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fouet

religionibus

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fleetly

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galatea


Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: tibris
cipher variations:
ujcsjt vkdtku wleulv xmfvmw yngwnx
zohxoy apiypz bqjzqa crkarb dslbsc
etmctd fundue gvoevf hwpfwg ixqgxh
jyrhyi kzsizj latjak mbukbl ncvlcm
odwmdn pexneo qfyofp rgzpgq shaqhr

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: tibris
Cipher: gryirh

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: tibris
Cipher: BAABA ABAAA AAAAB BAAAA ABAAA BAAAB

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: tibris
cipher variations:
ujcsjtgzeazdspgipnefiqfxqvkyvhclmglrarqwrlmhsehv
yxumxfknwunpwdycdzitaktjvkdtkuhafbaetqhjqofgjrgy
rwlzwidmnhmsbsrxsmnitfiwzyvnygloxvoqxezdeajubluk
wleulvibgcbfurikrpghkshzsxmaxjenointctsytnojugjx
azwozhmpywpryfaefbkvcmvlxmfvmwjchdcgvsjlsqhiltia
tynbykfopjoudutzuopkvhkybaxpainqzxqszgbfgclwdnwm
yngwnxkdiedhwtkmtrijmujbuzoczlgpqkpvevuavpqlwilz
cbyqbjorayrtahcghdmxeoxnzohxoylejfeixulnusjknvkc
vapdamhqrlqwfwvbwqrmxjmadczrckpsbzsubidhienyfpyo
apiypzmfkgfjyvmovtklowldwbqebnirsmrxgxwcxrsnyknb
edasdlqtcatvcjeijfozgqzpbqjzqanglhgkzwnpwulmpxme
xcrfcojstnsyhyxdystozlocfebtemrudbuwdkfjkgpahraq
crkarbohmihlaxoqxvmnqynfydsgdpktuotzizyeztupampd
gfcufnsvecvxelgklhqbisbrdslbscpinjimbyprywnorzog
zetheqluvpuajazfauvqbnqehgdvgotwfdwyfmhlmircjtcs
etmctdqjokjnczqszxopsaphafuifrmvwqvbkbagbvwrcorf
ihewhpuxgexzgnimnjsdkudtfunduerkplkodartaypqtbqi
bgvjgsnwxrwclcbhcwxsdpsgjifxiqvyhfyahojnoktelveu
gvoevfslqmlpebsubzqrucrjchwkhtoxysxdmdcidxyteqth
kjgyjrwzigzbipkoplufmwfvhwpfwgtmrnmqfctvcarsvdsk
dixliupyztyenedjeyzufruilkhzksxajhacjqlpqmvgnxgw
ixqgxhunsonrgduwdbstwetlejymjvqzauzfofekfzavgsvj
mlialtybkibdkrmqrnwhoyhxjyrhyivotposhevxectuxfum
fkznkwrabvagpgflgabwhtwknmjbmuzcljcelsnrsoxipziy
kzsizjwpuqptifwyfduvygvnglaolxsbcwbhqhgmhbcxiuxl
onkcnvadmkdfmtostpyjqajzlatjakxqvrqujgxzgevwzhwo
hmbpmytcdxcirihnicdyjvympoldowbenlegnuptuqzkrbka
mbukblyrwsrvkhyahfwxaixpincqnzudeydjsjiojdezkwzn
qpmepxcfomfhovquvralsclbncvlcmzsxtswlizbigxybjyq
jodroavefzektkjpkefalxaorqnfqydgpngipwrvwsbmtdmc
odwmdnatyutxmjacjhyzckzrkpespbwfgaflulkqlfgbmybp
srogrzehqohjqxswxtcnuendpexneobuzvuynkbdkizadlas
lqftqcxghbgmvmlrmghcnzcqtsphsafirpikrytxyudovfoe
qfyofpcvawvzolceljabembtmrgurdyhichnwnmsnhidoadr
utqitbgjsqjlszuyzvepwgpfrgzpgqdwbxwapmdfmkbcfncu
nshvsezijdioxontoijepbesvurjuchktrkmtavzawfqxhqg
shaqhrexcyxbqnegnlcdgodvotiwtfajkejpypoupjkfqcft
wvskvdiluslnubwabxgryirhtibrisfydzycrofhomdehpew
pujxugbklfkqzqpvqklgrdguxwtlwejmvtmovcxbcyhszjsi

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: tibris
Cipher: gvoevf

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: tibris
Cipher: 444221244234

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: tibris
method variations:
yogwoxdtmbtciyrgyhodwmdn

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
t i b r i s 
4 4 2 2 4 3 
4 2 1 4 2 4 
They are then read out in rows:
442243421424
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: tibris
Cipher: tgoiqr

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: tibris
method variations:
tgftmt gftmtt ftmttg
tmttgf mttgft ttgftm

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: tibris

all 720 cipher variations:
tibris tibrsi tibirs tibisr tibsir tibsri tirbis tirbsi tiribs tirisb tirsib
tirsbi tiirbs tiirsb tiibrs tiibsr tiisbr tiisrb tisrib tisrbi tisirb tisibr
tisbir tisbri tbiris tbirsi tbiirs tbiisr tbisir tbisri tbriis tbrisi tbriis
tbrisi tbrsii tbrsii tbiris tbirsi tbiirs tbiisr tbisir tbisri tbsrii tbsrii
tbsiri tbsiir tbsiir tbsiri trbiis trbisi trbiis trbisi trbsii trbsii tribis
tribsi triibs triisb trisib trisbi triibs triisb tribis tribsi trisbi trisib
trsiib trsibi trsiib trsibi trsbii trsbii tibris tibrsi tibirs tibisr tibsir
tibsri tirbis tirbsi tiribs tirisb tirsib tirsbi tiirbs tiirsb tiibrs tiibsr
tiisbr tiisrb tisrib tisrbi tisirb tisibr tisbir tisbri tsbrii tsbrii tsbiri
tsbiir tsbiir tsbiri tsrbii tsrbii tsribi tsriib tsriib tsribi tsirbi tsirib
tsibri tsibir tsiibr tsiirb tsirib tsirbi tsiirb tsiibr tsibir tsibri itbris
itbrsi itbirs itbisr itbsir itbsri itrbis itrbsi itribs itrisb itrsib itrsbi
itirbs itirsb itibrs itibsr itisbr itisrb itsrib itsrbi itsirb itsibr itsbir
itsbri ibtris ibtrsi ibtirs ibtisr ibtsir ibtsri ibrtis ibrtsi ibrits ibrist
ibrsit ibrsti ibirts ibirst ibitrs ibitsr ibistr ibisrt ibsrit ibsrti ibsirt
ibsitr ibstir ibstri irbtis irbtsi irbits irbist irbsit irbsti irtbis irtbsi
irtibs irtisb irtsib irtsbi iritbs iritsb iribts iribst irisbt iristb irstib
irstbi irsitb irsibt irsbit irsbti iibrts iibrst iibtrs iibtsr iibstr iibsrt
iirbts iirbst iirtbs iirtsb iirstb iirsbt iitrbs iitrsb iitbrs iitbsr iitsbr
iitsrb iisrtb iisrbt iistrb iistbr iisbtr iisbrt isbrit isbrti isbirt isbitr
isbtir isbtri isrbit isrbti isribt isritb isrtib isrtbi isirbt isirtb isibrt
isibtr isitbr isitrb istrib istrbi istirb istibr istbir istbri bitris bitrsi
bitirs bitisr bitsir bitsri birtis birtsi birits birist birsit birsti biirts
biirst biitrs biitsr biistr biisrt bisrit bisrti bisirt bisitr bistir bistri
btiris btirsi btiirs btiisr btisir btisri btriis btrisi btriis btrisi btrsii
btrsii btiris btirsi btiirs btiisr btisir btisri btsrii btsrii btsiri btsiir
btsiir btsiri brtiis brtisi brtiis brtisi brtsii brtsii britis britsi briits
briist brisit bristi briits briist britis britsi bristi brisit brsiit brsiti
brsiit brsiti brstii brstii bitris bitrsi bitirs bitisr bitsir bitsri birtis
birtsi birits birist birsit birsti biirts biirst biitrs biitsr biistr biisrt
bisrit bisrti bisirt bisitr bistir bistri bstrii bstrii bstiri bstiir bstiir
bstiri bsrtii bsrtii bsriti bsriit bsriit bsriti bsirti bsirit bsitri bsitir
bsiitr bsiirt bsirit bsirti bsiirt bsiitr bsitir bsitri ribtis ribtsi ribits
ribist ribsit ribsti ritbis ritbsi ritibs ritisb ritsib ritsbi riitbs riitsb
riibts riibst riisbt riistb ristib ristbi risitb risibt risbit risbti rbitis
rbitsi rbiits rbiist rbisit rbisti rbtiis rbtisi rbtiis rbtisi rbtsii rbtsii
rbitis rbitsi rbiits rbiist rbisit rbisti rbstii rbstii rbsiti rbsiit rbsiit
rbsiti rtbiis rtbisi rtbiis rtbisi rtbsii rtbsii rtibis rtibsi rtiibs rtiisb
rtisib rtisbi rtiibs rtiisb rtibis rtibsi rtisbi rtisib rtsiib rtsibi rtsiib
rtsibi rtsbii rtsbii ribtis ribtsi ribits ribist ribsit ribsti ritbis ritbsi
ritibs ritisb ritsib ritsbi riitbs riitsb riibts riibst riisbt riistb ristib
ristbi risitb risibt risbit risbti rsbtii rsbtii rsbiti rsbiit rsbiit rsbiti
rstbii rstbii rstibi rstiib rstiib rstibi rsitbi rsitib rsibti rsibit rsiibt
rsiitb rsitib rsitbi rsiitb rsiibt rsibit rsibti iibrts iibrst iibtrs iibtsr
iibstr iibsrt iirbts iirbst iirtbs iirtsb iirstb iirsbt iitrbs iitrsb iitbrs
iitbsr iitsbr iitsrb iisrtb iisrbt iistrb iistbr iisbtr iisbrt ibirts ibirst
ibitrs ibitsr ibistr ibisrt ibrits ibrist ibrtis ibrtsi ibrsti ibrsit ibtris
ibtrsi ibtirs ibtisr ibtsir ibtsri ibsrti ibsrit ibstri ibstir ibsitr ibsirt
irbits irbist irbtis irbtsi irbsti irbsit iribts iribst iritbs iritsb iristb
irisbt irtibs irtisb irtbis irtbsi irtsbi irtsib irsitb irsibt irstib irstbi
irsbti irsbit itbris itbrsi itbirs itbisr itbsir itbsri itrbis itrbsi itribs
itrisb itrsib itrsbi itirbs itirsb itibrs itibsr itisbr itisrb itsrib itsrbi
itsirb itsibr itsbir itsbri isbrti isbrit isbtri isbtir isbitr isbirt isrbti
isrbit isrtbi isrtib isritb isribt istrbi istrib istbri istbir istibr istirb
isirtb isirbt isitrb isitbr isibtr isibrt sibrit sibrti sibirt sibitr sibtir
sibtri sirbit sirbti siribt siritb sirtib sirtbi siirbt siirtb siibrt siibtr
siitbr siitrb sitrib sitrbi sitirb sitibr sitbir sitbri sbirit sbirti sbiirt
sbiitr sbitir sbitri sbriit sbriti sbriit sbriti sbrtii sbrtii sbirit sbirti
sbiirt sbiitr sbitir sbitri sbtrii sbtrii sbtiri sbtiir sbtiir sbtiri srbiit
srbiti srbiit srbiti srbtii srbtii sribit sribti sriibt sriitb sritib sritbi
sriibt sriitb sribit sribti sritbi sritib srtiib srtibi srtiib srtibi srtbii
srtbii sibrit sibrti sibirt sibitr sibtir sibtri sirbit sirbti siribt siritb
sirtib sirtbi siirbt siirtb siibrt siibtr siitbr siitrb sitrib sitrbi sitirb
sitibr sitbir sitbri stbrii stbrii stbiri stbiir stbiir stbiri strbii strbii
stribi striib striib stribi stirbi stirib stibri stibir stiibr stiirb stirib
stirbi stiirb stiibr stibir stibri

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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