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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: teitel
cipher variations:
ufjufm vgkvgn whlwho ximxip yjnyjq
zkozkr alpals bmqbmt cnrcnu dosdov
eptepw fqufqx grvgry hswhsz itxita
juyjub kvzkvc lwalwd mxbmxe nycnyf
ozdozg paepah qbfqbi rcgrcj sdhsdk

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: teitel
Cipher: gvrgvo

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: teitel
Cipher: BAABA AABAA ABAAA BAABA AABAA ABABA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: teitel
cipher variations:
ufjufmgnzgnisvpsveedfedaqlvqlwctlctsajrajkmrhmrg
yzxyzckhnkhywpdwpuixtixqvgkvgnhoahojtwqtwffegfeb
rmwrmxdumdutbksbklnsinshzayzadliolizxqexqvjyujyr
whlwhoipbipkuxruxggfhgfcsnxsnyevnevucltclmotjoti
abzabemjpmjayrfyrwkzvkzsximxipjqcjqlvysvyhhgihgd
toytozfwofwvdmudmnpukpujbcabcfnkqnkbzsgzsxlawlat
yjnyjqkrdkrmwztwziihjiheupzupagxpgxwenvenoqvlqvk
cdbcdgolrolcathatymbxmbuzkozkrlselsnxauxajjikjif
vqavqbhyqhyxfowfoprwmrwldecdehpmspmdbuibuzncyncv
alpalsmtfmtoybvybkkjlkjgwrbwrcizrizygpxgpqsxnsxm
efdefiqntqnecvjcvaodzodwbmqbmtnugnupzcwzcllkmlkh
xscxsdjasjazhqyhqrtyotynfgefgjrourofdwkdwbpeapex
cnrcnuovhovqadxadmmlnmliytdytekbtkbairzirsuzpuzo
ghfghkspvspgexlexcqfbqfydosdovpwipwrbeybennmonmj
zuezuflculcbjsajstvaqvaphighiltqwtqhfymfydrgcrgz
eptepwqxjqxscfzcfoonponkavfavgmdvmdcktbktuwbrwbq
ijhijmurxurigzngzeshdshafqufqxrykrytdgadgppoqpol
bwgbwhnewnedlucluvxcsxcrjkijknvsyvsjhaohaftietib
grvgryszlszuehbehqqprqpmcxhcxiofxofemvdmvwydtyds
kljklowtzwtkibpibgujfujchswhsztamtavficfirrqsrqn
dyidyjpgypgfnwenwxzeuzetlmklmpxuaxuljcqjchvkgvkd
itxitaubnubwgjdgjssrtsroezjezkqhzqhgoxfoxyafvafu
mnlmnqyvbyvmkdrkdiwlhwlejuyjubvcovcxhkehkttsutsp
fakfalriarihpygpyzbgwbgvnomnorzwczwnleslejxmixmf
kvzkvcwdpwdyilfiluutvutqgblgbmsjbsjiqzhqzachxchw
opnopsaxdaxomftmfkynjynglwalwdxeqxezjmgjmvvuwvur
hcmhcntkctkjrairabdiydixpqopqtbyebypngunglzokzoh
mxbmxeyfryfaknhknwwvxwvsidnidouldulksbjsbcejzejy
qrpqruczfczqohvohmaplapinycnyfzgszgbloiloxxwyxwt
jeojepvmevmltcktcdfkafkzrsqrsvdagdarpiwpinbqmbqj
ozdozgahtahcmpjmpyyxzyxukfpkfqwnfwnmudludeglbgla
strstwebhebsqjxqjocrncrkpaepahbiubidnqknqzzyazyv
lgqlgrxogxonvemvefhmchmbtustuxfcifctrkyrkpdsodsl
qbfqbicjvcjeorloraazbazwmhrmhsyphypowfnwfgindinc
uvtuvygdjgduslzslqetpetmrcgrcjdkwdkfpsmpsbbacbax
nisnitzqizqpxgoxghjoejodvwuvwzhekhevtmatmrfuqfun
sdhsdkelxelgqtnqtccbdcbyojtojuarjarqyhpyhikpfkpe
wxvwxaiflifwunbunsgvrgvoteitelfmyfmhruoruddcedcz
pkupkvbskbsrziqzijlqglqfxywxybjgmjgxvocvothwshwp

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: teitel
Cipher: grvgry

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: teitel
Cipher: 445142445113

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: teitel
method variations:
ykoykqdptdpviuyiuaozdozf

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
t e i t e l 
4 5 4 4 5 1 
4 1 2 4 1 3 
They are then read out in rows:
454451412413
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: teitel
Cipher: ytedrl

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: teitel
method variations:
yqryas qryasy ryasyq
yasyqr asyqry syqrya

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: teitel

all 720 cipher variations:
teitel teitle teietl teielt teilet teilte tetiel tetile teteil teteli tetlei
tetlie teetil teetli teeitl teeilt teelit teelti teltei teltie teleti teleit
teliet telite tietel tietle tieetl tieelt tielet tielte titeel titele titeel
titele titlee titlee tietel tietle tieetl tieelt tielet tielte tiltee tiltee
tilete tileet tileet tilete ttieel ttiele ttieel ttiele ttilee ttilee tteiel
tteile tteeil tteeli ttelei ttelie tteeil tteeli tteiel tteile ttelie ttelei
ttleei ttleie ttleei ttleie ttliee ttliee teitel teitle teietl teielt teilet
teilte tetiel tetile teteil teteli tetlei tetlie teetil teetli teeitl teeilt
teelit teelti teltei teltie teleti teleit teliet telite tlitee tlitee tliete
tlieet tlieet tliete tltiee tltiee tlteie tlteei tlteei tlteie tletie tletei
tleite tleiet tleeit tleeti tletei tletie tleeti tleeit tleiet tleite etitel
etitle etietl etielt etilet etilte ettiel ettile etteil etteli ettlei ettlie
etetil etetli eteitl eteilt etelit etelti etltei etltie etleti etleit etliet
etlite eittel eittle eitetl eitelt eitlet eitlte eittel eittle eitetl eitelt
eitlet eitlte eiettl eietlt eiettl eietlt eieltt eieltt eiltet eiltte eilett
eilett eiltet eiltte etitel etitle etietl etielt etilet etilte ettiel ettile
etteil etteli ettlei ettlie etetil etetli eteitl eteilt etelit etelti etltei
etltie etleti etleit etliet etlite eeittl eeitlt eeittl eeitlt eeiltt eeiltt
eetitl eetilt eettil eettli eetlti eetlit eettil eettli eetitl eetilt eetlit
eetlti eeltti eeltit eeltti eeltit eelitt eelitt elitet elitte eliett eliett
elitet elitte eltiet eltite elteit elteti elttei elttie eletit eletti eleitt
eleitt eletit eletti elttei elttie elteti elteit eltiet eltite iettel iettle
ietetl ietelt ietlet ietlte iettel iettle ietetl ietelt ietlet ietlte ieettl
ieetlt ieettl ieetlt ieeltt ieeltt ieltet ieltte ielett ielett ieltet ieltte
itetel itetle iteetl iteelt itelet itelte itteel ittele itteel ittele ittlee
ittlee itetel itetle iteetl iteelt itelet itelte itltee itltee itlete itleet
itleet itlete itteel ittele itteel ittele ittlee ittlee itetel itetle iteetl
iteelt itelet itelte iteetl iteelt itetel itetle itelte itelet itleet itlete
itleet itlete itltee itltee iettel iettle ietetl ietelt ietlet ietlte iettel
iettle ietetl ietelt ietlet ietlte ieettl ieetlt ieettl ieetlt ieeltt ieeltt
ieltet ieltte ielett ielett ieltet ieltte ilttee ilttee iltete ilteet ilteet
iltete ilttee ilttee iltete ilteet ilteet iltete ilette iletet ilette iletet
ileett ileett iletet ilette ileett ileett iletet ilette teitel teitle teietl
teielt teilet teilte tetiel tetile teteil teteli tetlei tetlie teetil teetli
teeitl teeilt teelit teelti teltei teltie teleti teleit teliet telite tietel
tietle tieetl tieelt tielet tielte titeel titele titeel titele titlee titlee
tietel tietle tieetl tieelt tielet tielte tiltee tiltee tilete tileet tileet
tilete ttieel ttiele ttieel ttiele ttilee ttilee tteiel tteile tteeil tteeli
ttelei ttelie tteeil tteeli tteiel tteile ttelie ttelei ttleei ttleie ttleei
ttleie ttliee ttliee teitel teitle teietl teielt teilet teilte tetiel tetile
teteil teteli tetlei tetlie teetil teetli teeitl teeilt teelit teelti teltei
teltie teleti teleit teliet telite tlitee tlitee tliete tlieet tlieet tliete
tltiee tltiee tlteie tlteei tlteei tlteie tletie tletei tleite tleiet tleeit
tleeti tletei tletie tleeti tleeit tleiet tleite eeittl eeitlt eeittl eeitlt
eeiltt eeiltt eetitl eetilt eettil eettli eetlti eetlit eettil eettli eetitl
eetilt eetlit eetlti eeltti eeltit eeltti eeltit eelitt eelitt eiettl eietlt
eiettl eietlt eieltt eieltt eitetl eitelt eittel eittle eitlte eitlet eittel
eittle eitetl eitelt eitlet eitlte eiltte eiltet eiltte eiltet eilett eilett
etietl etielt etitel etitle etilte etilet eteitl eteilt etetil etetli etelti
etelit etteil etteli ettiel ettile ettlie ettlei etleti etleit etltei etltie
etlite etliet etitel etitle etietl etielt etilet etilte ettiel ettile etteil
etteli ettlei ettlie etetil etetli eteitl eteilt etelit etelti etltei etltie
etleti etleit etliet etlite elitte elitet elitte elitet eliett eliett eltite
eltiet elttie elttei elteti elteit elttie elttei eltite eltiet elteit elteti
eletti eletit eletti eletit eleitt eleitt leitet leitte leiett leiett leitet
leitte letiet letite leteit leteti lettei lettie leetit leetti leeitt leeitt
leetit leetti lettei lettie leteti leteit letiet letite lietet liette lieett
lieett lietet liette liteet litete liteet litete littee littee lietet liette
lieett lieett lietet liette littee littee litete liteet liteet litete ltieet
ltiete ltieet ltiete ltitee ltitee lteiet lteite lteeit lteeti ltetei ltetie
lteeit lteeti lteiet lteite ltetie ltetei ltteei ltteie ltteei ltteie lttiee
lttiee leitet leitte leiett leiett leitet leitte letiet letite leteit leteti
lettei lettie leetit leetti leeitt leeitt leetit leetti lettei lettie leteti
leteit letiet letite ltitee ltitee ltiete ltieet ltieet ltiete lttiee lttiee
ltteie ltteei ltteei ltteie ltetie ltetei lteite lteiet lteeit lteeti ltetei
ltetie lteeti lteeit lteiet lteite

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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