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awtrey

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reticulocyte


Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: thighs
cipher variations:
uijhit vjkiju wkljkv xlmklw ymnlmx
znomny aopnoz bpqopa cqrpqb drsqrc
estrsd ftuste guvtuf hvwuvg iwxvwh
jxywxi kyzxyj lzayzk mabzal nbcabm
ocdbcn pdecdo qefdep rfgefq sghfgr

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: thighs
Cipher: gsrtsh

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: thighs
Cipher: BAABA AABBB ABAAA AABBA AABBB BAAAB

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: thighs
cipher variations:
uijhitgwztwdskpfkneyfryxqmvdmhcalparacrnclmqhzqv
yexlefksnxspwgdjgziutvujvjkijuhxauxetlqglofzgszy
rnwenidbmqbsbdsodmnriarwzfymfgltoytqxhekhajvuwvk
wkljkviybvyfumrhmpgahtazsoxfojecnrctcetpenosjbsx
agznghmupzuryiflibkwvxwlxlmklwjzcwzgvnsinqhbiuba
tpygpkfdosdudfuqfoptkctybhaohinvqavszjgmjclxwyxm
ymnlmxkadxahwotjoricjvcbuqzhqlgeptevegvrgpqulduz
cibpijowrbwtakhnkdmyxzynznomnylbeybixpukpsjdkwdc
vrairmhfqufwfhwshqrvmevadjcqjkpxscxubliolenzyazo
aopnozmcfzcjyqvlqtkelxedwsbjsnigrvgxgixtirswnfwb
ekdrklqytdyvcmjpmfoazbapbpqopandgadkzrwmrulfmyfe
xtcktojhswhyhjyujstxogxcfleslmrzuezwdnkqngpbacbq
cqrpqboehbelasxnsvmgnzgfyudlupkitxizikzvktuyphyd
gmftmnsavfaxeolrohqcbdcrdrsqrcpficfmbtyotwnhoahg
zvemvqljuyjajlawluvzqizehngunotbwgbyfpmspirdceds
estrsdqgjdgncuzpuxoipbihawfnwrmkvzkbkmbxmvwarjaf
iohvopucxhczgqntqjsedfetftusterhkehodvaqvypjqcji
bxgoxsnlwalclncynwxbskbgjpiwpqvdyidahrourktfegfu
guvtufsilfipewbrwzqkrdkjcyhpytomxbmdmodzoxyctlch
kqjxqrwezjebispvslugfhgvhvwuvgtjmgjqfxcsxarlselk
dziqzupnycnenpeapyzdumdilrkyrsxfakfcjtqwtmvhgihw
iwxvwhuknhkrgydtybsmtfmleajravqozdofoqfbqzaevnej
mslzstygblgdkurxunwihjixjxywxivloilshzeuzctnugnm
fbksbwrpaepgprgcrabfwofkntmatuzhcmhelvsyvoxjikjy
kyzxyjwmpjmtiafvaduovhongcltcxsqbfqhqshdsbcgxpgl
ounbuvaidnifmwtzwpykjlkzlzayzkxnqknujbgwbevpwipo
hdmudytrcgrirtietcdhyqhmpvocvwbjeojgnxuaxqzlkmla
mabzalyorlovkchxcfwqxjqpienvezusdhsjsujfudeizrin
qwpdwxckfpkhoyvbyramlnmbnbcabmzpsmpwldiydgxrykrq
jfowfavteitktvkgvefjasjorxqexydlgqlipzwczsbnmonc
ocdbcnaqtnqxmejzehyszlsrkgpxgbwufjuluwlhwfgkbtkp
syrfyzemhrmjqaxdatconpodpdecdobruorynfkafiztamts
lhqyhcxvgkvmvxmixghlculqtzsgzafnisnkrbyebudpoqpe
qefdepcsvpszoglbgjaubnutmirzidywhlwnwynjyhimdvmr
uathabgojtolsczfcveqprqfrfgefqdtwqtaphmchkbvcovu
njsajezximxoxzokzijnewnsvbuibchpkupmtdagdwfrqsrg
sghfgreuxrubqindilcwdpwvoktbkfayjnypyaplajkofxot
wcvjcdiqlvqnuebhexgsrtshthighsfvysvcrjoejmdxeqxw
pluclgbzkozqzbqmbklpgypuxdwkdejrmwrovfcifyhtsuti

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: thighs
Cipher: guvtuf

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: thighs
Cipher: 443242223234

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: thighs
method variations:
ynomnxdstrscixywxhocdbcn

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
t h i g h s 
4 3 4 2 3 3 
4 2 2 2 2 4 
They are then read out in rows:
434233422224
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: thighs
Cipher: oinigr

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: thighs
method variations:
orgmmt rgmmto gmmtor
mmtorg mtorgm torgmm

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: thighs

all 720 cipher variations:
thighs thigsh thihgs thihsg thishg thisgh thgihs thgish thghis thghsi thgshi
thgsih thhgis thhgsi thhigs thhisg thhsig thhsgi thsghi thsgih thshgi thshig
thsihg thsigh tihghs tihgsh tihhgs tihhsg tihshg tihsgh tighhs tighsh tighhs
tighsh tigshh tigshh tihghs tihgsh tihhgs tihhsg tihshg tihsgh tisghh tisghh
tishgh tishhg tishhg tishgh tgihhs tgihsh tgihhs tgihsh tgishh tgishh tghihs
tghish tghhis tghhsi tghshi tghsih tghhis tghhsi tghihs tghish tghsih tghshi
tgshhi tgshih tgshhi tgshih tgsihh tgsihh thighs thigsh thihgs thihsg thishg
thisgh thgihs thgish thghis thghsi thgshi thgsih thhgis thhgsi thhigs thhisg
thhsig thhsgi thsghi thsgih thshgi thshig thsihg thsigh tsighh tsighh tsihgh
tsihhg tsihhg tsihgh tsgihh tsgihh tsghih tsghhi tsghhi tsghih tshgih tshghi
tshigh tshihg tshhig tshhgi tshghi tshgih tshhgi tshhig tshihg tshigh htighs
htigsh htihgs htihsg htishg htisgh htgihs htgish htghis htghsi htgshi htgsih
hthgis hthgsi hthigs hthisg hthsig hthsgi htsghi htsgih htshgi htshig htsihg
htsigh hitghs hitgsh hithgs hithsg hitshg hitsgh higths higtsh hights highst
higsht higsth hihgts hihgst hihtgs hihtsg hihstg hihsgt hisght hisgth hishgt
hishtg histhg histgh hgiths hgitsh hgihts hgihst hgisht hgisth hgtihs hgtish
hgthis hgthsi hgtshi hgtsih hghtis hghtsi hghits hghist hghsit hghsti hgsthi
hgstih hgshti hgshit hgsiht hgsith hhigts hhigst hhitgs hhitsg hhistg hhisgt
hhgits hhgist hhgtis hhgtsi hhgsti hhgsit hhtgis hhtgsi hhtigs hhtisg hhtsig
hhtsgi hhsgti hhsgit hhstgi hhstig hhsitg hhsigt hsight hsigth hsihgt hsihtg
hsithg hsitgh hsgiht hsgith hsghit hsghti hsgthi hsgtih hshgit hshgti hshigt
hshitg hshtig hshtgi hstghi hstgih hsthgi hsthig hstihg hstigh ihtghs ihtgsh
ihthgs ihthsg ihtshg ihtsgh ihgths ihgtsh ihghts ihghst ihgsht ihgsth ihhgts
ihhgst ihhtgs ihhtsg ihhstg ihhsgt ihsght ihsgth ihshgt ihshtg ihsthg ihstgh
ithghs ithgsh ithhgs ithhsg ithshg ithsgh itghhs itghsh itghhs itghsh itgshh
itgshh ithghs ithgsh ithhgs ithhsg ithshg ithsgh itsghh itsghh itshgh itshhg
itshhg itshgh igthhs igthsh igthhs igthsh igtshh igtshh ighths ightsh ighhts
ighhst ighsht ighsth ighhts ighhst ighths ightsh ighsth ighsht igshht igshth
igshht igshth igsthh igsthh ihtghs ihtgsh ihthgs ihthsg ihtshg ihtsgh ihgths
ihgtsh ihghts ihghst ihgsht ihgsth ihhgts ihhgst ihhtgs ihhtsg ihhstg ihhsgt
ihsght ihsgth ihshgt ihshtg ihsthg ihstgh istghh istghh isthgh isthhg isthhg
isthgh isgthh isgthh isghth isghht isghht isghth ishgth ishght ishtgh ishthg
ishhtg ishhgt ishght ishgth ishhgt ishhtg ishthg ishtgh ghiths ghitsh ghihts
ghihst ghisht ghisth ghtihs ghtish ghthis ghthsi ghtshi ghtsih ghhtis ghhtsi
ghhits ghhist ghhsit ghhsti ghsthi ghstih ghshti ghshit ghsiht ghsith gihths
gihtsh gihhts gihhst gihsht gihsth githhs githsh githhs githsh gitshh gitshh
gihths gihtsh gihhts gihhst gihsht gihsth gisthh gisthh gishth gishht gishht
gishth gtihhs gtihsh gtihhs gtihsh gtishh gtishh gthihs gthish gthhis gthhsi
gthshi gthsih gthhis gthhsi gthihs gthish gthsih gthshi gtshhi gtshih gtshhi
gtshih gtsihh gtsihh ghiths ghitsh ghihts ghihst ghisht ghisth ghtihs ghtish
ghthis ghthsi ghtshi ghtsih ghhtis ghhtsi ghhits ghhist ghhsit ghhsti ghsthi
ghstih ghshti ghshit ghsiht ghsith gsithh gsithh gsihth gsihht gsihht gsihth
gstihh gstihh gsthih gsthhi gsthhi gsthih gshtih gshthi gshith gshiht gshhit
gshhti gshthi gshtih gshhti gshhit gshiht gshith hhigts hhigst hhitgs hhitsg
hhistg hhisgt hhgits hhgist hhgtis hhgtsi hhgsti hhgsit hhtgis hhtgsi hhtigs
hhtisg hhtsig hhtsgi hhsgti hhsgit hhstgi hhstig hhsitg hhsigt hihgts hihgst
hihtgs hihtsg hihstg hihsgt hights highst higths higtsh higsth higsht hitghs
hitgsh hithgs hithsg hitshg hitsgh hisgth hisght histgh histhg hishtg hishgt
hgihts hgihst hgiths hgitsh hgisth hgisht hghits hghist hghtis hghtsi hghsti
hghsit hgthis hgthsi hgtihs hgtish hgtsih hgtshi hgshti hgshit hgsthi hgstih
hgsith hgsiht htighs htigsh htihgs htihsg htishg htisgh htgihs htgish htghis
htghsi htgshi htgsih hthgis hthgsi hthigs hthisg hthsig hthsgi htsghi htsgih
htshgi htshig htsihg htsigh hsigth hsight hsitgh hsithg hsihtg hsihgt hsgith
hsgiht hsgtih hsgthi hsghti hsghit hstgih hstghi hstigh hstihg hsthig hsthgi
hshgti hshgit hshtgi hshtig hshitg hshigt shight shigth shihgt shihtg shithg
shitgh shgiht shgith shghit shghti shgthi shgtih shhgit shhgti shhigt shhitg
shhtig shhtgi shtghi shtgih shthgi shthig shtihg shtigh sihght sihgth sihhgt
sihhtg sihthg sihtgh sighht sighth sighht sighth sigthh sigthh sihght sihgth
sihhgt sihhtg sihthg sihtgh sitghh sitghh sithgh sithhg sithhg sithgh sgihht
sgihth sgihht sgihth sgithh sgithh sghiht sghith sghhit sghhti sghthi sghtih
sghhit sghhti sghiht sghith sghtih sghthi sgthhi sgthih sgthhi sgthih sgtihh
sgtihh shight shigth shihgt shihtg shithg shitgh shgiht shgith shghit shghti
shgthi shgtih shhgit shhgti shhigt shhitg shhtig shhtgi shtghi shtgih shthgi
shthig shtihg shtigh stighh stighh stihgh stihhg stihhg stihgh stgihh stgihh
stghih stghhi stghhi stghih sthgih sthghi sthigh sthihg sthhig sthhgi sthghi
sthgih sthhgi sthhig sthihg sthigh

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

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