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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: telvax
cipher variations:
ufmwby vgnxcz whoyda xipzeb yjqafc
zkrbgd alsche bmtdif cnuejg dovfkh
epwgli fqxhmj gryink hszjol itakpm
jublqn kvcmro lwdnsp mxeotq nyfpur
ozgqvs pahrwt qbisxu rcjtyv sdkuzw

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: telvax
Cipher: gvoezc

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: telvax

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: telvax
cipher variations:

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x

An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: telvax
Cipher: gryink

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: telvax
Cipher: 445113151135

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: telvax
method variations:

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
t e l v a x 
4 5 1 1 1 3 
4 1 3 5 1 5 
They are then read out in rows:
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: telvax
Cipher: yaldxv

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Method #3

Plaintext: telvax
method variations:
yacelu aceluy celuya
eluyac luyace uyacel

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: telvax

all 720 cipher variations:
telvax telvxa telavx telaxv telxav telxva tevlax tevlxa tevalx tevaxl tevxal
tevxla teavlx teavxl tealvx tealxv teaxlv teaxvl texval texvla texavl texalv
texlav texlva tlevax tlevxa tleavx tleaxv tlexav tlexva tlveax tlvexa tlvaex
tlvaxe tlvxae tlvxea tlavex tlavxe tlaevx tlaexv tlaxev tlaxve tlxvae tlxvea
tlxave tlxaev tlxeav tlxeva tvleax tvlexa tvlaex tvlaxe tvlxae tvlxea tvelax
tvelxa tvealx tveaxl tvexal tvexla tvaelx tvaexl tvalex tvalxe tvaxle tvaxel
tvxeal tvxela tvxael tvxale tvxlae tvxlea talvex talvxe talevx talexv talxev
talxve tavlex tavlxe tavelx tavexl tavxel tavxle taevlx taevxl taelvx taelxv
taexlv taexvl taxvel taxvle taxevl taxelv taxlev taxlve txlvae txlvea txlave
txlaev txleav txleva txvlae txvlea txvale txvael txveal txvela txavle txavel
txalve txalev txaelv txaevl txeval txevla txeavl txealv txelav txelva etlvax
etlvxa etlavx etlaxv etlxav etlxva etvlax etvlxa etvalx etvaxl etvxal etvxla
etavlx etavxl etalvx etalxv etaxlv etaxvl etxval etxvla etxavl etxalv etxlav
etxlva eltvax eltvxa eltavx eltaxv eltxav eltxva elvtax elvtxa elvatx elvaxt
elvxat elvxta elavtx elavxt elatvx elatxv elaxtv elaxvt elxvat elxvta elxavt
elxatv elxtav elxtva evltax evltxa evlatx evlaxt evlxat evlxta evtlax evtlxa
evtalx evtaxl evtxal evtxla evatlx evatxl evaltx evalxt evaxlt evaxtl evxtal
evxtla evxatl evxalt evxlat evxlta ealvtx ealvxt ealtvx ealtxv ealxtv ealxvt
eavltx eavlxt eavtlx eavtxl eavxtl eavxlt eatvlx eatvxl eatlvx eatlxv eatxlv
eatxvl eaxvtl eaxvlt eaxtvl eaxtlv eaxltv eaxlvt exlvat exlvta exlavt exlatv
exltav exltva exvlat exvlta exvalt exvatl exvtal exvtla exavlt exavtl exalvt
exaltv exatlv exatvl extval extvla extavl extalv extlav extlva letvax letvxa
letavx letaxv letxav letxva levtax levtxa levatx levaxt levxat levxta leavtx
leavxt leatvx leatxv leaxtv leaxvt lexvat lexvta lexavt lexatv lextav lextva
ltevax ltevxa lteavx lteaxv ltexav ltexva ltveax ltvexa ltvaex ltvaxe ltvxae
ltvxea ltavex ltavxe ltaevx ltaexv ltaxev ltaxve ltxvae ltxvea ltxave ltxaev
ltxeav ltxeva lvteax lvtexa lvtaex lvtaxe lvtxae lvtxea lvetax lvetxa lveatx
lveaxt lvexat lvexta lvaetx lvaext lvatex lvatxe lvaxte lvaxet lvxeat lvxeta
lvxaet lvxate lvxtae lvxtea latvex latvxe latevx latexv latxev latxve lavtex
lavtxe lavetx lavext lavxet lavxte laevtx laevxt laetvx laetxv laextv laexvt
laxvet laxvte laxevt laxetv laxtev laxtve lxtvae lxtvea lxtave lxtaev lxteav
lxteva lxvtae lxvtea lxvate lxvaet lxveat lxveta lxavte lxavet lxatve lxatev
lxaetv lxaevt lxevat lxevta lxeavt lxeatv lxetav lxetva veltax veltxa velatx
velaxt velxat velxta vetlax vetlxa vetalx vetaxl vetxal vetxla veatlx veatxl
vealtx vealxt veaxlt veaxtl vextal vextla vexatl vexalt vexlat vexlta vletax
vletxa vleatx vleaxt vlexat vlexta vlteax vltexa vltaex vltaxe vltxae vltxea
vlatex vlatxe vlaetx vlaext vlaxet vlaxte vlxtae vlxtea vlxate vlxaet vlxeat
vlxeta vtleax vtlexa vtlaex vtlaxe vtlxae vtlxea vtelax vtelxa vtealx vteaxl
vtexal vtexla vtaelx vtaexl vtalex vtalxe vtaxle vtaxel vtxeal vtxela vtxael
vtxale vtxlae vtxlea valtex valtxe valetx valext valxet valxte vatlex vatlxe
vatelx vatexl vatxel vatxle vaetlx vaetxl vaeltx vaelxt vaexlt vaextl vaxtel
vaxtle vaxetl vaxelt vaxlet vaxlte vxltae vxltea vxlate vxlaet vxleat vxleta
vxtlae vxtlea vxtale vxtael vxteal vxtela vxatle vxatel vxalte vxalet vxaelt
vxaetl vxetal vxetla vxeatl vxealt vxelat vxelta aelvtx aelvxt aeltvx aeltxv
aelxtv aelxvt aevltx aevlxt aevtlx aevtxl aevxtl aevxlt aetvlx aetvxl aetlvx
aetlxv aetxlv aetxvl aexvtl aexvlt aextvl aextlv aexltv aexlvt alevtx alevxt
aletvx aletxv alextv alexvt alvetx alvext alvtex alvtxe alvxte alvxet altvex
altvxe altevx altexv altxev altxve alxvte alxvet alxtve alxtev alxetv alxevt
avletx avlext avltex avltxe avlxte avlxet aveltx avelxt avetlx avetxl avextl
avexlt avtelx avtexl avtlex avtlxe avtxle avtxel avxetl avxelt avxtel avxtle
avxlte avxlet atlvex atlvxe atlevx atlexv atlxev atlxve atvlex atvlxe atvelx
atvexl atvxel atvxle atevlx atevxl atelvx atelxv atexlv atexvl atxvel atxvle
atxevl atxelv atxlev atxlve axlvte axlvet axltve axltev axletv axlevt axvlte
axvlet axvtle axvtel axvetl axvelt axtvle axtvel axtlve axtlev axtelv axtevl
axevtl axevlt axetvl axetlv axeltv axelvt xelvat xelvta xelavt xelatv xeltav
xeltva xevlat xevlta xevalt xevatl xevtal xevtla xeavlt xeavtl xealvt xealtv
xeatlv xeatvl xetval xetvla xetavl xetalv xetlav xetlva xlevat xlevta xleavt
xleatv xletav xletva xlveat xlveta xlvaet xlvate xlvtae xlvtea xlavet xlavte
xlaevt xlaetv xlatev xlatve xltvae xltvea xltave xltaev xlteav xlteva xvleat
xvleta xvlaet xvlate xvltae xvltea xvelat xvelta xvealt xveatl xvetal xvetla
xvaelt xvaetl xvalet xvalte xvatle xvatel xvteal xvtela xvtael xvtale xvtlae
xvtlea xalvet xalvte xalevt xaletv xaltev xaltve xavlet xavlte xavelt xavetl
xavtel xavtle xaevlt xaevtl xaelvt xaeltv xaetlv xaetvl xatvel xatvle xatevl
xatelv xatlev xatlve xtlvae xtlvea xtlave xtlaev xtleav xtleva xtvlae xtvlea
xtvale xtvael xtveal xtvela xtavle xtavel xtalve xtalev xtaelv xtaevl xteval
xtevla xteavl xtealv xtelav xtelva

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History of cryptography
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