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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: tedded
cipher variations:
ufeefe vgffgf whgghg xihhih yjiiji
zkjjkj alkklk bmllml cnmmnm donnon
epoopo fqppqp grqqrq hsrrsr itssts
juttut kvuuvu lwvvwv mxwwxw nyxxyx
ozyyzy pazzaz qbaaba rcbbcb sdccdc

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: tedded
Cipher: gvwwvw

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: tedded
Cipher: BAABA AABAA AAABB AAABB AABAA AAABB

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: tedded
cipher variations:
ufeefegnkknksvqqvqedwwdwqlcclcctiitiajuujumraara
yzggzgkhmmhmwpsspsixyyxyvgffgfholloltwrrwrfexxex
rmddmddujjujbkvvkvnsbbsbzahhahlinninxqttqtjyzzyz
whgghgipmmpmuxssxsgfyyfysneeneevkkvkclwwlwotcctc
abiibimjoojoyruurukzaazaxihhihjqnnqnvyttythgzzgz
toffoffwllwldmxxmxpuddudbcjjcjnkppkpzsvvsvlabbab
yjiijikroorowzuuzuihaahaupggpggxmmxmenyynyqveeve
cdkkdkolqqlqatwwtwmbccbczkjjkjlsppspxavvavjibbib
vqhhqhhynnynfozzozrwffwfdellelpmrrmrbuxxuxncddcd
alkklkmtqqtqybwwbwkjccjcwriiriizoozogpaapasxggxg
efmmfmqnssnscvyyvyodeedebmllmlnurrurzcxxcxlkddkd
xsjjsjjappaphqbbqbtyhhyhfgnngnrottotdwzzwzpeffef
cnmmnmovssvsadyydymleeleytkktkkbqqbqirccrcuziizi
ghoohospuupuexaaxaqfggfgdonnonpwttwtbezzeznmffmf
zullullcrrcrjsddsdvajjajhippiptqvvqvfybbybrghhgh
epoopoqxuuxucfaafaonggngavmmvmmdssdskteetewbkkbk
ijqqjqurwwrwgzcczcshiihifqppqpryvvyvdgbbgbpohhoh
bwnnwnnettetluffufxcllcljkrrkrvsxxsxhaddadtijjij
grqqrqszwwzwehcchcqpiipicxooxoofuufumvggvgydmmdm
klsslswtyytyibeebeujkkjkhsrrsrtaxxaxfiddidrqjjqj
dyppyppgvvgvnwhhwhzennenlmttmtxuzzuzjcffcfvkllkl
itsstsubyybygjeejesrkkrkezqqzqqhwwhwoxiixiafoofo
mnuunuyvaavakdggdgwlmmlmjuttutvczzczhkffkftsllsl
farrarrixxixpyjjyjbgppgpnovvovzwbbwblehhehxmnnmn
kvuuvuwdaadailgglgutmmtmgbssbssjyyjyqzkkzkchqqhq
opwwpwaxccxcmfiifiynoonolwvvwvxebbebjmhhmhvunnun
hcttcttkzzkzrallaldirrirpqxxqxbyddydngjjgjzoppop
mxwwxwyfccfckniiniwvoovoiduuduulaalasbmmbmejssjs
qryyryczeezeohkkhkapqqpqnyxxyxzgddgdlojjojxwppwp
jevvevvmbbmbtcnncnfkttktrszzszdaffafpillilbqrrqr
ozyyzyaheehempkkpkyxqqxqkfwwfwwnccncudoodogluulu
staataebggbgqjmmjmcrssrspazzazbiffifnqllqlzyrryr
lgxxgxxoddodveppephmvvmvtubbubfchhchrknnkndsttst
qbaabacjggjgormmrmazsszsmhyyhyypeepewfqqfqinwwnw
uvccvcgdiidislooloetuuturcbbcbdkhhkhpsnnsnbattat
nizzizzqffqfxgrrgrjoxxoxvwddwdhejjejtmppmpfuvvuv
sdccdceliiliqtootocbuubuojaajaarggrgyhsshskpyypy
wxeexeifkkfkunqqnqgvwwvwteddedfmjjmjruppupdcvvcv
pkbbkbbshhshzittitlqzzqzxyffyfjgllglvorrorhwxxwx

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: tedded
Cipher: grqqrq

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: tedded
Cipher: 445141415141

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: tedded
method variations:
ykiikidpoopoiuttutozyyzy

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
t e d d e d 
4 5 4 4 5 4 
4 1 1 1 1 1 
They are then read out in rows:
454454411111
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: tedded
Cipher: ytudaa

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: tedded
method variations:
yqqvqq qqvqqy qvqqyq
vqqyqq qqyqqv qyqqvq

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: tedded

all 720 cipher variations:
tedded teddde tededd tededd tedded teddde tedded teddde tededd tededd tedded
teddde teeddd teeddd teeddd teeddd teeddd teeddd tedded teddde tededd tededd
tedded teddde tdeded tdedde tdeedd tdeedd tdeded tdedde tddeed tddede tddeed
tddede tdddee tdddee tdeded tdedde tdeedd tdeedd tdeded tdedde tdddee tdddee
tddede tddeed tddeed tddede tddeed tddede tddeed tddede tdddee tdddee tdeded
tdedde tdeedd tdeedd tdeded tdedde tdeedd tdeedd tdeded tdedde tdedde tdeded
tddeed tddede tddeed tddede tdddee tdddee tedded teddde tededd tededd tedded
teddde tedded teddde tededd tededd tedded teddde teeddd teeddd teeddd teeddd
teeddd teeddd tedded teddde tededd tededd tedded teddde tdddee tdddee tddede
tddeed tddeed tddede tdddee tdddee tddede tddeed tddeed tddede tdedde tdeded
tdedde tdeded tdeedd tdeedd tdeded tdedde tdeedd tdeedd tdeded tdedde etdded
etddde etdedd etdedd etdded etddde etdded etddde etdedd etdedd etdded etddde
eteddd eteddd eteddd eteddd eteddd eteddd etdded etddde etdedd etdedd etdded
etddde edtded edtdde edtedd edtedd edtded edtdde eddted eddtde eddetd eddedt
edddet edddte ededtd ededdt edetdd edetdd ededtd ededdt edddet edddte eddedt
eddetd eddted eddtde eddted eddtde eddetd eddedt edddet edddte edtded edtdde
edtedd edtedd edtded edtdde edetdd edetdd ededtd ededdt ededdt ededtd eddted
eddtde eddetd eddedt edddet edddte eeddtd eedddt eedtdd eedtdd eeddtd eedddt
eeddtd eedddt eedtdd eedtdd eeddtd eedddt eetddd eetddd eetddd eetddd eetddd
eetddd eeddtd eedddt eedtdd eedtdd eeddtd eedddt edddet edddte eddedt eddetd
eddted eddtde edddet edddte eddedt eddetd eddted eddtde ededdt ededtd ededdt
ededtd edetdd edetdd edtded edtdde edtedd edtedd edtded edtdde detded detdde
detedd detedd detded detdde dedted dedtde dedetd dededt deddet deddte deedtd
deeddt deetdd deetdd deedtd deeddt deddet deddte dededt dedetd dedted dedtde
dteded dtedde dteedd dteedd dteded dtedde dtdeed dtdede dtdeed dtdede dtddee
dtddee dteded dtedde dteedd dteedd dteded dtedde dtddee dtddee dtdede dtdeed
dtdeed dtdede ddteed ddtede ddteed ddtede ddtdee ddtdee ddeted ddetde ddeetd
ddeedt ddedet ddedte ddeetd ddeedt ddeted ddetde ddedte ddedet dddeet dddete
dddeet dddete dddtee dddtee detded detdde detedd detedd detded detdde dedted
dedtde dedetd dededt deddet deddte deedtd deeddt deetdd deetdd deedtd deeddt
deddet deddte dededt dedetd dedted dedtde ddtdee ddtdee ddtede ddteed ddteed
ddtede dddtee dddtee dddete dddeet dddeet dddete ddedte ddedet ddetde ddeted
ddeetd ddeedt ddedet ddedte ddeedt ddeetd ddeted ddetde dedted dedtde dedetd
dededt deddet deddte detded detdde detedd detedd detded detdde deetdd deetdd
deedtd deeddt deeddt deedtd dedted dedtde dedetd dededt deddet deddte ddeted
ddetde ddeetd ddeedt ddedet ddedte ddteed ddtede ddteed ddtede ddtdee ddtdee
ddeted ddetde ddeetd ddeedt ddedet ddedte dddtee dddtee dddete dddeet dddeet
dddete dtdeed dtdede dtdeed dtdede dtddee dtddee dteded dtedde dteedd dteedd
dteded dtedde dteedd dteedd dteded dtedde dtedde dteded dtdeed dtdede dtdeed
dtdede dtddee dtddee dedted dedtde dedetd dededt deddet deddte detded detdde
detedd detedd detded detdde deetdd deetdd deedtd deeddt deeddt deedtd dedted
dedtde dedetd dededt deddet deddte dddtee dddtee dddete dddeet dddeet dddete
ddtdee ddtdee ddtede ddteed ddteed ddtede ddetde ddeted ddedte ddedet ddeedt
ddeetd ddeted ddetde ddeetd ddeedt ddedet ddedte eeddtd eedddt eedtdd eedtdd
eeddtd eedddt eeddtd eedddt eedtdd eedtdd eeddtd eedddt eetddd eetddd eetddd
eetddd eetddd eetddd eeddtd eedddt eedtdd eedtdd eeddtd eedddt ededtd ededdt
edetdd edetdd ededtd ededdt eddetd eddedt eddted eddtde edddte edddet edtded
edtdde edtedd edtedd edtded edtdde edddte edddet eddtde eddted eddetd eddedt
eddetd eddedt eddted eddtde edddte edddet ededtd ededdt edetdd edetdd ededtd
ededdt edtedd edtedd edtded edtdde edtdde edtded eddetd eddedt eddted eddtde
edddte edddet etdded etddde etdedd etdedd etdded etddde etdded etddde etdedd
etdedd etdded etddde eteddd eteddd eteddd eteddd eteddd eteddd etdded etddde
etdedd etdedd etdded etddde edddte edddet eddtde eddted eddetd eddedt edddte
edddet eddtde eddted eddetd eddedt edtdde edtded edtdde edtded edtedd edtedd
ededtd ededdt edetdd edetdd ededtd ededdt deddet deddte dededt dedetd dedted
dedtde deddet deddte dededt dedetd dedted dedtde deeddt deedtd deeddt deedtd
deetdd deetdd detded detdde detedd detedd detded detdde ddedet ddedte ddeedt
ddeetd ddeted ddetde dddeet dddete dddeet dddete dddtee dddtee ddedet ddedte
ddeedt ddeetd ddeted ddetde ddtdee ddtdee ddtede ddteed ddteed ddtede dddeet
dddete dddeet dddete dddtee dddtee ddedet ddedte ddeedt ddeetd ddeted ddetde
ddeedt ddeetd ddedet ddedte ddetde ddeted ddteed ddtede ddteed ddtede ddtdee
ddtdee deddet deddte dededt dedetd dedted dedtde deddet deddte dededt dedetd
dedted dedtde deeddt deedtd deeddt deedtd deetdd deetdd detded detdde detedd
detedd detded detdde dtddee dtddee dtdede dtdeed dtdeed dtdede dtddee dtddee
dtdede dtdeed dtdeed dtdede dtedde dteded dtedde dteded dteedd dteedd dteded
dtedde dteedd dteedd dteded dtedde

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