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qerimi

counterargument

mountsidney

sternebantur

lavas

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hammersmith


Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: tfirst
cipher variations:
ugjstu vhktuv wiluvw xjmvwx yknwxy
zloxyz ampyza bnqzab corabc dpsbcd
eqtcde frudef gsvefg htwfgh iuxghi
jvyhij kwzijk lxajkl mybklm nzclmn
oadmno pbenop qcfopq rdgpqr sehqrs

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: tfirst
Cipher: gurihg

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: tfirst
Cipher: BAABA AABAB ABAAA BAAAA BAAAB BAABA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: tfirst
cipher variations:
ugjstugqzadgsapinsekfqxequvyhqcelgrcayrwlamihevm
ysxmfykcnupkwmdczwiwtkjivhktuvhrabehtbqjotflgryf
rvwzirdfmhsdbzsxmbnjifwnztyngzldovqlxnedaxjxulkj
wiluvwisbcfiucrkpugmhszgswxajsegnitecatyncokjgxo
auzohamepwrmyofebykyvmlkxjmvwxjtcdgjvdslqvhnitah
txybktfhojufdbuzodplkhypbvapibnfqxsnzpgfczlzwnml
yknwxykudehkwetmrwiojubiuyzclugipkvgecvapeqmlizq
cwbqjcogrytoaqhgdamaxonmzloxyzlvefilxfunsxjpkvcj
vzadmvhjqlwhfdwbqfrnmjardxcrkdphszupbrihebnbypon
ampyzamwfgjmygvotykqlwdkwabenwikrmxigexcrgsonkbs
eydsleqitavqcsjifcoczqpobnqzabnxghknzhwpuzlrmxel
xbcfoxjlsnyjhfydshtpolctfzetmfrjubwrdtkjgdpdarqp
corabcoyhiloaixqvamsnyfmycdgpykmtozkigzetiuqpmdu
gafungskvcxseulkheqebsrqdpsbcdpzijmpbjyrwbntozgn
zdehqzlnupaljhafujvrqnevhbgvohtlwdytfvmlifrfctsr
eqtcdeqajknqckzsxcoupahoaefiramovqbmkibgvkwsrofw
ichwpiumxezugwnmjgsgdutsfrudefrbklordlatydpvqbip
bfgjsbnpwrcnljchwlxtspgxjdixqjvnyfavhxonkhthevut
gsvefgsclmpsembuzeqwrcjqcghktcoqxsdomkdixmyutqhy
kejyrkwozgbwiypoliuifwvuhtwfghtdmnqtfncvafrxsdkr
dhiludprytepnlejynzvurizlfkzslxpahcxjzqpmjvjgxwv
iuxghiuenorugodwbgsytelseijmveqszufqomfkzoawvsja
mglatmyqbidykarqnkwkhyxwjvyhijvfopsvhpexchtzufmt
fjknwfrtavgrpnglapbxwtkbnhmbunzrcjezlbsrolxlizyx
kwzijkwgpqtwiqfydiuavgnugkloxgsubwhsqohmbqcyxulc
oincvoasdkfamctspmymjazylxajklxhqruxjrgzejvbwhov
hlmpyhtvcxitrpincrdzyvmdpjodwpbtelgbndutqnznkbaz
mybklmyirsvykshafkwcxipwimnqziuwdyjusqjodseazwne
qkpexqcufmhcoevuroaolcbanzclmnzjstwzltibglxdyjqx
jnorajvxezkvtrkpetfbaxofrlqfyrdvgnidpfwvspbpmdcb
oadmnoaktuxamujchmyezkrykopsbkwyfalwuslqfugcbypg
smrgzsewhojeqgxwtqcqnedcpbenopbluvybnvkdinzfalsz
lpqtclxzgbmxvtmrgvhdczqhtnshatfxipkfrhyxurdrofed
qcfopqcmvwzcowlejoagbmtamqrudmyahcnywunshwiedari
uotibugyjqlgsizyvsespgferdgpqrdnwxadpxmfkpbhcnub
nrsvenzbidozxvotixjfebsjvpujcvhzkrmhtjazwtftqhgf
sehqrseoxybeqynglqcidovcostwfoacjepaywpujykgfctk
wqvkdwialsniukbaxugurihgtfirstfpyzcfrzohmrdjepwd
ptuxgpbdkfqbzxqvkzlhgdulxrwlexjbmtojvlcbyvhvsjih

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: tfirst
Cipher: gsvefg

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: tfirst
Cipher: 441242243444

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: tfirst
method variations:
ylowxydqtbcdivyghioadmno

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
t f i r s t 
4 1 4 2 3 4 
4 2 2 4 4 4 
They are then read out in rows:
414234422444
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: tfirst
Cipher: disirt

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: tfirst
method variations:
drgott rgottd gottdr
ottdrg ttdrgo tdrgot

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: tfirst

all 720 cipher variations:
tfirst tfirts tfisrt tfistr tfitsr tfitrs tfrist tfrits tfrsit tfrsti tfrtsi
tfrtis tfsrit tfsrti tfsirt tfsitr tfstir tfstri tftrsi tftris tftsri tftsir
tftisr tftirs tifrst tifrts tifsrt tifstr tiftsr tiftrs tirfst tirfts tirsft
tirstf tirtsf tirtfs tisrft tisrtf tisfrt tisftr tistfr tistrf titrsf titrfs
titsrf titsfr titfsr titfrs trifst trifts trisft tristf tritsf tritfs trfist
trfits trfsit trfsti trftsi trftis trsfit trsfti trsift trsitf trstif trstfi
trtfsi trtfis trtsfi trtsif trtisf trtifs tsirft tsirtf tsifrt tsiftr tsitfr
tsitrf tsrift tsritf tsrfit tsrfti tsrtfi tsrtif tsfrit tsfrti tsfirt tsfitr
tsftir tsftri tstrfi tstrif tstfri tstfir tstifr tstirf ttirsf ttirfs ttisrf
ttisfr ttifsr ttifrs ttrisf ttrifs ttrsif ttrsfi ttrfsi ttrfis ttsrif ttsrfi
ttsirf ttsifr ttsfir ttsfri ttfrsi ttfris ttfsri ttfsir ttfisr ttfirs ftirst
ftirts ftisrt ftistr ftitsr ftitrs ftrist ftrits ftrsit ftrsti ftrtsi ftrtis
ftsrit ftsrti ftsirt ftsitr ftstir ftstri fttrsi fttris fttsri fttsir fttisr
fttirs fitrst fitrts fitsrt fitstr fittsr fittrs firtst firtts firstt firstt
firtst firtts fisrtt fisrtt fistrt fisttr fisttr fistrt fitrst fitrts fitsrt
fitstr fittsr fittrs fritst fritts fristt fristt fritst fritts frtist frtits
frtsit frtsti frttsi frttis frstit frstti frsitt frsitt frstit frstti frttsi
frttis frtsti frtsit frtist frtits fsirtt fsirtt fsitrt fsittr fsittr fsitrt
fsritt fsritt fsrtit fsrtti fsrtti fsrtit fstrit fstrti fstirt fstitr fsttir
fsttri fstrti fstrit fsttri fsttir fstitr fstirt ftirst ftirts ftisrt ftistr
ftitsr ftitrs ftrist ftrits ftrsit ftrsti ftrtsi ftrtis ftsrit ftsrti ftsirt
ftsitr ftstir ftstri fttrsi fttris fttsri fttsir fttisr fttirs iftrst iftrts
iftsrt iftstr ifttsr ifttrs ifrtst ifrtts ifrstt ifrstt ifrtst ifrtts ifsrtt
ifsrtt ifstrt ifsttr ifsttr ifstrt iftrst iftrts iftsrt iftstr ifttsr ifttrs
itfrst itfrts itfsrt itfstr itftsr itftrs itrfst itrfts itrsft itrstf itrtsf
itrtfs itsrft itsrtf itsfrt itsftr itstfr itstrf ittrsf ittrfs ittsrf ittsfr
ittfsr ittfrs irtfst irtfts irtsft irtstf irttsf irttfs irftst irftts irfstt
irfstt irftst irftts irsftt irsftt irstft irsttf irsttf irstft irtfst irtfts
irtsft irtstf irttsf irttfs istrft istrtf istfrt istftr isttfr isttrf isrtft
isrttf isrftt isrftt isrtft isrttf isfrtt isfrtt isftrt isfttr isfttr isftrt
istrft istrtf istfrt istftr isttfr isttrf ittrsf ittrfs ittsrf ittsfr ittfsr
ittfrs itrtsf itrtfs itrstf itrsft itrfst itrfts itsrtf itsrft itstrf itstfr
itsftr itsfrt itfrst itfrts itfsrt itfstr itftsr itftrs rfitst rfitts rfistt
rfistt rfitst rfitts rftist rftits rftsit rftsti rfttsi rfttis rfstit rfstti
rfsitt rfsitt rfstit rfstti rfttsi rfttis rftsti rftsit rftist rftits riftst
riftts rifstt rifstt riftst riftts ritfst ritfts ritsft ritstf rittsf rittfs
ristft risttf risftt risftt ristft risttf rittsf rittfs ritstf ritsft ritfst
ritfts rtifst rtifts rtisft rtistf rtitsf rtitfs rtfist rtfits rtfsit rtfsti
rtftsi rtftis rtsfit rtsfti rtsift rtsitf rtstif rtstfi rttfsi rttfis rttsfi
rttsif rttisf rttifs rsitft rsittf rsiftt rsiftt rsitft rsittf rstift rstitf
rstfit rstfti rsttfi rsttif rsftit rsftti rsfitt rsfitt rsftit rsftti rsttfi
rsttif rstfti rstfit rstift rstitf rtitsf rtitfs rtistf rtisft rtifst rtifts
rttisf rttifs rttsif rttsfi rttfsi rttfis rtstif rtstfi rtsitf rtsift rtsfit
rtsfti rtftsi rtftis rtfsti rtfsit rtfist rtfits sfirtt sfirtt sfitrt sfittr
sfittr sfitrt sfritt sfritt sfrtit sfrtti sfrtti sfrtit sftrit sftrti sftirt
sftitr sfttir sfttri sftrti sftrit sfttri sfttir sftitr sftirt sifrtt sifrtt
siftrt sifttr sifttr siftrt sirftt sirftt sirtft sirttf sirttf sirtft sitrft
sitrtf sitfrt sitftr sittfr sittrf sitrtf sitrft sittrf sittfr sitftr sitfrt
sriftt sriftt sritft srittf srittf sritft srfitt srfitt srftit srftti srftti
srftit srtfit srtfti srtift srtitf srttif srttfi srtfti srtfit srttfi srttif
srtitf srtift stirft stirtf stifrt stiftr stitfr stitrf strift stritf strfit
strfti strtfi strtif stfrit stfrti stfirt stfitr stftir stftri sttrfi sttrif
sttfri sttfir sttifr sttirf stirtf stirft stitrf stitfr stiftr stifrt stritf
strift strtif strtfi strfti strfit sttrif sttrfi sttirf sttifr sttfir sttfri
stfrti stfrit stftri stftir stfitr stfirt tfirst tfirts tfisrt tfistr tfitsr
tfitrs tfrist tfrits tfrsit tfrsti tfrtsi tfrtis tfsrit tfsrti tfsirt tfsitr
tfstir tfstri tftrsi tftris tftsri tftsir tftisr tftirs tifrst tifrts tifsrt
tifstr tiftsr tiftrs tirfst tirfts tirsft tirstf tirtsf tirtfs tisrft tisrtf
tisfrt tisftr tistfr tistrf titrsf titrfs titsrf titsfr titfsr titfrs trifst
trifts trisft tristf tritsf tritfs trfist trfits trfsit trfsti trftsi trftis
trsfit trsfti trsift trsitf trstif trstfi trtfsi trtfis trtsfi trtsif trtisf
trtifs tsirft tsirtf tsifrt tsiftr tsitfr tsitrf tsrift tsritf tsrfit tsrfti
tsrtfi tsrtif tsfrit tsfrti tsfirt tsfitr tsftir tsftri tstrfi tstrif tstfri
tstfir tstifr tstirf ttirsf ttirfs ttisrf ttisfr ttifsr ttifrs ttrisf ttrifs
ttrsif ttrsfi ttrfsi ttrfis ttsrif ttsrfi ttsirf ttsifr ttsfir ttsfri ttfrsi
ttfris ttfsri ttfsir ttfisr ttfirs

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

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