnai ctlnia cantil cantli canitl canilt canlit canlti catnil catnli
catinl catiln catlin catlni caitnl caitln caintl cainlt cailnt cailtn caltin
caltni calitn calint calnit calnti clntai clntia clnati clnait clniat clnita
cltnai cltnia cltani cltain cltian cltina clatni clatin clanti clanit claint
claitn clitan clitna cliatn cliant clinat clinta ainctl ainclt aintcl aintlc
ainltc ainlct aicntl aicnlt aictnl aictln aicltn aiclnt aitcnl aitcln aitncl
aitnlc aitlnc aitlcn ailctn ailcnt ailtcn ailtnc ailntc ailnct anictl aniclt
anitcl anitlc aniltc anilct ancitl ancilt anctil anctli anclti anclit antcil
antcli anticl antilc antlic antlci anlcti anlcit anltci anltic anlitc anlict
acnitl acnilt acntil acntli acnlti acnlit acintl acinlt acitnl acitln aciltn
acilnt actinl actiln actnil actnli actlni actlin aclitn aclint acltin acltni
aclnti aclnit atncil atncli atnicl atnilc atnlic atnlci atcnil atcnli atcinl
atciln atclin atclni aticnl aticln atincl atinlc atilnc atilcn atlcin atlcni
atlicn atlinc atlnic atlnci alncti alncit alntci alntic alnitc alnict alcnti
alcnit alctni alctin alcitn alcint altcni altcin altnci altnic altinc alticn
alictn alicnt alitcn alitnc alintc alinct lincat lincta linact linatc lintac
lintca licnat licnta licant licatn lictan lictna liacnt liactn lianct liantc
liatnc liatcn litcan litcna litacn litanc litnac litnca lnicat lnicta lniact
lniatc lnitac lnitca lnciat lncita lncait lncati lnctai lnctia lnacit lnacti
lnaict lnaitc lnatic lnatci lntcai lntcia lntaci lntaic lntiac lntica lcniat
lcnita lcnait lcnati lcntai lcntia lcinat lcinta lciant lciatn lcitan lcitna
lcaint lcaitn lcanit lcanti lcatni lcatin lctian lctina lctain lctani lctnai
lctnia lancit lancti lanict lanitc lantic lantci lacnit lacnti lacint lacitn
lactin lactni laicnt laictn lainct laintc laitnc laitcn latcin latcni laticn
latinc latnic latnci ltncai ltncia ltnaci ltnaic ltniac ltnica ltcnai ltcnia
ltcani ltcain ltcian ltcina ltacni ltacin ltanci ltanic ltainc ltaicn ltican
lticna ltiacn ltianc ltinac ltinca

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History of cryptography
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