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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: thongy
cipher variations:
uipohz vjqpia wkrqjb xlsrkc ymtsld
znutme aovunf bpwvog cqxwph dryxqi
eszyrj ftazsk gubatl hvcbum iwdcvn
jxedwo kyfexp lzgfyq mahgzr nbihas
ocjibt pdkjcu qelkdv rfmlew sgnmfx

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: thongy
Cipher: gslmtb

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: thongy

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: thongy
cipher variations:

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x

An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: thongy
Cipher: gubatl

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: thongy
Cipher: 443243332245

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: thongy
method variations:

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
t h o n g y 
4 3 4 3 2 4 
4 2 3 3 2 5 
They are then read out in rows:
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: thongy
Cipher: oorinw

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Method #3

Plaintext: thongy
method variations:
ornhru rnhruo nhruor
hruorn ruornh uornhr

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: thongy

all 720 cipher variations:
thongy thonyg thogny thogyn thoygn thoyng thnogy thnoyg thngoy thngyo thnygo
thnyog thgnoy thgnyo thgony thgoyn thgyon thgyno thyngo thynog thygno thygon
thyogn thyong tohngy tohnyg tohgny tohgyn tohygn tohyng tonhgy tonhyg tonghy
tongyh tonygh tonyhg tognhy tognyh toghny toghyn togyhn togynh toyngh toynhg
toygnh toyghn toyhgn toyhng tnohgy tnohyg tnoghy tnogyh tnoygh tnoyhg tnhogy
tnhoyg tnhgoy tnhgyo tnhygo tnhyog tnghoy tnghyo tngohy tngoyh tngyoh tngyho
tnyhgo tnyhog tnygho tnygoh tnyogh tnyohg tgonhy tgonyh tgohny tgohyn tgoyhn
tgoynh tgnohy tgnoyh tgnhoy tgnhyo tgnyho tgnyoh tghnoy tghnyo tghony tghoyn
tghyon tghyno tgynho tgynoh tgyhno tgyhon tgyohn tgyonh tyongh tyonhg tyognh
tyoghn tyohgn tyohng tynogh tynohg tyngoh tyngho tynhgo tynhog tygnoh tygnho
tygonh tygohn tyghon tyghno tyhngo tyhnog tyhgno tyhgon tyhogn tyhong htongy
htonyg htogny htogyn htoygn htoyng htnogy htnoyg htngoy htngyo htnygo htnyog
htgnoy htgnyo htgony htgoyn htgyon htgyno htyngo htynog htygno htygon htyogn
htyong hotngy hotnyg hotgny hotgyn hotygn hotyng hontgy hontyg hongty hongyt
honygt honytg hognty hognyt hogtny hogtyn hogytn hogynt hoyngt hoyntg hoygnt
hoygtn hoytgn hoytng hnotgy hnotyg hnogty hnogyt hnoygt hnoytg hntogy hntoyg
hntgoy hntgyo hntygo hntyog hngtoy hngtyo hngoty hngoyt hngyot hngyto hnytgo
hnytog hnygto hnygot hnyogt hnyotg hgonty hgonyt hgotny hgotyn hgoytn hgoynt
hgnoty hgnoyt hgntoy hgntyo hgnyto hgnyot hgtnoy hgtnyo hgtony hgtoyn hgtyon
hgtyno hgynto hgynot hgytno hgyton hgyotn hgyont hyongt hyontg hyognt hyogtn
hyotgn hyotng hynogt hynotg hyngot hyngto hyntgo hyntog hygnot hygnto hygont
hygotn hygton hygtno hytngo hytnog hytgno hytgon hytogn hytong ohtngy ohtnyg
ohtgny ohtgyn ohtygn ohtyng ohntgy ohntyg ohngty ohngyt ohnygt ohnytg ohgnty
ohgnyt ohgtny ohgtyn ohgytn ohgynt ohyngt ohyntg ohygnt ohygtn ohytgn ohytng
othngy othnyg othgny othgyn othygn othyng otnhgy otnhyg otnghy otngyh otnygh
otnyhg otgnhy otgnyh otghny otghyn otgyhn otgynh otyngh otynhg otygnh otyghn
otyhgn otyhng onthgy onthyg ontghy ontgyh ontygh ontyhg onhtgy onhtyg onhgty
onhgyt onhygt onhytg onghty onghyt ongthy ongtyh ongyth ongyht onyhgt onyhtg
onyght onygth onytgh onythg ogtnhy ogtnyh ogthny ogthyn ogtyhn ogtynh ognthy
ogntyh ognhty ognhyt ognyht ognyth oghnty oghnyt oghtny oghtyn oghytn oghynt
ogynht ogynth ogyhnt ogyhtn ogythn ogytnh oytngh oytnhg oytgnh oytghn oythgn
oythng oyntgh oynthg oyngth oynght oynhgt oynhtg oygnth oygnht oygtnh oygthn
oyghtn oyghnt oyhngt oyhntg oyhgnt oyhgtn oyhtgn oyhtng nhotgy nhotyg nhogty
nhogyt nhoygt nhoytg nhtogy nhtoyg nhtgoy nhtgyo nhtygo nhtyog nhgtoy nhgtyo
nhgoty nhgoyt nhgyot nhgyto nhytgo nhytog nhygto nhygot nhyogt nhyotg nohtgy
nohtyg nohgty nohgyt nohygt nohytg nothgy nothyg notghy notgyh notygh notyhg
nogthy nogtyh noghty noghyt nogyht nogyth noytgh noythg noygth noyght noyhgt
noyhtg ntohgy ntohyg ntoghy ntogyh ntoygh ntoyhg nthogy nthoyg nthgoy nthgyo
nthygo nthyog ntghoy ntghyo ntgohy ntgoyh ntgyoh ntgyho ntyhgo ntyhog ntygho
ntygoh ntyogh ntyohg ngothy ngotyh ngohty ngohyt ngoyht ngoyth ngtohy ngtoyh
ngthoy ngthyo ngtyho ngtyoh nghtoy nghtyo nghoty nghoyt nghyot nghyto ngytho
ngytoh ngyhto ngyhot ngyoht ngyoth nyotgh nyothg nyogth nyoght nyohgt nyohtg
nytogh nytohg nytgoh nytgho nythgo nythog nygtoh nygtho nygoth nygoht nyghot
nyghto nyhtgo nyhtog nyhgto nyhgot nyhogt nyhotg ghonty ghonyt ghotny ghotyn
ghoytn ghoynt ghnoty ghnoyt ghntoy ghntyo ghnyto ghnyot ghtnoy ghtnyo ghtony
ghtoyn ghtyon ghtyno ghynto ghynot ghytno ghyton ghyotn ghyont gohnty gohnyt
gohtny gohtyn gohytn gohynt gonhty gonhyt gonthy gontyh gonyth gonyht gotnhy
gotnyh gothny gothyn gotyhn gotynh goynth goynht goytnh goythn goyhtn goyhnt
gnohty gnohyt gnothy gnotyh gnoyth gnoyht gnhoty gnhoyt gnhtoy gnhtyo gnhyto
gnhyot gnthoy gnthyo gntohy gntoyh gntyoh gntyho gnyhto gnyhot gnytho gnytoh
gnyoth gnyoht gtonhy gtonyh gtohny gtohyn gtoyhn gtoynh gtnohy gtnoyh gtnhoy
gtnhyo gtnyho gtnyoh gthnoy gthnyo gthony gthoyn gthyon gthyno gtynho gtynoh
gtyhno gtyhon gtyohn gtyonh gyonth gyonht gyotnh gyothn gyohtn gyohnt gynoth
gynoht gyntoh gyntho gynhto gynhot gytnoh gytnho gytonh gytohn gython gythno
gyhnto gyhnot gyhtno gyhton gyhotn gyhont yhongt yhontg yhognt yhogtn yhotgn
yhotng yhnogt yhnotg yhngot yhngto yhntgo yhntog yhgnot yhgnto yhgont yhgotn
yhgton yhgtno yhtngo yhtnog yhtgno yhtgon yhtogn yhtong yohngt yohntg yohgnt
yohgtn yohtgn yohtng yonhgt yonhtg yonght yongth yontgh yonthg yognht yognth
yoghnt yoghtn yogthn yogtnh yotngh yotnhg yotgnh yotghn yothgn yothng ynohgt
ynohtg ynoght ynogth ynotgh ynothg ynhogt ynhotg ynhgot ynhgto ynhtgo ynhtog
ynghot ynghto yngoht yngoth yngtoh yngtho ynthgo ynthog yntgho yntgoh yntogh
yntohg ygonht ygonth ygohnt ygohtn ygothn ygotnh ygnoht ygnoth ygnhot ygnhto
ygntho ygntoh yghnot yghnto yghont yghotn yghton yghtno ygtnho ygtnoh ygthno
ygthon ygtohn ygtonh ytongh ytonhg ytognh ytoghn ytohgn ytohng ytnogh ytnohg
ytngoh ytngho ytnhgo ytnhog ytgnoh ytgnho ytgonh ytgohn ytghon ytghno ythngo
ythnog ythgno ythgon ythogn ythong

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History of cryptography
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